Results of a Flipped Classroom Teaching Approach in Anesthesiology Residents.
ABSTRACT: In a flipped classroom approach, learners view educational content prior to class and engage in active learning during didactic sessions.We hypothesized that a flipped classroom improves knowledge acquisition and retention for residents compared to traditional lecture, and that residents prefer this approach.We completed 2 iterations of a study in 2014 and 2015. Institutions were assigned to either flipped classroom or traditional lecture for 4 weekly sessions. The flipped classroom consisted of reviewing a 15-minute video, followed by 45-minute in-class interactive sessions with audience response questions, think-pair-share questions, and case discussions. The traditional lecture approach consisted of a 55-minute lecture given by faculty with 5 minutes for questions. Residents completed 3 knowledge tests (pretest, posttest, and 4-month retention) and surveys of their perceptions of the didactic sessions. A linear mixed model was used to compare the effect of both formats on knowledge acquisition and retention.Of 182 eligible postgraduate year 2 anesthesiology residents, 155 (85%) participated in the entire intervention, and 142 (78%) completed all tests. The flipped classroom approach improved knowledge retention after 4 months (adjusted mean?=?6%; P?=?.014; d?=?0.56), and residents preferred the flipped classroom (pre?=?46%; post?=?82%; P?
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Current residency didactic schedules that are built upon hour-long, lecture-based presentations are incongruous with adult learning theory and the needs of millennial generation residents. An alternative to the traditional lecture, the flipped classroom involves viewing a short video lecture at home, followed by an active discussion during class time. This module was developed for emergency medicine residents and rotating medical students without previous training on the subject.<h4>Methods</h4>The at-home portion of the module was designed to be delivered at home, while the in-class discussion was designed to be carried out over 30-45 minutes during a regularly scheduled didactic time. Small-group size may be determined by faculty availability, though groups of five are optimal. There is no requirement for faculty preparation prior to the in-class session. Associated materials include objectives, the at-home video, a discussion guide for faculty facilitators, a case-based handout for students and residents, and assessment questions. We assessed our module with a pretest, immediate posttest, and the posttest again after 90 days.<h4>Results</h4>The mean pretest score was 66%, mean posttest score 76%, and mean retention test score 66%. There was an immediate increase of 10%, which did not remain at 90 days.<h4>Discussion</h4>We developed a flipped classroom module that can be implemented in any emergency medicine residency or clerkship. It addresses the theoretical challenges posed to traditional conference didactics by increasing the focus on problem solving and self-directed learning.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In acute care medicine, knowledge of the underlying (patho)-physiology is of paramount importance. This may be especially relevant in intensive care medicine, where individual competence and proficiency greatly depend on knowledge and understanding of critical care physiology. In settings with time constraints such as intensive care units (ICUs), time allotted to education is often limited. We evaluated whether introduction of a short, interactive, peer-led flipped classroom session is feasible and can provide ICU residents with a better understanding of critical care physiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using the flipped classroom concept, we developed a 15-minute peer-led interactive "physiology education" session to introduce a total of 44 residents to critical care physiology. Using a nine-item electronic survey with open questions and a five-point Likert scale, we analysed the overall concept with regard to feasibility, motivation, and subjective learning of critical care physiology. RESULTS:The overall rate of response to the survey was 70.5% (31/44). The residents reported that these sessions sparked their interest (p = 0.005, Chi square 10.52), and that discussion and interaction during these sessions had promoted their knowledge and understanding. Both novice and experienced residents reported that new knowledge was imparted (both p<0.0001, Chi-square 32.97 and 25.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:In an environment with time constraints such as the ICU, a 15-minute, interactive, peer-led flipped classroom teaching session was considered feasible and generally appeared useful for teaching critical care physiology to ICU residents. Responses to questions on questionnaires indicated that teaching sessions sparked interest and increased motivation. This approach may theoretically induce a modification in professional behaviour and promote self-directed learning. We therefore support the use of peer-led flipped classroom training sessions in the ICU. Whether these sessions result in improved ICU care should be addressed in subsequent studies.
Project description:Recent reform of medical education highlights the growing concerns about the capability of the current educational model to equip medical school students with essential skills for future career development. In the field of ophthalmology, although many attempts have been made to address the problem of the decreasing teaching time and the increasing load of course content, a growing body of literature indicates the need to reform the current ophthalmology teaching strategies. Flipped classroom is a new pedagogical model in which students develop a basic understanding of the course materials before class, and use in-class time for learner-centered activities, such as group discussion and presentation. However, few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in ophthalmology education. This study, for the first time, assesses the use of flipped classroom in ophthalmology, specifically glaucoma and ocular trauma clerkship teaching. A total number of 44 international medical school students from diverse background were enrolled in this study, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took the flipped glaucoma classroom and lecture-based ocular trauma classroom, while the other group took the flipped ocular trauma classroom and lecture-based glaucoma classroom. In the traditional lecture-based classroom, students attended the didactic lecture and did the homework after class. In the flipped classroom, students were asked to watch the prerecorded lectures before the class, and use the class time for homework discussion. Both the teachers and students were asked to complete feedback questionnaires after the classroom. We found that the two groups did not show differences in the final exam scores. However, the flipped classroom helped students to develop skills in problem solving, creative thinking and team working. Also, compared to the lecture-based classroom, both teachers and students were more satisfied with the flipped classroom. Interestingly, students had a more positive attitude towards the flipped ocular trauma classroom than the flipped glaucoma classroom regarding the teaching process, the course materials, and the value of the classroom. Therefore, the flipped classroom model in ophthalmology teaching showed promise as an effective approach to promote active learning.
