Acceleration of osteoblast differentiation by a novel osteogenic compound, DMP-PYT, through activation of both the BMP and Wnt pathways.
ABSTRACT: Osteoblast differentiation is regulated through the successive activation of signaling molecules by a complex interplay of extracellular signals such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt ligands. Numerous studies have identified natural as well as synthetic compounds with osteogenic activity through the regulation of either BMP/SMADs or the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Here, we attempted to isolate small molecules that concurrently activated both SMADs and ?-catenin, which led to the discovery of a novel potent osteogenic compound, DMP-PYT. Upon BMP2 stimulation, DMP-PYT substantially increased osteoblast differentiation featured by enhanced expression of osteoblast-specific genes and accelerated calcification through activation of BMPs expression. DMP-PYT promoted BMP2-induced SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and ?-catenin expression, the latter in a BMP2-independent manner. DMP-PYT alone enhanced nuclear localization of ?-catenin to promote the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of T-cell factor, thereby resulting in increased osteoblast differentiation in the absence of BMP2. Most importantly, DMP-PYT advanced skeletal development and bone calcification in zebrafish larvae. Conclusively, DMP-PYT strongly stimulated osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo by potentiating BMP2-induced activation of SMADs and ?-catenin. These results suggest that DMP-PYT may have beneficial effects for preventing and for treating osteoporosis.
Project description:Cysteine (C)-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), the primary receptor for stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is involved in bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors. To target the in vivo function of CXCR4 in bone and explore the underlying mechanisms, we conditionally inactivated CXCR4 in osteoprecursors by crossing osterix (Osx)-Cre mice with floxed CXCR4 (CXCR4(fl/fl)) mice to generate knock-outs with CXCR4 deletion driven by the Osx promoter (Osx::CXCR4(fl/fl)). The Cre-mediated excision of CXCR4 occurred exclusively in bone of Osx::CXCR4(fl/fl) mice. When compared with littermate controls, Osx::CXCR4(fl/fl) mice developed smaller osteopenic skeletons as evidenced by reduced trabecular and cortical bone mass, lower bone mineral density, and a slower mineral apposition rate. In addition, Osx::CXCR4(fl/fl) mice displayed chondrocyte disorganization in the epiphyseal growth plate associated with decreased proliferation and collagen matrix syntheses. Moreover, mature osteoblast-related expression of type I collagen ?1 and osteocalcin was reduced in bone of Osx::CXCR4(fl/fl) mice versus controls, suggesting that CXCR4 deficiency results in arrested osteoblast progression. Primary cultures for osteoblastic cells derived from Osx::CXCR4(fl/fl) mice also showed decreased proliferation and impaired osteoblast differentiation in response to BMP2 or BMP6 stimulation, and suppressed activation of intracellular BMP receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) and Erk1/2 was identified in CXCR4-deficient cells and bone tissues. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that CXCR4 functions in postnatal bone development by regulating osteoblast development in cooperation with BMP signaling. Thus, CXCR4 acts as an endogenous signaling component necessary for bone formation.
Project description:Canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling through ?-catenin regulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation to enhance bone formation. We previously reported that osteogenic action of ?-catenin is dependent on BMP signaling. Here, we further examined interactions between cWnt and BMP in bone. In osteoprogenitors stimulated with BMP2, ?-catenin localizes to the nucleus, physically interacts with Smad4, and is recruited to DNA-binding transcription complexes containing Smad4, R-Smad1/5 and TCF4. Furthermore, Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription, Ccnd1 expression and proliferation all increase when Smad4, 1 or 5 levels are low, whereas TCF/Lef activities decrease when Smad4 expression is high. The ability of Smad4 to antagonize transcription of Ccnd1 is dependent on DNA-binding activity but Smad4-dependent transcription is not required. In mice, conditional deletion of Smad4 in osterix(+) cells increases mitosis of cells on trabecular bone surfaces as well as in primary osteoblast cultures from adult bone marrow and neonatal calvaria. By contrast, ablation of Smad4 delays differentiation and matrix mineralization by primary osteoblasts in response to Wnt3a, indicating that loss of Smad4 perturbs the balance between proliferation and differentiation in osteoprogenitors. We propose that Smad4 and Tcf/Lef transcription complexes compete for ?-catenin, thus restraining cWnt-dependent proliferative signals while favoring the matrix synthesizing activity of osteoblasts.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteogenic differentiation has been shown to occur through the canonical Wnt/?catenin pathway, whereas factors promoting canonical Wnt signaling in cementoblasts inhibit cell differentiation and promote cell proliferation in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether putative precursor cells of cementoblasts, dental follicle cells (murine SVF4 cells), when stimulated with BMP2, would exhibit changes in genes/proteins associated with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.SVF4 cells were stimulated with BMP2, and the following assays were carried out: (i) Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation assessed by western blotting, ?-catenin/transcription factor (TCF) reporter assays and expression of the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (Lef1), transcription factor 7 (Tcf7), Wnt inhibitor factor 1 (Wif1) and Axin2 (Axin2) genes; and (ii) cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and by the mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), osteocalcin (Ocn) and bone sialoprotein (Bsp), determined by quantitative PCR after treatment with wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3A (WNT3A) and knockdown of ?-catenin.WNT3A induced ?-catenin nuclear translocation and up-regulated the transcriptional activity of a canonical Wnt-responsive reporter, suggesting that the Wnt/?-catenin pathway functions in SVF4 cells. Activation of Wnt signaling with WNT3A suppressed BMP2-mediated induction of cementoblast/osteoblast maturation of SVF4 cells. However, ?-catenin knockdown showed that the BMP2-induced expression of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation markers requires endogenous ?-catenin. WNT3A down-regulated transcripts for Runx2, Alp and Ocn in SVF4 cells compared with untreated cells. In contrast, BMP2 induction of Bsp transcripts occurred independently of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.These data suggest that stabilization of ?-catenin by WNT3A inhibits BMP2-mediated induction of cementoblast/osteoblast differentiation in SVF4 cells, although BMP2 requires endogenous Wnt/?-catenin signaling to promote cell maturation.
