Tensions in learning professional identities - nursing students' narratives and participation in practical skills during their clinical practice: an ethnographic study.
ABSTRACT: Clinical practice is a pivotal part of nursing education. It provides students with the opportunity to put the knowledge and skills they have acquired from lectures into practice with real patients, under the guidance of registered nurses. Clinical experience is also essential for shaping the nursing students' identity as future professional nurses. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the ways in which students learn practical skills and apply knowledge within and across different contexts, i.e. how they apply clinical skills, learnt in the laboratory in university settings, in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how nursing students describe, and use, their prior experiences related to practical skills during their clinical practice.An ethnographic case study design was used. Fieldwork included participant observations (82 h), informal conversations, and interviews (n = 7) that were conducted during nursing students' (n = 17) clinical practice at an emergency department at a university hospital in Sweden.The overarching theme identified was "Learning about professional identities with respect to situated power". This encompasses tensions in students' learning when they are socialized into practical skills in the nursing profession. This overarching theme consists of three sub-themes: "Embodied knowledge", "Divergent ways of assessing and evaluating knowledge" and "Balancing approaches".Nursing students do not automatically possess the ability to transfer knowledge from one setting to another; rather, their development is shaped by their experiences and interactions with others when they meet real patients. The study revealed different ways in which students navigated tensions related to power differentials. Reflecting on actions is a prerequisite for developing and learning practical skills and professional identities. This highlights the importance of both educators' and the preceptors' roles for socializing students in this process.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Beyond the formal curriculum of skill attainment, nursing students are able to undergo the professional socialisation process in clinical contexts and establish their identity as healthcare providers. However, the cultural context that affects the socialisation process in clinical placements is less discussed. We aimed to explore nursing students' learning and professional socialisation during clinical placements by considering the socio-cultural contexts in South Korea. METHODS:A grounded theory approach was used for this research. Four rounds of in-depth and intensive interviews were carried out, with the recruitment of 16 nursing students, four nurses and two university lecturers in South Korea (29 interviews in total). A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted to analyse the interview data. NVivo 11 was used to manage the interview data for analysis. RESULTS:The researchers identified the process of learning and professional socialisation under three core themes: 1) Struggling at the bottom of the hierarchy, 2) Acceptance and conformity, and 3) The need for 'nunchi' (in Korean, it means to study the atmosphere and discover the embedded intention of others' behaviour). The results offered insights into the challenges encountered by nursing students on clinical placements and how students attempt to adapt and conform to the difficulties encountered in clinical education to maximise their learning and for their professional socialisation. The significance of the hidden curriculum was discussed. CONCLUSIONS:While experiential learning is a great opportunity for students to build on their coping skills and professional socialisation, a lack of support can result in failure to manage the hidden curriculum and theoretical and practical skills. Nursing educators therefore need to orientate students to the professional culture prior to beginning clinical placements.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical teaching plays a crucial role in the transition of medical students into the world of professional practice. Faculty development initiatives contribute to strengthening clinicians' approach to teaching. In order to inform the design of such initiatives, we thought that it would be useful to discover how senior medical students' experience of clinical teaching may impact on how learning during clinical training might be strengthened. METHODS:This qualitative study was conducted using convenience sampling of medical students in the final two months of study before qualifying. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were held with a total of 23 students. Transcripts were analysed from an interpretivist stance, looking for underlying meanings. The resultant themes revealed a tension between the students' expectations and experience of clinical teaching. We returned to our data looking for how students had responded to these tensions. RESULTS:Students saw clinical rotations as having the potential for them to apply their knowledge and test their procedural abilities in the environment where their professional practice and identity will develop. They expected engagement in the clinical workplace. However, their descriptions were of tensions between prior expectations and actual experiences in the environment. They appreciated that learning required them to move out of their "comfort zone", but seemed to persist in the idea of being recipients of teaching rather than becoming directors of their own learning. Students seem to need help in participating in the clinical setting, understanding how this participation will construct the knowledge and skills required as they join the workplace. Students did not have a strong sense of agency to negotiate participation in the clinical workplace. CONCLUSIONS:There is the potential for clinicians to assist students in adapting their way of learning from the largely structured classroom based learning of theoretical knowledge, to the more experiential informal workplace-based learning of practice. This suggests that faculty developers could broaden their menu of offerings to clinicians by intentionally incorporating ways not only of offering students affordances in the clinical learning environment, but also of attending to the development of students' agentic capability to engage with those affordances offered.