Project description:Background: Medical education is evolving to incorporate learner-centered strategies which encourage student engagement. Educators need to ensure that meaningful education occurs within limited interaction time between teachers and trainees. The Flipped Classroom (FC) model combines the use of both online and face-to-face interaction. Studies describing the process and resource utilization in anesthesia residency programs are limited. Methods: After Institutional Review Board (IRB) exemption, a qualitative study to assess the feasibility of introducing an FC model in the anesthesia residency didactic curriculum was conducted. The Post Graduate Year 2 (PGY2) anesthesia resident didactic sessions were modified to include one session a month using the FC format with the other three sessions presented using traditional PowerPoint lecture format at a tertiary academic medical center. Post-session surveys were administered to both learners and teachers. Survey data were analyzed using Qualtrics® software. Survey data included perceptions of both learners and teachers regarding quality of learning and engagement in the new format. Results: Nineteen residents and 10 faculty participated in 10 sessions over the span of 10 months. A total of 153 resident responses and 8 faculty responses were submitted voluntarily. In our study, a majority of residents indicated they preferred the FC format. They also indicated they enjoyed working in groups. All the participating faculty felt that student interaction and student learning were higher in these sessions. Conclusions: Residency programs need to adopt evidence-based solutions to problems arising in medical education. We present our experiences in finding a solution to make didactic sessions more engaging. Our initial assessment shows that it is feasible to introduce the FC model into an existing curriculum in an anesthesia residency program and both residents and faculty felt that the format enhanced learning and interaction in class.
Project description:Introduction:Prior studies have demonstrated poor guideline compliance by pediatricians, and there is no published curriculum on how to teach clinical guidelines. Furthermore, in a national survey of pediatric residency training programs conducted in 2015, only two had a formal curriculum for teaching clinical guidelines. This module provides a framework for teaching residents clinical guidelines through a modified flipped classroom approach. Associated materials include a guide for faculty facilitators, sample slides and worksheet, and pictures of the classroom setup. Methods:In this module, the guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are taught in three sessions and evaluated with a pre-/posttest assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and satisfaction. Each guideline is delivered in a 30-minute session, with five learners per group. Faculty training requires approximately 30 minutes of preparation. The intervention groups (n = 9 for OSAS, 10 each for AOM and ADHD) received three weekly, half-hour flipped classroom lessons. The control group (n = 19) had no formal guideline education. Results:Pre-/posttests showed a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes in the group of interns who received this educational intervention over the control group. The learners rated the sessions as highly effective. Discussion:This module provides an efficient and effective way of utilizing a modified flipped classroom approach to teach learners the correct use of clinical guidelines, a skill residents must master to provide evidence-based care. This curriculum has been successfully incorporated into our pediatric residency program.
Project description:PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of high-fidelity simulation for teaching root cause analysis (RCA) in graduate medical education. METHODS: Thirty clinical anesthesiology-1 through clinical anesthesiology-3 residents were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A participants received a 10-minute lecture on RCA and participated in a simulation exercise where a medical error occurs, and group B participants received the 10-minute lecture on RCA only. Participants completed baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up assessments, and they were evaluated on their attitude toward as well as understanding of RCA and "systems-based" care. RESULTS: All 30 residents completed the surveys. Baseline attitudes and knowledge scores were similar between groups. Postintervention knowledge scores were also similar between groups; however, group B was significantly more skeptical (P < .001) about the use of RCA and "systems improvement" strategies. Six months later, group A demonstrated retained knowledge scores and unchanged attitude, whereas group B demonstrated significantly worse knowledge scores (P = .001) as well as continued skepticism toward a systems-based approach (P < .001) to medical error reduction. CONCLUSION: High-fidelity simulation in conjunction with focused didactics is an effective strategy for teaching RCA and systems theory in graduate medical education. Our findings also suggest that there is greater retention of knowledge and increased positive attitude toward systems improvement when focused didactics are coupled with a high-fidelity simulation exercise.