Project description:Mesenchymal cells can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, or chondroblasts. Whether mesenchymal cells that have initiated differentiation along one lineage can transdifferentiate into another is largely unknown. Using 3T3-F442A preadipocytes, we explored whether extracellular signals could redirect their differentiation from adipocyte into osteoblast. 3T3-F442A cells expressed receptors and Smads required for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. BMP-2 increased proliferation and induced the early osteoblast differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase, yet only mildly affected adipogenic differentiation. Retinoic acid inhibited adipose conversion and cooperated with BMP-2 to enhance proliferation, inhibit adipogenesis, and promote early osteoblastic differentiation. Expression of BMP-RII together with BMP-RIA or BMP-RIB suppressed adipogenesis of 3T3-F442A cells and promoted full osteoblastic differentiation in response to retinoic acid. Osteoblastic differentiation was characterized by induction of cbfa1, osteocalcin, and collagen I expression, and extracellular matrix calcification. These results indicate that 3T3-F442A preadipocytes can be converted into fully differentiated osteoblasts in response to extracellular signaling cues. Furthermore, BMP and retinoic acid signaling cooperate to stimulate cell proliferation, repress adipogenesis, and promote osteoblast differentiation. Finally, BMP-RIA and BMP-RIB induced osteoblast differentiation and repressed adipocytic differentiation to a similar extent.
Project description:Understanding the molecular events that regulate osteoblast differentiation is essential for the development of effective approaches to bone regeneration. In this study, we analysed the osteoinductive properties of extracellular calcium in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) differentiation. We cultured BM-MSCs in 3D gelatin scaffolds with Ca2+ and BMP-2 as osteoinductive agents. Early and late osteogenic gene expression and bone regeneration in a calvarial critical-size defect model demonstrate that extracellular Ca2+ enhances the effects of BMP-2 on Osteocalcin, Runx2 and Osterix expression and promotes bone regeneration in vivo. Moreover, we analysed the molecular mechanisms involved and observed an antagonistic effect between Ca2+ and BMP-2 on SMAD1/5, ERK and S6K signalling after 24 hours. More importantly, a cooperative effect between Ca2+ and BMP-2 on the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5, S6, GSK3 and total levels of ?-CATENIN was observed at a later differentiation time (10 days). Furthermore, Ca2+ alone favoured the phosphorylation of SMAD1, which correlates with the induction of Bmp2 and Bmp4 gene expression. These data suggest that Ca2+ and BMP-2 cooperate and promote an autocrine/paracrine osteogenic feed-forward loop. On the whole, these results demonstrate the usefulness of calcium-based bone grafts or the addition of exogenous Ca2+ in bone tissue engineering.
Project description:Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of target genes, inducing changes in cell morphology or activities needed for cell fate determination and differentiation. The BMP signaling pathway is widely regarded as one of the most important pathways in vertebrate skeletal biology, of which BMP2 is a potent inducer, governing the osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, the mechanism by which BMP2 initiates its downstream transcription factor cascade and determines the direction of differentiation remains largely unknown. In this study, we used RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and animal models to characterize the BMP2-dependent gene regulatory network governing osteoblast lineage commitment. Sp7-Cre; Bmp2<sup>fx/fx</sup> mice (BMP2-cKO) were generated and exhibited decreased bone density and lower osteoblast number (n?>?6). In vitro experiments showed that BMP2-cKO mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) had an impact on osteoblast differentiation and deficient cell proliferation. Osteogenic medium induced mBMSCs from BMP2-cKO mice and control were subjected to RNA-seq and ATAC-seq analysis to reveal differentially expressed TFs, along with their target open chromatin regions. Combined with H3K27Ac CUT&Tag during osteoblast differentiation, we identified 2338 BMP2-dependent osteoblast-specific active enhancers. Motif enrichment assay revealed that over 80% of these elements were directly targeted by RUNX2, DLX5, MEF2C, OASIS, and KLF4. We deactivated Klf4 in the Sp7?+?lineage to validate the role of KLF4 in osteoblast differentiation of mBMSCs. Compared to the wild-type, Sp7-Cre; Klf4<sup>fx/+</sup> mice (KLF4-Het) were smaller in size and had abnormal incisors resembling BMP2-cKO mice. Additionally, KLF4-Het mice had fewer osteoblasts and decreased osteogenic ability. RNA-seq and ATAC-seq revealed that KLF4 mainly "co-bound" with RUNX2 to regulate downstream genes. Given the significant overlap between KLF4- and BMP2-dependent NFRs and enriched motifs, our findings outline a comprehensive BMP2-dependent gene regulatory network specifically governing osteoblast differentiation of the Sp7?+?lineage, in which Klf4 is a novel transcription factor.