Project description:There is an increased call for improving the environment in which nursing students learn the clinical skills. Clinical practice in the clinical placement sites should allow students to apply their theoretical knowledge in a real environment, develop nursing skills and clinical reasoning, and observe and adapt the professional role. This study aimed at identifying the factors influencing performance in clinical practice among preservice diploma nursing students in Northern Tanzania. This study relied on a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from nursing schools in Northern Tanzania in which 208 (123 nursing students and 85 nurse tutors) participants were recruited in the study. Data was gathered using a self-administered questionnaire which collected information on sociodemographic characteristics and factors influencing clinical practice categorized in students' factors, hospital based factors, social-economic factors, and nurse tutors opinions assessed. Descriptive analyses and chi-square test were employed to understand the background information of the sample and association between variables. Majority of the nursing students (84.4%) agreed that clinical placement offers students adequate opportunity for clinical practical learning. Barriers to effective clinical learning was reported by 70.1% of the participants and the barriers include student factors such as lack of self-confidence and absenteeism, school factors such as improper supervision, and poor preparation of clinical instructors or clinical facility factors. We found a significant association between type of barrier and gender (chi-square 0.786, p=0.020). More male nursing students (62.1%) significantly reported unsupportive environment as a barrier and anxiety was more common in female nursing students (48.9%) (p=0.020). Reporting of barriers to effective clinical learning by students from different schools of nursing was not significant (P=0.696). In addition, age of participants did not have significant association with effective clinical practice (p=0.606). Student's factors and placement based factors played an important role to influence clinical learning experiences. Offering preclinical orientation, distributing and clarifying clinical learning objectives to students, and frequent visits and supervision of students in clinical area may improve student learning experience in clinical placement. In addition, tailoring the interventions to gender may improve learning experiences.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:to evaluate the effectiveness of the clinical simulation on the cognitive performance of nursing students in adult immunization scenarios in the context of Primary Health Care. METHOD:a controlled and randomized pre-test and post-test clinical trial applied to random intervention and control groups. 34 undergraduate nursing students were selected and divided into two groups: classes with active participation of students and skills training (control); and classes with active participation of students, skills training, and clinical simulation (intervention). RESULTS:the students in the intervention group performed better than those in the control group in the four assessments of cognitive performance, with statistical significance in the assessments of immediate (p=0.031) and late (1-20 days) (p=0.031) knowledge. CONCLUSION:from the simulation, students learn more in the short and medium terms. The information learned is retained for longer and the students are better prepared for the professional practice. Universal Trial Number: u1111-1195-2580.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Peer training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate training in basic life support (BLS) which is fundamental as an initial response in cases of emergency. This study aimed to (1) Evaluate the efficacy of peer-led model in basic life support training among medical students in their first three years of study, compared to professional-led training and (2) To assess the efficacy of the course program and students' satisfaction of peer-led training.<h4>Methods</h4>A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted on 72 medical students from the pre-clinical years (1st to 3rd years in Syria) at Syrian Private University. Students were randomly assigned to peer-led or to professional-led training group for one-day-course of basic life support skills. Sixty-four students who underwent checklist based assessment using objective structured clinical examination design (OSCE) (practical assessment of BLS skills) and answered BLS knowledge checkpoint-questionnaire were included in the analysis.<h4>Results</h4>There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in delivering BLS skills to medical students in practical (P?=?0.850) and BLS knowledge questionnaire outcomes (P?=?0.900). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-course assessment with significant statistical difference in both practical skills and theoretical knowledge (P-Value <?0.001). Students were satisfied with the peer model of training.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Peer-led training of basic life support for medical students was beneficial and it provided a quality of education which was as effective as training conducted by professionals. This method is applicable and desirable especially in poor-resource countries and in crisis situation.
Project description:Background:This study explores how interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) can contribute to a change in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles. A series of 1-day training sessions was arranged involving undergraduate nursing and medical students. Scenarios were designed for practicing teamwork principles and interprofessional communication skills by endorsing active participation by all team members. Methods:Four focus groups occurred 2-4 weeks after the training. Thematic analysis of the transcribed focus groups was applied, guided by questions on what changes in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles were identified and how such changes had been achieved. Results:The first question, aiming to identify changes in students' understanding of teamwork, resulted in three categories: realizing and embracing teamwork fundamentals, reconsidering professional roles, and achieving increased confidence. The second question, regarding how participation in IPSE could support the transformation of students' understanding of teamwork and of professional roles, embraced another three categories: feeling confident in the learning environment, embodying experiences, and obtaining an outside perspective. Conclusions:This study showed the potential of IPSE to transform students' understanding of others' professional roles and responsibilities. Students displayed extensive knowledge on fundamental teamwork principles and what these meant in the midst of participating in the scenarios. A critical prerequisite for the development of these new insights was to feel confident in the learning environment. The significance of how the environment was set up calls for further research on the design of IPSE in influencing role understanding and communicative skills in significant ways.
Project description:Ward rounds are an essential activity for interprofessional teams in hospital settings and represent complex tasks requiring not only medical knowledge but also communication skills, clinical technical skills, patient management skills and team-work skills. The present study aimed to analyse final year students', nurses' as well as physiotherapists' views on a simulation-based interprofessional ward round training.In two successive passes a total number of 29 final year students, nursing students and physiotherapy students (16 in the first run, 13 in the second) volunteered to participate in two standardized patient ward round scenarios: (1) patient with myocardial infarction, and (2) patient with poorly controlled diabetes. Views on the interprofessional ward round training were assessed using focus groups.Focus group based feedback contained two main categories (A) ward round training benefits and (B) difficulties. Positive aspects enfolded course preparation, setting of the training, the involvement of the participants during training and the positive learning atmosphere. Difficulties were seen in the flawed atmosphere and realization of ward rounds in the daily clinical setting with respect to inter-professional aspects, and course benefit for the different professional groups.The presented inter-professional ward round training represents a well received and valuable model of interprofessional learning. Further research should assess its effectiveness, processes of interprofessional interplay and transfer into clinical practice.
