CCR7 promote lymph node metastasis via regulating VEGF-C/D-R3 pathway in lung adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Lymph node metastasis is still an important issue in metastatic process of lung adenocarcinoma. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) has been proved to be closely associated with the metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, and the mechanism is poorly understood. In order to investigate the relationship between CCR7 and lymph node metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma, and to explore the role of CCR7 in treating lung adenocarcinoma, 40 clinical specimens were collected to define the relationship between CCR7 and lymph node metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma by immunohistochemistry. The siRNA was used to suppress CCR7 expression in A549 cells. The scratch test, transwell test, qRT-PCR, western blot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the lymph node metastasis-related function of CCR7 in vitro. The athymic mice subcutaneous injection was used to research lung adenocarcinoma formation in vivo. Clinical case studies show that higher expression of CCR7 in lung adenocarcinoma tissues was associated with a higher lymph node metastasis. Inhibition of expression of CCR7 can reduce the migration and invasion and suppress the expression of VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGF-R3 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, CCR7 silence also suppressed WNT and p-ERK pathways in vitro. All the results indicate that CCR7 can promote lymph node metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma by regulating VEGF-C/D-R3 pathway. Thus CCR7 is proposed to be a potential prediction for poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma, and a therapeutic target for lymph node metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is difficult to predict lymph node metastasis in patients with early lung cancer. Pure ground glass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography indicates an early-stage adenocarcinoma that can be removed by limited resection or lobectomy without the need for mediastinal lymph node dissection or sampling, and lung adenocarcinoma with GGO therefore has a good prognosis. We examined the incidence and risk factors of lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed clinical data for 327 patients with stage IA peripheral lung cancer treated in our hospital from March 2014 to December 2018. The patients were divided into four groups according to computed tomography signs. Lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection were performed in all patients. Correlations between lymph node metastasis and clinical pathological factors were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS:Among the 327 patients, 26 (7.95%) had lymph node metastasis. No patients with pure GGO or GGO-dominant types had lymph node metastasis. Logistic regression identified tumor diameter, solid content, plasma carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, pathological type, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion as factors related to the presence of lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS:Tumor diameter, solid component ratio, plasma CEA level, pathological type, vascular tumor thrombus, and pleural invasion are possible independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In contrast, lymph node metastasis is rare in patients with pure GGO or GGO-dominant lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is a key mediator of lymphangiogenesis, acting via its receptors VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3. High expression of VEGF-C in tumors correlates with increased lymphatic vessel density, lymphatic vessel invasion, sentinel lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Recently, we found that in a chemically induced skin carcinoma model, increased VEGF-C drainage from the tumor enhanced lymphangiogenesis in the sentinel lymph node and facilitated metastatic spread of cancer cells via the lymphatics. Hence, interference with the VEGF-C/VEGF-R3 axis holds promise to block metastatic spread, as recently shown by use of a neutralizing anti-VEGF-R3 antibody and a soluble VEGF-R3 (VEGF-C/D trap). By antibody phage-display, we have developed a human monoclonal antibody fragment (single-chain Fragment variable, scFv) that binds with high specificity and affinity to the fully processed mature form of human VEGF-C. The scFv binds to an epitope on VEGF-C that is important for receptor binding, since binding of the scFv to VEGF-C dose-dependently inhibits the binding of VEGF-C to VEGF-R2 and VEGF-R3 as shown by BIAcore and ELISA analyses. Interestingly, the variable heavy domain (V(H)) of the anti-VEGF-C scFv, which contains a mutation typical for camelid heavy chain-only antibodies, is sufficient for binding VEGF-C. This reduced the size of the potentially VEGF-C-blocking antibody fragment to only 14.6 kDa. Anti-VEGF-C V(H)-based immunoproteins hold promise to block the lymphangiogenic activity of VEGF-C, which would present a significant advance in inhibiting lymphatic-based metastatic spread of certain cancer types.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the expression levels of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) combined with computed tomography (CT) was associated with lymph node metastasis in bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC). For this purpose, 115 cases of BTCC were analyzed at the Department of Urology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University (Changsha, China). Preoperative CT scans of abdomen and pelvis, immunohistochemistry of CCR7 expression in the tumor specimens and pathological findings for lymph node metastasis were assessed. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CCR7 and CT for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in BTCC were evaluated separately and jointly. The expression levels of CCR7 were observed to be significantly higher in BTCC than in normal controls (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis indicated that the overexpression of CCR7 was an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis in BTCC (P<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CCR7 combined with CT scan for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in BTCC were 92.3, 83.6 and 70.0%, respectively. By contrast, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CCR7 alone were 88.1, 69.9 and 76.5%, respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CT alone were 52.4, 79.5 and 69.6%, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that CCR7 is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis in BTCC. Therefore, the use of CCR7 combined with CT may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in BTCC.
