Oral microbial profiles of individuals with different levels of sugar intake.
ABSTRACT: The aim was to compare the oral microbial profiles in young adults with an intake of free sugars above or below the current recommendations by the WHO for sugar consumption. Seventy subjects completed a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to establish the proportion of free sugars in relation to the total energy intake (% E). Subjects with <5% E (n = 30) formed the low-sugar group, while those with ?5% E (n = 40) were regarded as reference group. Saliva and plaque samples were analyzed by qPCR, and 52 of the plaque samples were assayed by HOMINGS. The HOMINGS analysis revealed a comparable core microbiota in plaque samples with Streptococcus, Leptotrichia, Actinobaculum, and Veillonella as predominant. No major differences between groups were revealed by ?-diversity testing (p = 0.83), principal component analysis, or correspondence analysis. Higher relative abundance of Streptococcus sobrinus and Prevotella melaninogenica was observed in plaque samples in the reference group. By qPCR, Scardovia wiggsiae was associated with elevated sugar intake. The findings suggests that the amount of ingested sugars had a marginal influence on microbial profiles in dental plaque and saliva. However, some caries-associated species were less abundant in the dental plaque of the low sugar group.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Molecular taxonomic assignments in oral microbial communities have been made using probe-matching approaches, but never compared to those obtained by more readily accepted tree-based approaches. <b>Objective: </b> To compare community composition profiles obtained from a probe-matching approach (HOMI<i>NGS</i>) to those from a closed-ended tree-based approach (QIIME using the eHOMD database). <b>Design: </b> HOMI<i>NGS </i>and QIIME were used for parallel analysis of ten mock community samples, and of 119 supragingival plaque samples from ecologically unique sites (sound tooth surfaces in healthy subjects, sound tooth surfaces in patients with primary Sjögren's Syndrome, and carious lesions in Sjögren's Syndrome patients). Linear discriminant analysis Effective Size (LEfSe) was used to identify discriminating taxa among the natural plaque samples. <b>Results:</b> Community composition profiles of all samples were congruent between the two analysis aproaches. Alpha and beta diversity of the natural plaque communities were likewise similar. Communities from pSS patients and those from individuals with normal salivary flow differed in alpha and beta diversity. Both classification approaches yielded differences in composition predicted for samples from these subject cohorts, and discriminating taxa were similar between approaches. <b>Conclusions:</b> A direct comparison demonstrates that HOMI<i>NGS</i> is largely equivalent to the tree-based approach as implemented here.
Project description:Carbohydrate availability shifts when bacteria attach to a surface and form biofilm. When salivary planktonic bacteria form an oral biofilm, a variety of polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the primary carbon sources; however, simple sugar availabilities are limited due to low diffusion from saliva to biofilm. We hypothesized that bacterial glycoside hydrolase (GH) activities would be higher in a biofilm than in saliva in order to maintain metabolism in a low-sugar, high-glycoprotein environment. Salivary bacteria from 13 healthy individuals were used to grow in vitro biofilm using two separate media, one with sucrose and the other limiting carbon sources to a complex carbohydrate. All six GHs measured were higher in vitro when grown in the medium with complex carbohydrate as the sole carbon source. We then collected saliva and overnight dental plaque samples from the same individuals and measured ex vivo activities for the same six enzymes to determine how oral microbial utilization of glycoconjugates shifts between the planktonic phase in saliva and the biofilm phase in overnight dental plaque. Overall higher GH activities were observed in plaque samples, in agreement with in vitro observation. A similar pattern was observed in GH activity profiles between in vitro and ex vivo data. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that plaque samples had a higher abundance of microorganisms with larger number of GH gene sequences. These results suggest differences in sugar catabolism between the oral bacteria located in the biofilm and those in saliva.
Project description:Dental caries is the most prevalent infection globally and a substantial economic burden in developed countries. Dietary sugars are the main risk factor, and drive increased proportions of acid-producing and acid-tolerating (aciduric) bacterial species within dental biofilms. Recent longitudinal studies have suggested that caries is most strongly correlated with total sugar intake, contrasting with the prevailing view that intake frequency is the primary determinant. To explore this possibility, we employed a computational model for supragingival plaque to systematically sample combinations of sugar frequency and total amount, allowing their independent contributions on the ratio of aciduric (i.e. cariogenic) to non-aciduric bacteria to be unambiguously determined. Sugar frequency was found to be irrelevant for either very high or very low daily total amounts as the simulated biofilm was predicted to be always or never cariogenic, respectively. Frequency was a determining factor for intermediate total amounts of sugar, including the estimated average human consumption. An increased risk of caries (i.e. high prevalence of aciduric/non-aciduric species) was predicted for high intake frequencies. Thus, both total amount and frequency of sugar intake may combine to influence plaque cariogenicity. These findings could be employed to support public guidance for dietary change, leading to improved oral healthcare.
