Evidence for association of SNPs in ABCB1 and CBR3, but not RAC2, NCF4, SLC28A3 or TOP2B, with chronic cardiotoxicity in a cohort of breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines.
ABSTRACT: Validation of associations for SNPs in RAC2, NCF4 and SLC28A3, identification of a novel association with a TOP2B SNP and screening 23 SNPs putatively relevant to anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity.A total of 166 breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin underwent echocardiogram, including 19 cases with systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <55%) and 147 controls. Four high priority SNPs were tested in the primary analysis, with appropriate statistical correction, and 23 additional SNPs were screened in an uncorrected secondary analysis.Previously reported associations for RAC2, NCF4 and SLC28A3 could not be validated and a novel association with TOP2B was not discovered in this cohort (all p > 0.05), likely due to inadequate power. Two SNPs were identified in the uncorrected secondary analysis including a protective SNP in ABCB1 (3435C>T, p = 0.049) and a risk allele in CBR3 (V244M, p = 0.012).The associations reported in prior publications and those discovered in this secondary analysis require further replication in independent cohorts.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with a heritability of 60%. Genetic contributions to RA are made by multiple genes, but only a few gene associations have yet been confirmed. By studying animal models, reduced capacity of the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) complex, caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in one of its components (the NCF1 gene), has been found to increase severity of arthritis. To our knowledge, however, no studies investigating the potential role played by reduced reactive oxygen species production in human RA have yet been reported. In order to examine the role played by the NOX complex in RA, we investigated the association of 51 SNPs in five genes of the NOX complex (CYBB, CYBA, NCF4, NCF2, and RAC2) in a Swedish case-control cohort consisting of 1,842 RA cases and 1,038 control individuals. Several SNPs were found to be mildly associated in men in NCF4 (rs729749, P = 0.001), NCF2 (rs789181, P = 0.02) and RAC2 (rs1476002, P = 0.05). No associations were detected in CYBA or CYBB. By stratifying for autoantibody status, we identified a strong association for rs729749 (in NCF4) in autoantibody negative disease, with the strongest association detected in rheumatoid factor negative men (CT genotype versus CC genotype: odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.6; P = 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association identified between RA and the NOX complex, and it supports previous findings from animal models of the importance of reactive oxygen species production capacity to the development of arthritis.
Project description:Objective:Recent studies have focused on the special roles of NADPH-oxidase in multiple autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, the association of genetic variation in NADPH-oxidase genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was not extensively studied in a Chinese population. We performed this study to examine the association of NCF2, NCF4, and CYBA gene polymorphisms with RA susceptibility in a Chinese population. Methods:Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (NCF2 rs10911363, NCF4 rs1883112, rs4821544, rs729749, CYBA rs3794624, and rs4673) were genotyped in a cohort composed of 593 RA patients and 596 normal controls. Improved multiple ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) was used for genotyping. Results:We observed that NCF4 rs4821544 CT genotype and C allele frequencies in RA patients were significantly decreased when compared to controls (CT vs. TT: P = 0.043; C vs. T: P = 0.031), and rs4821544 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RA risk under the dominant model (TT vs. CT+CC: P = 0.031). Our results also indicated that rs729749 CT genotype frequency was significantly lower in RA patients than that in controls (CT vs. CC: P = 0.033). Moreover, the rs729749 CT genotype frequency was also significantly decreased in RA patients in males (CT vs. CC: P = 0.024). No significant association between NCF2 and CYBA gene polymorphisms and RA susceptibility was observed. There were significant associations between rs4821544 TT genotype and T allele frequencies and anti-CCP in male RA patients. Conclusions:In summary, NCF4 rs4821544 and rs729749 polymorphisms might contribute to RA susceptibility, while NCF2 and CYBA gene polymorphisms were not associated with RA susceptibility.