Project description:Background: To investigate the relationship between CXCR4-related circular RNAs (circRNAs) in exosomes and lymph node metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Totally 41 lung adenocarcinoma tissues (21 with lymph node metastasis and 20 without) were collected. Expression of CXCR4 protein was detected by western blotting analysis. A stable PC9/CXCR4-shRNA and PC14/CXCR4-shRNA knockdown lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were established and subjected to functional assays (cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion) for phenotype changes. Exo-hsa-circRNAs (has-circRNAs in exosomes) were detected in vivo and in vitro. The diagnostic value of differentially expressed exo-has-circRNAs was evaluated. Results: Expression levels of CXCR4 were higher in patients with lymph node metastasis than in those without (P = 0.001). Silencing CXCR4 expression in PC9 and PC14 cell lines with short hairpin RNA could effectively abolish colony formation frequency, proliferation rate, migration rate, and the number of invasive cells (all P < 0.001). Exo_circRNA_0056616 was detected in both PC-9/CXCR4-shRNA cells and lung adenocarcinoma plasma at significantly higher levels than in the corresponding control (P < 0.001). When a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for plasma exo-hsa_circRNA_0056616 levels and diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma was generated, a cutoff value of 0.394 was identified with an area under the curve of 0.812 (95% confidence interval 0.720-0.903), a sensitivity of 0.792, and specificity of 0.810. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggested that CXCR4 was higher in the lung adenocarcinoma tissues with lymph node metastasis. Higher plasma levels of exo-hsa_circRNA_0056616 in these patients also suggest that this circRNA represents a potential biomarker for lymph node metastasis predictor in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:PURPOSE:We conducted genome-wide miRNA-sequencing (miRNA-seq) in primary cancer tissue from patients of lung adenocarcinoma to identify markers for the presence of lymph node metastasis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Markers for lymph node metastasis identified by sequencing were validated in a separate cohort using quantitative PCR. After additional validation in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, functional characterization studies were conducted in vitro. RESULTS:MiR-31 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues from patients with lymph node metastases compared with those without lymph node metastases. We confirmed miR-31 to be upregulated in lymph node-positive patients in a separate patient cohort (P = 0.009, t test), and to be expressed at higher levels in adenocarcinoma tissue than in matched normal adjacent lung tissues (P < 0.0001, paired t test). MiR-31 was then validated as a marker for lymph node metastasis in an external validation cohort of 233 lung adenocarcinoma cases of the TCGA (P = 0.031, t test). In vitro functional assays showed that miR-31 increases cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in an ERK1/2 signaling-dependent manner. Notably, miR-31 was a significant predictor of survival in a multivariate cox regression model even when controlling for cancer staging. Exploratory in silico analysis showed that low expression of miR-31 is associated with excellent survival for T2N0 patients. CONCLUSIONS:We applied miRNA-seq to study microRNomes in lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples for the first time and potentially identified a miRNA predicting the presence of lymph node metastasis and survival outcomes in patients of lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Metastasis is still a major issue in cancer, and the discovery of biomarkers predicting metastatic capacity is essential for the development of better therapeutic strategies for treating lung adenocarcinoma. By using a proteomic approach, we aimed to identify novel predictors for lymph node metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma. Two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed 6 spots differentially expressed between lymph node metastasis-positive and lymph node metastasis-negative groups in a discovery set. Subsequent mass spectrometry showed that 2 of these spots were derived from galectin-4, and western blot analysis confirmed the overexpression of galectin-4 in metastatic samples. The predictive value of galectin-4 was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis for a validation set consisting of 707 surgically resected specimens of lung adenocarcinomas (stages I to IV). We observed that 148 lung adenocarcinomas (20.9%) expressed galectin-4, which was significantly associated with variables of disease progression such as tumor size (p<0.0001), pleural invasion (p = 0.0071), venous invasion (p = 0.0178), nodal status (p = 0.0007), and TNM stage (p<0.0001). By the multivariate analysis, Galectin-4 expression was revealed as one of the independent predictor for lymph node metastasis, together with solid predominant and micropapillary histologic pattern. Furthermore, galectin-4 expression was revealed to be an independent predictor for lymph node metastasis and an adverse survival factor in patients with lung adenocarcinoma of acinar predominant type. Galectin-4 plays an important role in metastatic process of lung adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical testing for galectin-4 expression may be useful together with the detection of specific histology to predict the metastatic potential of lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Some previous studies have reported that the chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) plays a role in breast cancer, is associated with lymph node metastasis and drives the site of distant metastasis. However, the impact of its expression on patient outcome and its association with tumour infiltrating inflammatory cells remain to be validated. We evaluated CCR7 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in a large well characterized cohort (<i>n</i>?=?866) of early invasive primary breast cancers. CCR7 was expressed in the cytoplasm and membrane of tumour cells. We observed a weak positive association of high CCR7 expression when in either cellular component, but not both together, with axillary lymph node stage 3 tumours (<i>p</i>?=?0.043). Logistic regression analysis of lymph node stage revealed no independent predictive value for CCR7 expression. CCR7 expression was higher in HER2 positive tumours (<i>p</i>?=?0.03) and associated with positive CD68+ FOXP3+ tumour infiltrating cells. CCR7 staining was negatively associated with CD3+ cells. There was no significant association of CCR7 expression with breast cancer recurrence or survival. We conclude that while CCR7 is not a useful biomarker for predicting lymph node metastasis, it may reflect altered intra- and inter-cellular signalling related to the immune microenvironment. The subcellular localization of CCR7 appears to affect the nature of these interactions.