Project description:The oral cavity harbours a complex microbiome that is linked to dental diseases and serves as a route to other parts of the body. Here, the aims were to characterize the oral microbiota by deep sequencing in a low-caries population with regular dental care since childhood and search for association with caries prevalence and incidence. Saliva and tooth biofilm from 17-year-olds and mock bacteria communities were analysed using 16S rDNA Illumina MiSeq (v3-v4) and PacBio SMRT (v1-v8) sequencing including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at 17 and 19 years of age. Both sequencing platforms revealed that Firmicutes dominated in the saliva, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances were similar in tooth biofilm. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected from caries-free adolescents, with enumeration of Scardovia wiggsiae, Streptococcus mutans, Bifidobacterium longum, Leptotrichia sp. HOT498, and Selenomonas spp. in caries-affected participants. Adolescents with B. longum in saliva had significantly higher 2-year caries increment. PacBio SMRT revealed Corynebacterium matruchotii as the most prevalent species in tooth biofilm. In conclusion, both sequencing methods were reliable and valid for oral samples, and saliva microbiota was associated with cross-sectional caries prevalence, especially S. wiggsiae, S. mutans, and B. longum; the latter also with the 2-year caries incidence.
Project description:Dental caries are one of the chronic diseases caused by organic acids made from oral microbes. However, there was a lack of knowledge about the oral microbiome of Korean children. The aim of this study was to analyze the metagenome data of the oral microbiome obtained from Korean children and to discover bacteria highly related to dental caries with machine learning models. Saliva and plaque samples from 120 Korean children aged below 12 years were collected. Bacterial composition was identified using Illumina HiSeq sequencing based on the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Ten major genera accounted for approximately 70% of the samples on average, including <i>Streptococcus</i>, <i>Neisseria</i>, <i>Corynebacterium</i>, and <i>Fusobacterium</i>. Differential abundant analyses revealed that <i>Scardovia wiggsiae</i> and <i>Leptotrichia wadei</i> were enriched in the caries samples, while <i>Neisseria oralis</i> was abundant in the non-caries samples of children aged below 6 years. The caries and non-caries samples of children aged 6-12 years were enriched in <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> and <i>Corynebacterium durum</i>, respectively. The machine learning models based on these differentially enriched taxa showed accuracies of up to 83%. These results confirmed significant alterations in the oral microbiome according to dental caries and age, and these differences can be used as diagnostic biomarkers.
Project description:Non-cariogenic sweet substances, like sugar alcohols, are used to decrease the risk of caries by reducing the growth of dental plaque. The aim of our study was to reveal the impact of xylitol and erythritol on the growth and biofilm formation of cariogenic bacteria including as a novelty, set of clinical mutans streptococci and Scardovia wiggsiae and to assess the possible synergistic influence of these polyols. We found both xylitol and erythritol to express high growth inhibition effect on cariogenic bacteria. In synergistic effect experiments, 10% polyol combination with excess of erythritol was found to be more effective against growth of Streptococcus mutans and the combination with excess of xylitol more effective against growth of Streptococcus sobrinus and S. wiggsiae. In biofilm inhibition experiments, solutions of 10% polyols in different combinations and 15% single polyols were equally effective against mutans streptococci. At the same time, higher biofilm formation of S. wiggsiae compared to experiments without polyols was detected in different polyol concentrations for up to 34%. In conclusion, both erythritol and xylitol as well as their combinations inhibit the growth of different cariogenic bacteria. Biofilm formation of mutans streptococci is also strongly inhibited. When applying polyols in caries prophylaxis, it is relevant to consider that the profile of pathogens in a particular patient may influence the effect of polyols used.