Project description:Oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, has been shown to modulate multiple signaling pathways in a variety of cell linages. But the mechanisms underlying OA-mediated mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation are not known. In this study, we examined effects of OA on cell viability, osteogenic differentiation in MSCs, and the involvement of Notch and BMP signaling. OA induced bone marrow derived MSC differentiation towards osteoprogenitor cells and inhibited Notch signaling in a dose dependent manner. Constitutive activation of Notch signaling fully blocked OA induced MSC osteogenic differentiation. The expression level of early osteogenic marker genes, ALP, Runx2, and type I collagen, which play a critical role in MSC to osteoblast transition and servers as a downstream target of BMP signaling, was significantly induced by OA. Furthermore, BMP2 mediated MSC osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhance by OA treatment, indicating a synergistic effect between BMP2 and OA. Our results suggest that OA is a promising bioactive agent for bone tissue regeneration, and inhibition of Notch signaling is required for its osteogenic effects on MSCs.
Project description:The bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family of secreted molecules has been extensively studied in the context of osteoblast differentiation. However, the intracellular signaling cascades that mediate the osteoblastogenic function of Bmp have not been fully elucidated. By profiling mRNA expression in the bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cell line ST2, we discover that BMP2 induces not only genes commonly associated with ossification and mineralization but also genes important for general protein synthesis. We define the two groups of genes as mineralization related versus protein anabolism signatures of osteoblasts. Although it induces the expression of several Wnt genes, BMP2 activates the osteogenic program largely independently of de novo Wnt secretion. Remarkably, although Smad4 is necessary for the activation of the mineralization-related genes, it is dispensable for BMP2 to induce the protein anabolism signature, which instead critically depends on the transcription factor Atf4. Upstream of Atf4, BMP2 activates mTORC1 to stimulate protein synthesis, resulting in an endoplasmic reticulum stress response mediated by Perk. Thus, Bmp signaling induces osteoblast differentiation through both Smad4- and mTORC1-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:Dalbergia odorifera has been traditionally used as a medicine to treat many diseases. However, the role of 2,4,5-trimethoxyldalbergiquinol (TMDQ) isolated and extracted from D. odorifera in osteoblast function and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of TMDQ on osteoblastic differentiation of primary cultures of mouse osteoblasts as an in vitro assay system. TMDQ stimulated osteoblastic differentiation, as assessed by the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, ALP staining, mineralized nodule formation, and the levels of mRNAs encoding the bone differentiation markers, including ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin, and osteocalcin. TMDQ upregulated the expression of Bmp2 and Bmp4 genes, and increased the protein level of phospho-Smad1/5/8. Furthermore, TMDQ treatment showed the increased mRNA expression of Wnt ligands, phosphorylation of GSK3, and the expression of β-catenin protein. The TMDQ-induced osteogenic effects were abolished by Wnt inhibitor, Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, noggin. TMDQ-induced runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression was attenuatted by noggin and DKK1. These data suggest that TMDQ acts through the activation of BMP, Wnt/β-catenin, and Runx2 signaling to promote osteoblast differentiation, and we demonstrate that TMDQ could be a potential agent for the treatment of bone loss-associated diseases such as osteoporosis.
Project description:The present study explored whether bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnt/??catenin signaling pathways were involved in the 1,25(OH)2D3?induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow?derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To evaluate the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, the expression levels of ossification markers, including BMP2, Runt?related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Msh homeobox 2 (Msx2), osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN), and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as the calcified area observed by Alizarin red?S staining, were investigated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to detect the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the DNA methylation and histone modification of BMP2, while an immunoprecipitation (IP) assay was performed to assess the crosstalk between Smad1 and disheveled?1 (Dvl?1) proteins. It was observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly decreased the expression levels of BMP2, Runx2, Msx2, OPN and OCN, and reduced ALP activity and the calcified area in BMSCs, whereas these effects were rescued by BMP2 overexpression. ChIP assay revealed that BMSCs treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibited a significant increase in H3K9me2 level and a decrease in the acetylation of histone H3 at the same BMP2 promoter region. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment promoted the nuclear accumulation of ??catenin by downregulating BMP2. Furthermore, the ??catenin signaling inhibitor XAV?939 weakened the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteogenic differentiation. Additionally, knockdown of ??catenin rescued the attenuation in Dvl?1 and Smad1 interaction caused by 1,25(OH)2D3. Overexpression of Smad1 also reversed the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the current study demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblast?like cells by inactivating BMP2 and activating Wnt/??catenin signaling.