18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid derivative promotes proliferation, migration and aquaporin-3 expression in human dermal fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza) species have been widely used as a traditional medicine and a natural sweetener in foods. The 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?-GA) is a bioactive compound in licorice that exhibits potential anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities. Many synthesized derivatives of 18?-GA have been reported to be cytotoxic and suggested for the treatment of malignant diseases. In this study, we explored the possible pharmacological roles of an 18?-GA derivative in skin biology using primary human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes as cell models. We found that this 18?-GA derivative did not cause cell death, but significantly enhanced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. A scratch wound healing assay revealed that the 18?-GA derivative promoted the migration of fibroblasts. Due to the important role of aquaporin-3 in cell migration and proliferation, we also investigated the expression of aquaporin-3 and found this compound up-regulated the expression of aquaporin-3 in dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes. In dermal fibroblasts, the 18?-GA derivative induced the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and p38. The inhibitor of Akt predominantly suppressed the 18?-GA derivative-induced expression of aquaporin-3. Collectively, this compound had a positive effect on the proliferation, migration, and aquaporin-3 expression of skin cells, implying its potential role in the treatment of skin diseases characterized by impaired wound healing or dermal defects.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced loss of dermal extracellular matrix is associated with skin photoaging. Recent studies demonstrated that keratinocyte-releasable stratifin (SFN) plays a critical role in skin collagen metabolism by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) expression in target fibroblasts. In the present study, we examined whether SFN released from UVB-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes increases MMP1 release from dermal fibroblasts, and whether these events are affected by p-coumaric acid (p-CA), a natural phenolic compound with UVB-shielding and antioxidant properties. HaCaT cells were exposed to UVB in the absence and presence of p-CA, and the conditioned medium was used to stimulate fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. The cells and media were analyzed to determine the expressions/releases of SFN and MMP1. UVB exposure increased SFN release from keratinocytes into the medium. The conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MMP1 release from fibroblasts. The depletion of SFN using a siRNA rendered the conditioned medium of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes ineffective at stimulating fibroblasts to release MMP1. p-CA mitigated UVB-induced SFN expression in keratinocytes, and attenuated the MMP1 release by fibroblasts in medium transfer experiments. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of UV absorbers such as p-CA would reduce UV-induced SFN-centered signaling events involved in skin photoaging.
Project description:Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 ?g/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 ?g/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations.
Project description:Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease with increasing prevalance, is closely associated with skin barrier defects. A cytokine related to disease severity and inhibition of keratinocyte differentiation is IL-31. To identify its molecular targets, IL-31-dependent gene expression was determined in 3-dimensional organotypic skin models. In this data set we include expression data from human 3D skin models treated with or without IL-31 for 2, 8, 24 and 48 hours. As a source of keratinocytes HaCaT cells were used. These are immortalized primary keratinocytes. Human dermal fibroblasts were derived from a skin biopsy. A total of 8 samples were analyzed. We compared the control vs the IL-31 treated sample for each time point.
Project description:Retinoids are known to affect skin cell proliferation and differentiation and are key molecules that target retinoid and retinoic acid receptors (RXRs and RARs), leading to physiological and pharmacologic effects. Our aim was to elucidate the role of the retinol-binding protein receptor STRA6, mediating cellular uptake of retinol, on skin structure and function. Our results indicate that STRA6 is constitutively expressed in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and is regulated via RAR/RXR-mediated pathways. HaCaT (Human adult low Calcium high Temperature) cells with stable STRA6 knockdown (STRA6KD) showed increased proliferation. Consistently, human organotypic 3D skin models using stable STRA6KD HaCaT cells showed a significantly thicker epidermis and enhanced expression of activation, differentiation, and proliferation markers. The effects were reversible after treatment with free retinol. Human skin reconstitution employing STRA6KD HaCaT cells leads to massive epithelial thickening under in vivo conditions in SCID mice. We propose that STRA6KD could lead to cellular vitamin A deficiency in keratinocytes. Consequently, STRA6 has a role for regulating retinoid homeostasis and in helping to program signaling that drives proliferation and differentiation of human skin cells. By its influence on hyperproliferation-associated differentiation, STRA6 could also have a role in skin regeneration and could be a target for pharmacological approaches to improve wound healing.