Project description:Bacterial urease activity in dental plaque and in saliva generates ammonia, which can increase the plaque pH and can protect acid-sensitive oral bacteria. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate ammonia from urea in dental plaque can be an important caries risk factor. In spite of this proposed important clinical role, there is currently no information available regarding important clinical aspects of oral ureolysis in children.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pattern of urease activity in the dental plaque and in the saliva of children during a three-year period, and to examine the relationship of urease with some important caries risk factors.A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measures over a three-year period on a panel of 80 children, aged 3-6 years at recruitment. The dynamics of change in urease activity were described and associated with clinical, biological, and behavioural caries risk factors.Urease activity in plaque showed a trend to remain stable during the study period and was negatively associated with sugar consumption (P<0.05). Urease activity in unstimulated saliva increased with age, and it was positively associated with the levels of mutans streptococci in saliva and with the educational level of the parents (P<0.05).The results of this study reveal interesting and complex interactions between oral urease activity and some important caries risk factors. Urease activity in saliva could be an indicator of mutans infection in children.
Project description:AIM:The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and diagnostic contribution of protein profiling using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applied to saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and dental plaque from periodontitis and healthy subjects. We hypothesized that rapid routine and blinded MALDI-TOF analysis could accurately classify these three types of samples according to periodontal state. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Unstimulated saliva, GCF and dental plaque, collected from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Based on the differentially expressed peaks between the two groups, diagnostic decision trees were built for each sample. RESULTS:Among 141 patients (67 periodontitis and 74 healthy controls), the decision trees diagnosed periodontitis with a sensitivity = 70.3% (± 0.211) and a specificity = 77.8% (± 0.165) for saliva, a sensitivity = 79.6% (± 0.188) and a specificity = 75.7% (± 0.195) for GCF, and a sensitivity = 72.1% (± 0.202) and a specificity = 72.2% (± 0.195) for dental plaque. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were improved to 100% (CI 95% = [0.91;1]) and 100% (CI 95% = [0.92;1]), respectively, when two samples were tested. CONCLUSION:We developed, for the first time, diagnostic tests based on protein profiles of saliva, GCF and dental plaque between periodontitis patients and healthy subjects. When at least 2 of these samples were tested, the best results were obtained.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The aim of this study was to analyze the synergistic relationship between <i>Candida albicans</i> and <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> in children with early childhood caries (ECC) experience. <b>Methods:</b> Dental plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken from 30 subjects aged 3-5 years old, half with (n=15, dmft > 4) and half without (n=15) ECC. The abundance of <i>C. albicans</i> and <i>S. mutans</i> and relative to total bacteria load were quantify by real-time PCR (qPCR). This method was also employed to investigate the mRNA expression of glycosyltransferase ( <i>gtfB</i>) gene in dental plaque. Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation were used to perform statistical analysis. <b>Results:</b> Within the ECC group, the quantity of both microorganisms were higher in the saliva than in dental plaque. The ratio of <i>C. albicans</i> to total bacteria was higher in saliva than in plaque samples (p < 0.05). We observed the opposite for <i>S. mutans</i> (p < 0.05). The different value of <i>C. albicans</i> and <i>S. mutans</i> in saliva was positively correlated, and negatively correlated in dental plaque. Transcription level of <i>S. mutans gtfB</i> showed a positive correlation with <i>C. albicans</i> concentration in dental plaque. <b>Conclusion:</b> <i>C. albicans</i> has a positive correlation with cariogenic traits of <i>S. mutans</i> in ECC-related biofilm of young children.
Project description:Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate alkali via the urease pathway in dental plaque may be an important caries risk factor, but it has not been assessed prospectively.To evaluate the effect of plaque and saliva urease activity on the risk for developing new caries over a three-year period in children.A panel of 80 children, three to six years of age at recruitment, was followed prospectively for three years. Plaque urease activity, saliva urease activity and dental caries were measured every six months. Survival analysis methodology was used to evaluate the effect of urease on caries development during the study period adjusted for gender, age, baseline caries levels, sugar consumption, amount of plaque, and mutans streptococci levels.The risk for developing new caries increased in a dose-responsive manner with increasing levels of urease activity in saliva (adjusted HR(Q4 vs. Q1): 4.98; 95% CI: 1.33, 18.69) and with decreasing urease activity in plaque (adjusted HR(Q4 vs. Q1): 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.76). Multiple measurements of urease activity were conducted to overcome the variability of urease activity in this study. Baseline caries and mutans streptococci in saliva were also important predictors of caries risk.Increased urease activity in saliva can be an indicator of increased caries risk in children, whilst increased urease activity in plaque may be associated with reduced caries risk. The reproducibility of urease measurements must be improved before these findings can be further tested and clinically applied.