Project description:Lymph nodes are initial sites of tumor metastasis, yet whether the lymph node microenvironment actively promotes tumor metastasis remains unknown. We show here that VEGF-C/PI3K?-driven remodeling of lymph nodes promotes tumor metastasis by activating integrin ?4?1 on lymph node lymphatic endothelium. Activated integrin ?4?1 promotes expansion of the lymphatic endothelium in lymph nodes and serves as an adhesive ligand that captures vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1)(+) metastatic tumor cells, thereby promoting lymph node metastasis. Experimental induction of ?4?1 expression in lymph nodes is sufficient to promote tumor cell adhesion to lymphatic endothelium and lymph node metastasis in vivo, whereas genetic or pharmacological blockade of integrin ?4?1 or VCAM-1 inhibits it. As lymph node metastases accurately predict poor disease outcome, and integrin ?4?1 is a biomarker of lymphatic endothelium in tumor-draining lymph nodes from animals and patients, these results indicate that targeting integrin ?4?1 or VCAM to inhibit the interactions of tumor cells with the lymph node microenvironment may be an effective strategy to suppress tumor metastasis.
Project description:The expression of the CC chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) by cancers, including melanoma, augments lymph node (LN) metastasis, but little is known about its role in lymphangiogenesis and anti-tumor immunity. We injected control B16 murine melanoma cells (pLNCX2-B16) and CCR7-overexpressing B16 cells (CCR7-B16) in murine footpads and compared resulting tumors at the protein and mRNA level using immunostaining, Affymetrix gene microarray and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Although control and CCR7-B16 primary tumors were of similar size, LN metastasis was dramatically enhanced in CCR7-B16 tumors. Microarray analysis of leukocyte-depleted pLNCX2-B16 and CCR7-B16 tumor cell suspensions showed that three major groups of genes linked to interferon (IFN)-? signaling pathways (for example, STAT1, CXCR 9-11, CCL5 and CXCL10, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and MHC II) were downregulated in the CCR7-B16 tumor microenvironment, suggesting activation through CCR7 can downregulate pathways critical for host anti-tumor immunity. In addition, mRNA expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin was upregulated in CCR7-B16 tumors by 3.35-fold versus control tumors. Anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibody staining revealed a three-fold increase in intratumoral CCL21-expressing lymphatic vessels, as well as a two-fold increase in the number of invading tumor cells per lymphatic vessel in CCR7-B16 versus control tumors. Enhanced anti-vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) staining was present in CCR7-B16 versus control tumors, suggesting that VEGF-C may have a role in the CCR7-mediated lymphangiogenesis. In summary, CCR7-B16 tumors show a striking decrease in IFN-?-mediated inflammatory gene expression in contrast to increased expression of VEGF-C, CCL21 and podoplanin by lymphatic vessels. Enhanced lymphangiogenesis may contribute to the dramatic increase in LN metastasis that is observed in the CCR7-expressing tumors.
Project description:The chemokine system has been reported to be utilized and manipulated by tumor cells in order to promote local tumor growth and distant dissemination. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of three chemokine ligand-receptor axes in lung carcinoma tissues. Tumor and healthy normal tissue samples were obtained from 120 lung carcinoma patients following surgical resection. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used in order to identify the protein and messenger (m)RNA expression of chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)12/stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, CXCL8/interleukin (IL)-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)19 and CCL21, and the corresponding chemokine receptors, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR)4, CXCR1, CXCR2 and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor (CCR)7, respectively. The results revealed that compared with the normal lung tissues, lung carcinoma tissues expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of CXCL12/SDF-1, CXCR4, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCR2, CCL19 and CCR7 (P<0.01). In four histological subtypes, adenocarcinoma presented dominant expression of CXCR4, CXCR2, CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL19 (P<0.05). In addition, it was demonstrated that tumor staging was inversely correlated with chemokine receptor CCR7 and CXCR2 mRNA expression as well as positively correlated with CXCL12/SDF-1, CXCL8/IL-8 and CCL19 mRNA levels (P<0.05). Lymph node metastasis presented a positive correlation with CXCR4, CXCR2 and CXCL8/IL-8 expression and a negative correlation with CCL19 and CCR7 expression (P<0.05). Furthermore, vascular invasion was more prevalent in patients with higher expression levels of CXCR4, CCR7 or CCL19 (P<0.01). In conclusion, these data suggested that the ligand-receptor interaction of CXCL8-CXCR2, CXCL12-CXCR4 and CCL19-CCR7 may be involved in the tumorigenesis of lung carcinoma. Higher expression levels of chemokines and lower expression of chemokine receptors indicated poor tumor staging. The CXC chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR2, promoted lymphatic metastasis through the activation of their specific ligands, while CCL19 and its receptor CCR7 had an essential role in hematogenous metastasis of lung carcinoma.