Project description:The impact of pharmacogenetics on predicting survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unclear. We tested 337 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) for 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 6 genes (CD20, FCGR2A, NAD(P)H, ABCC2, ABCG2 and CYP3A5). Patients who carried the NCF4 rs1883112 GG genotype showed significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.023) and event-free survival (EFS) (P < 0.001) comparing with A allele. A significantly shortened PFS (P = 0.013) and EFS (P = 0.002) was also observed in the patients with ABCG2 rs2231137 GG genotype. Furthermore, the elder (> 60 years old) or male patients with ABCG2 rs2231137 GG genotype had poorer PFS and EFS than A allele. Moreover, CD20 rs2070770 CC and RAC2 rs13058338 AT genotypes were independent predictors of chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that the GG genotype of ABCG2 rs2231137 and NCF4 rs1883112 were risk factors in DLBCL patients. In conclusion, the identified polymorphisms provide guide for the identification of DLBCL patients who are likely to benefit from chemotherapy.
Project description:Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of colorectal adenoma and cancer; however, few key inflammatory genes mediating this relationship have been identified. In this study, we investigated the association of germline variation in innate immunity genes in relation to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Our study was based on the analysis of samples collected from the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We investigated the association between 196 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 key innate immunity genes with risk of advanced colorectal adenoma and cancer in 719 adenoma cases, 481 cancer cases and 719 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After Bonferroni correction, the AG/GG genotype of rs5995355, which is upstream of NCF4, was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.73-3.39; p < 0.0001). NCF4 is part of the NAPDH complex, a key factor in biochemical pathways and the innate immune response. While not definitive, our analyses suggest that the variant allele does not affect expression of NCF4, but rather modulates activity of the NADPH complex. Additional studies on the functional consequences of rs5995355 in NCF4 may help to clarify the mechanistic link between inflammation and colorectal cancer.
Project description:AIMS:Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) occurs in 57% of treated patients and remains an important limitation of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. In various genetic association studies, potential genetic risk markers for ACT have been identified. Therefore, we developed evidence-based clinical practice recommendations for pharmacogenomic testing to further individualize therapy based on ACT risk. METHODS:We followed a standard guideline development process, including a systematic literature search, evidence synthesis and critical appraisal, and the development of clinical practice recommendations with an international expert group. RESULTS:RARG rs2229774, SLC28A3 rs7853758 and UGT1A6 rs17863783 variants currently have the strongest and the most consistent evidence for association with ACT. Genetic variants in ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC5, ABCB1, ABCB4, CBR3, RAC2, NCF4, CYBA, GSTP1, CAT, SULT2B1, POR, HAS3, SLC22A7, SCL22A17, HFE and NOS3 have also been associated with ACT, but require additional validation. We recommend pharmacogenomic testing for the RARG rs2229774 (S427L), SLC28A3 rs7853758 (L461L) and UGT1A6*4 rs17863783 (V209V) variants in childhood cancer patients with an indication for doxorubicin or daunorubicin therapy (Level B - moderate). Based on an overall risk stratification, taking into account genetic and clinical risk factors, we recommend a number of management options including increased frequency of echocardiogram monitoring, follow-up, as well as therapeutic options within the current standard of clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS:Existing evidence demonstrates that genetic factors have the potential to improve the discrimination between individuals at higher and lower risk of ACT. Genetic testing may therefore support both patient care decisions and evidence development for an improved prevention of ACT.
Project description:Neutrophil cytosolic factor 4 (NCF4) is component of the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex, a key factor in biochemical pathways and innate immune responses. In this study, splice variants and functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of NCF4 were identified to determine the variability and association of the gene with susceptibility to bovine mastitis characterized by inflammation. A novel splice variant, designated as NCF4-TV and characterized by the retention of a 48 bp sequence in intron 9, was detected in the mammary gland tissues of infected cows. The expression of the NCF4-reference main transcript in the mastitic mammary tissues was higher than that in normal tissues. A novel SNP, g.18174 A>G, was also found in the retained 48 bp region of intron 9. To determine whether NCF4-TV could be due to the g.18174 A>G mutation, we constructed two mini-gene expression vectors with the wild-type or mutant NCF4 g.18174 A>G fragment. The vectors were then transiently transfected into 293T cells, and alternative splicing of NCF4 was analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. Mini-gene splicing assay demonstrated that the aberrantly spliced NCF4-TV with 48 bp retained fragment in intron 9 could be due to g.18174 A>G, which was associated with milk somatic count score and increased risk of mastitis infection in cows. NCF4 expression was also regulated by alternative splicing. This study proposes that NCF4 splice variants generated by functional SNP are important risk factors for mastitis susceptibility in dairy cows.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to the development of genomic rearrangements, which are hallmarks of cancer. Fusions between TMPRSS2, encoding the transmembrane serine protease isoform 2, and ERG, encoding the v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog, are among the most common oncogenic rearrangements observed in human cancer. We show that androgen signaling promotes co-recruitment of androgen receptor and topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) to sites of TMPRSS2-ERG genomic breakpoints, triggering recombinogenic TOP2B-mediated DSBs. Furthermore, androgen stimulation resulted in de novo production of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts in a process that required TOP2B and components of the DSB repair machinery. Finally, unlike normal prostate epithelium, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells showed strong coexpression of androgen receptor and TOP2B. These findings implicate androgen-induced TOP2B-mediated DSBs in generating TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements.