Project description:Introduction:Despite the national focus on trainee burnout, effective wellness programs that can easily be incorporated into training curriculums are lacking. Strategies such as mindfulness and positive psychology, linked with deep breathing, have been shown to increase resiliency. We hypothesized that education about the neuroscience literature, coupled with teaching about well-being using short, easy-to-practice evidence-based exercises, would increase acceptance of this curriculum among residents and that providing protected time to practice these exercises would help trainees incorporate them into their daily lives. Methods:Residents were asked to attend a 60-minute didactic featuring both the concepts and science behind well-being. Residents then attended 15-minute booster sessions during protected didactic time each week for a 12-week curriculum. The booster sessions were peer-led by wellness champions. Additionally, there were monthly competitions using free phone apps to promote physical fitness through steps and flights challenges. Results:The 12-week curriculum was offered to 272 residents across five subspecialties of internal medicine, general surgery, anesthesiology, psychiatry, and physical medicine and rehabilitation. A total of 188 residents (69%) participated in the initial didactic component. The curriculum was positively received, with four of the five residency programs participating in weekly sessions. Residents in four participating departments then chose to continue the weekly sessions on a voluntary basis after the initial 12-week curriculum. Discussion:It is feasible to implement a low-cost, peer-led wellness curriculum to educate residents and foster an environment during residency training where mindfulness, optimism, gratitude, and social connectedness are the norm.
Project description:Introduction:Consistent medical knowledge acquisition while caring for the critically ill can be challenging for learners and educators in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), a unit often distinguished by fluctuating acuity and severity. We implemented a standardized didactic curriculum for PICU residents to facilitate their acquisition and retention of knowledge in core PICU topics. Methods:We developed a comprehensive standardized curriculum for PGY 2-PGY 4 PICU pediatric and internal medicine-pediatric residents. Thirteen core topics were administered as 30-minute didactic sessions during the rotation, using either PowerPoint slides or a dry-erase board. Residents were tested to assess knowledge acquisition and retention. Results:Seventy-eight residents participated, 86% of whom completed posttests. Seventeen percent completed follow-up tests. Of the learners who participated, 60 (77%) completed pretests and posttests, indicating their confidence level each time. The pretest mean was 55% (SD = 14.4%), and the posttest mean was 64% (SD = 15.6%). This 9% increase was statistically significant (p = .001; CI, 3.9% to 14.8%). The follow-up test at 3 months, completed by 15% of this subgroup, demonstrated a mean score of 62% (SD = 14.5%). When matched with posttest scores (mean score of 64%, SD = 13.3%), there was no significant difference (p = .7398; CI, -11.7% to 16.2%), suggesting retention of previously acquired knowledge. Discussion:Our standardized didactic curriculum effectively facilitated the acquisition and retention of the medical knowledge of core PICU topics among PICU residents, in addition to their usual experiential learning.
Project description:Introduction:In a flipped classroom, students learn basic concepts before class, allowing them time during class to apply newly gained knowledge to problem sets and cases. Harvard Medical School (HMS) has introduced a form of flipped classroom, called case-based collaborative learning (CBCL), during preclinical curricula. Finding few published resources, the HMS Academy's Peer Observation of Teaching Interest Group developed a guide for observations and feedback to CBCL facilitators. Methods:After conducting an extensive literature search, speaking to flipped classroom methodology experts, and observing 14 facilitators using CBCL methods, the interest group identified specific teaching behaviors that optimize student interaction and knowledge application. The group next engaged in several rounds of the modified Delphi method to develop the CBCL peer observation worksheet and compendium and then tested these materials' effectiveness in capturing CBCL teaching behaviors and providing feedback to CBCL faculty facilitators. Results:Seventy-three percent of faculty rated the worksheet and compendium as extremely helpful or helpful in identifying new teaching techniques. Moreover, 90% found the CBCL peer observation and debriefing to be extremely helpful or helpful, and 90% were extremely likely or likely to incorporate peer suggestions in future teaching sessions. Discussion:Medical schools have begun to embrace flipped classroom methods to eliminate passive, lecture-style instruction during the preclinical years of the MD curriculum. This tool identifies specific in-classroom approaches that engage students in active learning, guides peer observers in offering targeted feedback to faculty on teaching strategies, and presents consensus-based resources for use during CBCL faculty development and training.
Project description:Introduction:This dental anatomy module is the second in a series that develops skills in analyzing the morphology, function, anomalies, and development of human teeth. Learning the visual details associated with teeth has often proven difficult using the lecture format; thus, we have utilized computer-assisted flipped learning, which has been shown to be just as effective as lectures and frees up class time for active learning. Methods:In a flipped classroom approach, students learn basic knowledge with a self-paced, interactive tutorial prior to class. In class, students are assigned to small groups and start with a readiness assessment quiz, administered first individually and then to each team. This is followed by a review for the whole class. The teams then practice critical thinking through practical application scenarios; a laboratory exercise follows where students wax tooth #25 and tooth #26. Results:Students rated faculty members who used team-based learning higher than those who used lecture format for similar morphology lectures. For the first 3 years that this flipped classroom technique was used, students consistently scored it higher than the lecture format on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple positive comments indicated their preference for this method. Discussion:Teaching students to see the subtle variations in tooth morphology takes time and attention. In a lecture, each key point is covered only once, and images appear fleetingly. A key advantage of the self-paced interactive tutorial coupled with flipped classroom activities is that each learner can take the time needed with each image in a tutorial.