Aquaporin-4 deficiency attenuates acute lesions but aggravates delayed lesions and microgliosis after cryoinjury to mouse brain.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether aquaporin-4 (AQP4) regulates acute lesions, delayed lesions, and the associated microglial activation after cryoinjury to the brain.Brain cryoinjury was applied to AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. At 24 h and on days 7 and 14 after cryoinjury, lesion volume, neuronal loss, and densities of microglia and astrocytes were determined, and their changes were compared between AQP4 KO and wild-type mice.Lesion volume and neuronal loss in AQP4 KO mice were milder at 24 h following cryoinjury, but worsened on days 7 and 14, compared to those in wild-type mice. Besides, microglial density increased more, and astrocyte proliferation and glial scar formation were attenuated on days 7 and 14 in AQP4 KO mice.AQP4 deficiency ameliorates acute lesions, but worsens delayed lesions, perhaps due to the microgliosis in the late phase.
Project description:In mammals, myocardial cell death due to infarction results in scar formation and little regenerative response. In contrast, zebrafish have a high capacity to regenerate the heart after surgical resection of myocardial tissue. However, whether zebrafish can also regenerate lesions caused by cell death has not been tested. Here, we present a simple method for induction of necrotic lesions in the adult zebrafish heart based on cryoinjury. Despite widespread tissue death and loss of cardiomyocytes caused by these lesions, zebrafish display a robust regenerative response, which results in substantial clearing of the necrotic tissue and little scar formation. The cellular mechanisms underlying regeneration appear to be similar to those activated in response to ventricular resection. In particular, the epicardium activates a developmental gene program, proliferates and covers the lesion. Concomitantly, mature uninjured cardiomyocytes become proliferative and invade the lesion. Our injury model will be a useful tool to study the molecular mechanisms of natural heart regeneration in response to necrotic cell death.
Project description:Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein in the brain, plays a critical role in water homeostasis and brain edema. Here, we investigated its role in the inflammatory responses after focal cerebral ischemia.In AQP4-knockout (KO) and wild-type mice, focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 30 min of middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). Ischemic neuronal injury and cellular inflammatory responses, as well as the expression and localization of cysteinyl leukotriene CysLT(2) and CysLT(1) receptors, were determined at 24 and 72 h after MCAO.AQP4-KO mice showed more neuronal loss, more severe microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration, but less astrocyte proliferation in the brain after MCAO than wild-type mice. In addition, the protein levels of both CysLT(1) and CysLT(2) receptors were up-regulated in the ischemic brain, and the up-regulation was more pronounced in AQP4-KO mice. The CysLT(1) and CysLT(2) receptors were primarily localized in neurons, microglia and neutrophils; those localized in microglia and neutrophils were enhanced in AQP4-KO mice.AQP4 may play an inhibitory role in postischemic inflammation.
Project description:Neonatal mouse hearts fully regenerate after ventricular resection similar to adult zebrafish. We established cryoinjury models to determine if different types and varying degrees of severity in cardiac injuries trigger different responses in neonatal mouse hearts. In contrast to ventricular resection, neonatal mouse hearts fail to regenerate and show severe impairment of cardiac function post transmural cryoinjury. However, neonatal hearts fully recover after non-transmural cryoinjury. Interestingly, cardiomyocyte proliferation does not significantly increase in neonatal mouse hearts after cryoinjuries. Epicardial activation and new coronary vessel formation occur after cryoinjury. The profibrotic marker PAI-1 is highly expressed after transmural but not non-transmural cryoinjuries, which may contribute to the differential scarring. Our results suggest that regenerative medicine strategies for heart injuries should vary depending on the nature of the injury.