Project description:Background:Virtual patients are a recent addition to the educational arsenal to develop non-technical skills in undergraduate health professionals. The Virtual Simulated Patient Resource (www.vspr.net.au) is a web-based resource that uses branching, narrative virtual patients to develop knowledge, attitude and practice of all categories of non-technical skills in undergraduate health professionals. However, there is limited literature exploring how the interaction with a virtual patient influences the development of knowledge, attitude and practice of non-technical skills in undergraduate nursing students. Methods:An intrinsic case study method, using focus groups and individual interviews, enabled exploration of the experience of undergraduate nursing students when interacting with a virtual patient to develop non-technical skills. Purposive sampling identified participants to address the research question. Framework analysis supported by a codebook enabled deductive and inductive data analysis. Results:Forty-five first-year and 31 third-year students consented to participate. Findings indicated that the different years interacted differently with the virtual patients. Four themes were recognised in the data: how the virtual patients enabled learning non-technical skills, learning surrounding the virtual patient encounter, changing the way students perceive practice and potential limitations to learning. Conclusions:Interactions with virtual patients influence learning knowledge, attitudes and practice of non-technical skills in undergraduate nursing students via authenticity in the virtual patient interaction, socialisation to the professional role, vicarious learning and learning by making mistakes. Potential limitations to learning from virtual patient interactions include fear, overconfidence, groupthink and confusion. To manage limitations to learning, facilitation approaches, opportunities for reflection, constructive feedback and debriefing may be key. This study demonstrates learning non-technical skills via interactions with virtual patients can change the way students perceive practice, with learning transferable to the clinical setting to support safe and competent patient care.
Project description:The Center for Interprofessional Training in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, has offered courses covering interprofessional material since the winter semester 2014/15. The unusual feature of these courses is that they are co-taught by peer tutors from medicine and nursing. This study investigates the subjective experiences of these tutors during the collaborative preparation and teaching of these tutorials with the aim of identifying the effects of equal participation in the perceptions and assessments of the other professional group.Semi-structured, guideline-based interviews were held with six randomly selected tutors. The interviews were analyzed using structuring content analysis.The results show that collaborative work led to reflection, mostly by the university student tutors, on the attitudes held. However, the co-tutors from each professional group were perceived to different degrees as being representative of those in their profession. Asked to master a shared assignment in a non-clinical context, the members of the different professional groups met on equal footing, even if the medical students had already gathered more teaching experience and thus mostly assumed a mentoring role over the course of working on and realizing the teaching units. The nursing tutors were primarily focused on their role as tutor. Both professional groups emphasized that prior to the collaboration they had an insufficient or no idea about the theoretical knowledge or practical skills of the other professional group. Overall, the project was rated as beneficial, and interprofessional education was endorsed.In the discussion, recommendations based on the insights are made for joint tutor training of both professional groups. According to these recommendations, harmonizing the teaching abilities of all tutors is essential to ensure equality during cooperation. Ideally, training programs should be attended together by medical and nursing students to emphasize their shared identity as "tutor".
Project description:Simulation and Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment of learners can teach clinical skills proficiency in a safe environment without risk to patients. Interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) contributes to a transformation in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles. Long term outcomes for stimulation and IPSE sessions, are less well studied. We hypothesized that a progressive interprofessional education simulation program incorporating both faculty and interprofessional student collaboration would improve medical students' knowledge retention, comfort with procedural skills, positive teamwork and respectful interaction between students.An Obstetrics and Gynecology IPSE for medical and nursing students (NS) was developed in collaboration between a school of medicine and a school of nursing from 2014 to 2017. By 2017, content includedFrom 2014 to 2016, medical students completed attitude, knowledge, and perception surveys both pre and immediately post simulation, at 4 months, and 8 months. In 2017; all students completed self-assessments and received faculty-assessments.The program trained 443 medical and 136 NS. Medical students' knowledge, comfort, and interest increased significantly post simulation. Outcome scores decreased but were still significantly improved at 4 months but nearly dissipated by 8 months. There were no significant differences between medical and NS self-assessment or faculty-assessment scores regarding IUD insertion, cervical examination, or contraception quiz scores. Medical students' birth simulation self-assessment versus faculty-assessment scores were 8.6 vs 8.9, P?<?.001.Simulation improved students' short-term medical knowledge, comfort, and perception with some long-term persistence at 4-8 months. Medical and NS learned obstetrics and gynecology skills in a collaborative environment and in role-specific situations. Medical students had the opportunity to learn from NS. Positive teamwork and respectful interaction occurred between the students.