Project description:BACKGROUND:TOP2B encodes type II topoisomerase beta, which controls topological changes during DNA transcription. TOP2B is expressed in the developing nervous system and is involved in brain development and neural differentiation. Recently, a de novo missense TOP2B variant (c.187C>T) has been identified in an individual with neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). However, the association between TOP2B variants and NDDs remains uncertain. METHODS:Trio-based whole-exome sequencing was performed on a 7-year-old girl, presenting muscle hypotonia, stereotypic hand movements, epilepsy, global developmental delay, and autism spectrum disorder. Brain magnetic resonance images were normal. She was unable to walk independently and spoke no meaningful words. RESULTS:We found a de novo variant in TOP2B (NM_001330700.1:c.187C>T, p.(His63Tyr)), which is identical to the previous case. The clinical features of the two individuals with the c.187C>T variant overlapped. CONCLUSION:Our study supports the finding that TOP2B variants may cause NDDs.
Project description:We report the whole genome ChIP seq for human TOP2B from MCF7 cells. Using three different peak calling methods, regions of binding were identified in the presence or absence of the nuclear hormone estradiol, as TOP2B has been reported to play a role in ligand-induced transcription. TOP2B peaks were found across the whole genome, 50% of the peaks fell either within a gene or within 5 kb of a transcription start site. TOP2B peaks coincident with gene promoters were less frequently associated with epigenetic features marking active promoters in estradiol treated than in untreated cells. Significantly enriched transcription factor motifs within the DNA sequences underlying the peaks were identified. These included SP1, KLF4, TFAP2A, MYF, REST, CTCF, ESR1 and ESR2. Gene ontology analysis of genes associated with TOP2B peaks found neuronal development terms including axonogenesis and axon guidance were significantly enriched. In the absence of functional TOP2B there are errors in axon guidance in the zebrafish eye. Specific heparin sulphate structures are involved in retinal axon targeting. The glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparin sulphate/heparin pathway is significantly enriched in the TOP2B gene ontology analysis, suggesting changes in this pathway in the absence of TOP2B may cause the axon guidance faults.
Project description:AIMS:To validate a laboratory-developed test for the nucleoside transporter, SLC28A3, which has been associated with an increased risk of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. METHODS:We used Taqman® allele discrimination to test for two variants of the SLC28A3 gene: rs7853758 (c.1381C>T) and rs885004 (c.862-360C>T). RESULTS:During the validation process, we noted that several DNA samples obtained from the Coriell Cell Repository (Camden, NJ) were positive for both the c.1381 C?>?T and c.862-360C>T variants and another variant allele for either c.1381 C?>?T or c.862-360C>T (e.g., c.1381C>T homozygous/c.862-360C>T heterozygous, c.1381C>T homozygous/c.862-360C>T homozygous). We used de-identified DNA samples from trios of family members (mother, father, and child) to establish that the c.1381 C?>?T and c.862-360C>T variant alleles could be inherited in cis on the same chromosome. CONCLUSIONS:Samples containing three variant alleles suggest that the c.1381 C?>?T and c.862-360C>T are in cis on the chromosome in some individuals and may have implications when calculating anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy risk. In this study, we confirm a novel haplotype of SLC28A3 using familial studies.