Project description:To assess, in a surgical biopsy cohort of active demyelinating lesions, the diagnostic utility of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) immunohistochemistry in identifying neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and describe pathologic features that should prompt AQP4 immunohistochemical analysis and AQP4-immunoglobulin G (IgG) serologic testing.This was a neuropathologic cohort study of 20 surgical biopsies (19 patients; 11 cord/9 brain), performed because of diagnostic uncertainty, interpreted as active demyelinating disease and containing 2 or more of the following additional features: tissue vacuolation, granulocytic infiltrates, or astrocyte injury.AQP4 immunoreactivity was lost in 18 biopsies and increased in 2. Immunopathologic features of the AQP4 loss cohort were myelin vacuolation (18), dystrophic astrocytes and granulocytes (17), vascular hyalinization (16), macrophages containing glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive debris (14), and Creutzfeldt-Peters cells (0). All 14 cases with available serum tested positive for AQP4-IgG after biopsy. Diagnosis at last follow-up was NMO/NMOSD (15) and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (1 each relapsing and single). Immunopathologic features of the AQP4 increased cohort were macrophages containing GFAP-positive debris and granulocytes (2), myelin vacuolation (1), dystrophic astrocytes (1), Creutzfeldt-Peters cells (1), and vascular hyalinization (1). Diagnosis at last follow-up was multiple sclerosis (MS) and both tested AQP4-IgG seronegative after biopsy.AQP4 immunohistochemistry with subsequent AQP4-IgG testing has diagnostic utility in identifying cases of NMO/NMOSD. This study highlights the importance of considering NMOSD in the differential diagnosis of tumefactive brain or spinal cord lesions. AQP4-IgG testing may avert biopsy and avoid ineffective therapies if these patients are erroneously treated for MS.
Project description:PURPOSE:Corneal endothelial cell regeneration varies by species, with nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits displaying low and high proliferative capacities, respectively. Recent studies report that topical application of rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors accelerates corneal endothelial wound healing in animal models and human patients with endothelial dysfunction. This study determines the regenerative capacity of canine corneal endothelial cells in vivo and their response to a topical ROCK inhibitor, Y27632, after transcorneal freezing. METHODS:Right eyes of 6 beagles underwent transcorneal freezing; 10 mM ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or vehicle control was applied topically to both eyes at least 4 times daily for 56 days. Endothelial cell density was evaluated by in vivo confocal microscopy, and corneal thickness was measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) and ultrasound pachymetry. RESULTS:Transcorneal freezing induced severe central corneal edema in dogs, with restoration of transparency occurring within 4 weeks. Y27632 significantly decreased corneal thickness by FD-OCT and ultrasound pachymetry in the acute phase and significantly increased endothelial cell density at days 28 and 42 post-cryoinjury, suggesting faster restoration of endothelial cell recovery. CONCLUSIONS:Canine corneal endothelial function recovers at a similar rate as NHPs but more slowly than rabbits after cryoinjury. Faster corneal endothelial wound healing was observed by in vivo confocal microscopy and FD-OCT in dogs treated with Y27632 versus vehicle controls. Thus, a canine cryoinjury model may be a useful alternative to NHPs in detecting a response to therapies directed at endothelial regeneration.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In humans, myocardial infarction is characterized by irreversible loss of heart tissue, which becomes replaced with a fibrous scar. By contrast, teleost fish and urodele amphibians are capable of heart regeneration after a partial amputation. However, due to the lack of a suitable infarct model, it is not known how these animals respond to myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Here, we have established a heart infarct model in zebrafish using cryoinjury. In contrast to the common method of partial resection, cryoinjury results in massive cell death within 20% of the ventricular wall, similar to that observed in mammalian infarcts. As in mammals, the initial stages of the injury response include thrombosis, accumulation of fibroblasts and collagen deposition. However, at later stages, cardiac cells can enter the cell cycle and invade the infarct area in zebrafish. In the subsequent two months, fibrotic scar tissue is progressively eliminated by cell apoptosis and becomes replaced with a new myocardium, resulting in scarless regeneration. We show that tissue remodeling at the myocardial-infarct border zone is associated with accumulation of Vimentin-positive fibroblasts and with expression of an extracellular matrix protein Tenascin-C. Electrocardiogram analysis demonstrated that the reconstitution of the cardiac muscle leads to the restoration of the heart function. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a new cryoinjury model to induce myocardial infarction in zebrafish. Although the initial stages following cryoinjury resemble typical healing in mammals, the zebrafish heart is capable of structural and functional regeneration. Understanding the key healing processes after myocardial infarction in zebrafish may result in identification of the barriers to efficient cardiac regeneration in mammals.