Project description:In search for factors, overexpression of which in human dermal fibroblasts causes direct conversion to cells similar to keratinocytes, micro RNA expression profiles of human primary keratinocytes and human primary dermal fibroblasts are investigated. Skin samples obtained from 3 different sites of 1 subject were used for establishment of 3 primary keratinocytes and 3 primary dermal fibroblasts. Thus obtained 3 primary keratinocytes and primary dermal fibroblasts underwent micro RNA profiling.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces detrimental changes in human skin which result in photoaging. UV-induced intracellular changes cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). UV-stimulated cleavage of collagen in ECM occurs via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (±)-syringaresinol (SYR), a phytochemical which belongs to the lignan group of polyphenols, was investigated for its ability to reverse the UVA-induced changes in human HaCaT keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in vitro. Effect of SYR on UVA-induced changes was investigated by production and activation of MMPs and its transcriptional upstream effectors; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and pro-inflammatory mediators. Levels of expression were determined using ELISA, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. UVA irradiation stimulated the production of MMP-1 and inhibited collagen production. SYR treatment suppressed MMP-1 and enhanced collagen production in UVA-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes and HDFs. SYR repressed the UV-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs in HaCaT keratinocytes while only suppressing JNK phosphorylation in HDFs. In addition, SYR was able to inhibit UVA-induced production of inflammatory cytokines; TNF-?, COX-2, IL-1? and IL-6. Moreover, SYR suppressed the activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos. SYR-treatment decreased nuclear levels of activated c-Fos and c-Jun as a mechanism to inhibit UVA-induced transcriptional activities leading to MMP-1 production. In conclusion, current results demonstrated that SYR could inhibit UVA-induced upregulation of MMP-1 by suppressing MAPK/AP-1 signaling in HaCaT keratinocytes and HDFs. Therefore, SYR was suggested as a potential compound with antiphotoaging properties against UVA-induced skin aging.
Project description:Skin barrier disruption and dermal inflammation are key phenotypes of atopic dermatitis (AD). Staphylococcus aureus secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are involved in AD pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the role of EVs-associated ?-hemolysin derived from S. aureus in AD pathogenesis. ?-hemolysin production from S. aureus was detected using western blot analyses. The cytotoxic activity of ?-hemolysin on HaCaT keratinocytes was evaluated by measuring cell viability after treating cells with soluble and EVs-associated ?-hemolysin. To determine the type of cell death, HaCaT keratinocytes were stained with annexin V and 7-AAD. The in vivo effects of ?-hemolysin were evaluated by application of soluble and EV-associated ?-hemolysin on the mouse skin. The present study showed that increased ?-hemolysin was produced by S. aureus colonized on AD patients compared to healthy subjects. ?-hemolysin production was also related to AD severity. In addition, EV-associated ?-hemolysin was more cytotoxic to HaCaT keratinocytes than soluble ?-hemolysin, and ?-hemolysin-negative EVs did not induce keratinocyte death. EV-associated ?-hemolysin induced necrosis, but soluble ?-hemolysin induced apoptosis of keratinocytes. In vivo, skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia were induced by soluble and EV-associated ?-hemolysin. However, AD-like dermal inflammation was only caused by EV-associated ?-hemolysin. Moreover, neither skin barrier disruption nor AD-like skin inflammation was induced by ?-hemolysin-negative EVs. Taken together, ?-Hemolysin secreted from S. aureus, particularly the EV-associated form, induces both skin barrier disruption and AD-like skin inflammation, suggesting that EV-associated ?-hemolysin is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for the control of AD.