Project description:The introduction of injury models for neonatal mouse hearts has accelerated research on the mechanisms of cardiac regeneration in mammals. However, some existing models, such as apical resection and ligation of the left anterior descending artery, produce variable results, which may be due to technical difficulties associated with these methods. Here we present an alternative model for the study of cardiac regeneration in neonatal mice in which cryoinjury is used to induce heart injury. This model yields a reproducible injury size, does not induce known mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and leads to a sustained reduction of cardiac function. This protocol uses reusable cryoprobes that can be assembled in 5 min, with the entire procedure taking 15 min per pup. The subsequent heart collection and fixation takes 2 d to complete. Cryoinjury results in a myocardial scar, and the size of injury can be scaled by the use of different cryoprobes (0.5 and 1.5 mm). Cryoinjury models are medically relevant to diseases in human infants with heart disease. In summary, the myocardial cryoinjury model in neonatal mice described here is a useful tool for cardiac translational and regeneration research.
Project description:To characterize the neuropathologic features of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) at the medullary floor of the fourth ventricle and area postrema. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity targets this region, resulting in intractable nausea associated with vomiting or hiccups in NMO.This neuropathologic study was performed on archival brainstem tissue from 15 patients with NMO, 5 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and 8 neurologically normal subjects. Logistic regression was used to evaluate whether the presence of lesions at this level increased the odds of a patient with NMO having an episode of nausea/vomiting.Six patients with NMO (40%), but no patients with MS or normal controls, exhibited unilateral or bilateral lesions involving the area postrema and the medullary floor of the fourth ventricle. These lesions were characterized by tissue rarefaction, blood vessel thickening, no obvious neuronal or axonal pathology, and preservation of myelin in the subependymal medullary tegmentum. AQP4 immunoreactivity was lost or markedly reduced in all 6 cases, with moderate to marked perivascular and parenchymal lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrates, prominent microglial activation, and in 3 cases, eosinophils. Complement deposition in astrocytes, macrophages, and/or perivascularly, and a prominent astroglial reaction were also present. The odds of nausea/vomiting being documented clinically was 16-fold greater in NMO cases with area postrema lesions (95% confidence interval 1.43-437, p = 0.02).These neuropathologic findings suggest the area postrema may be a selective target of the disease process in NMO, and are compatible with clinical reports of nausea and vomiting preceding episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis or being the heralding symptom of NMO.
Project description:Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage.
Project description:There are reports that astrocyte perivascular endfeet are damaged in some cases of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was designed to determine the origin and outcome of astrocyte damage in acute, resolving, and inactive plaques. Ten acute plaques from 10 early MS cases and 14 plaques of differing histological age from 9 subacute and chronic cases were examined immunohistochemically. Also examined were nonnecrotic early lesions in 3 patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Plaques from 3 MS cases were examined electron microscopically. The edge zones in each of the 10 acute MS lesions revealed a complete loss of astrocyte cell bodies and their pericapillary, perineuronal, and perivascular foot processes. Dendrophagocytosis of degenerate astrocytes was observed. Astrocyte precursors, similar to those that replace destroyed astrocytes in nonnecrotic NMO lesions, were present in areas depleted of astrocytes. Resolving plaques were repopulated initially by stellate astrocytes that stained negatively for the water channel molecule aquaporin4 (AQP4). In older lesions, astrocytes were predominantly AQP4-positive. Loss and recovery of astrocytes in new MS lesions may be as important as myelin loss as a cause of conduction block responsible for symptoms in patients with relapsing and remitting and secondary progressive MS.