Project description:IKK? plays a mandatory role in keratinocyte differentiation and exerts an important task in non-melanoma skin cancer development. However, it is not fully understood how IKK? exerts these functions. To analyze in detail the role of IKK? in epidermal stratification and differentiation, we have generated tridimensional (3D) cultures of human HaCaT keratinocytes and fibroblasts in fibrin gels, obtaining human skin equivalents that comprise an epidermal and a dermal compartments that resembles both the structure and differentiation of normal human skin. We have found that IKK? expression must be strictly regulated in epidermis, as alterations in its levels lead to histological defects and promote the development of malignant features. Specifically, we have found that the augmented expression of IKK? results in increased proliferation and clonogenicity of human keratinocytes, and leads to an accelerated and altered differentiation, augmented ability of invasive growth, induction of the expression of oncogenic proteins (Podoplanin, Snail, Cyclin D1) and increased extracellular matrix proteolytic activity. All these characteristics make keratinocytes overexpressing IKK? to be at a higher risk of developing skin cancer. Comparison of genetic profile obtained by analysis of microarrays of RNA of skin equivalents from both genotypes supports the above described findings.
Project description:Reactive species play a pivotal role in orchestrating wound healing responses. They act as secondary messengers and drive redox-signalling pathways that are involved in the homeostatic, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodelling phases of wound healing. The application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) to the wound site produces a profusion of short- and long-lived reactive species that have been demonstrated to be effective in promoting wound healing; however, knowledge of the mechanisms underlying CAP-mediated wound healing remains scarce. To address this, an in vitro coculture model was used to study the effects of CAP on wound healing and on paracrine crosstalk between dermal keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Using this coculture model, we observed a stimulatory effect on the migration ability of HaCaT cells that were cocultured with dermal fibroblasts. Additionally, CAP treatment resulted in an upregulation of the HIPPO transcription factor YAP in HaCaTs and fibroblasts. Downstream effectors of the HIPPO signalling pathway (CTGF and Cyr61) were also upregulated in dermal fibroblasts, and the administration of antioxidants could inhibit CAP-mediated wound healing and abrogate the gene expression of the HIPPO downstream effectors. Interestingly, we observed that HaCaT cells exhibited an improved cell migration rate when incubated with CAP-treated fibroblast-conditioned media compared to that observed after incubation with untreated media. An induction of CTGF and Cyr61 secretion was also observed upon CAP treatment in the fibroblast-conditioned media. Finally, exposure to recombinant CTGF and Cyr61 could also significantly improve HaCaT cell migration. In summary, our results validated that CAP activates a regenerative signalling pathway at the onset of wound healing. Additionally, CAP also stimulated a reciprocal communication between dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, resulting in improved keratinocyte wound healing in coculture.
Project description:Indolic and kynuric pathways of skin melatonin metabolism were monitored by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in human keratinocytes, melanocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and melanoma cells. Production of 6-hydroxymelatonin [6(OH)M], N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) was detected in a cell type-dependent fashion. The major metabolites, 6(OH)M and AFMK, were produced in all cells. Thus, in immortalized epidermal (HaCaT) keratinocytes, 6(OH)M was the major product with Vmax = 63.7 ng/10(6) cells and Km = 10.2 ?M, with lower production of AFMK and 5-MT. Melanocytes, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts transformed melatonin primarily into 6(OH)M and AFMK. In melanoma cells, 6(OH)M and AFMK were produced endogenously, a process accelerated by exogenous melatonin in the case of AFMK. In addition, N-acetylserotonin was endogenously produced by normal and malignant melanocytes. Metabolites showed selective antiproliferative effects on human primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. In ex vivo human skin, both melatonin and AFMK-stimulated expression of involucrin and keratins-10 and keratins-14 in the epidermis, indicating their stimulatory role in building and maintaining the epidermal barrier. In summary, the metabolism of melatonin and its endogenous production is cell type-dependent and expressed in all three main cell populations of human skin. Furthermore, melatonin and its metabolite AFMK stimulate differentiation in human epidermis, indicating their key role in building the skin barrier.