A General Chemoenzymatic Strategy for the Synthesis of Glycosphingolipids.
ABSTRACT: A concise, prototypical, and stereoselective strategy for the synthesis of therapeutically and immunologically significant glycosphingolipids has been developed. This strategy provides a universal platform for glycosphingolipid synthesis by block coupling of enzymatically prepared free oligosaccharideglycans to lipids using glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates as efficient activated intermediates. As demonstrated here, two different types of glycosphingolipids were obtained in excellent yields using the method.
Project description:The effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of neutral glycosphingolipids extracted from metacestodes of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated. Neutral glycosphingolipids inhibited [3H]thymidine uptake by human PBMCs upon stimulation by mitogens such as phytohemagglutinin A and pokeweed mitogen or by allogeneic Burkitt B cells. This effect was dose dependent and was related to a decrease in interleukin 2 (IL-2) synthesis, the expression of IL-2 receptors (CD25) being unmodified. Addition of exogenous recombinant IL-2 restored the cell proliferation. Partial inhibition of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM synthesis was observed in the supernatant of cell culture in association with the inhibitory effect. Identification of active subfractions contained in the neutral glycosphingolipid fraction was also studied in relation to cell viability. The free ceramide fraction had an inhibitory effect, in part related to cell lysis, particularly at high concentration, while the monogalactosylceramides had a paradoxical effect: as an activator at low concentrations and as an inhibitor at high concentrations, with limited cell survival. The immunogenic neutral glycosphingolipids containing at least two carbohydrate residues, all having a structure based on Gal beta 1-->6Gal, were inhibitors of PBMC proliferation and showed good cell survival. These results suggest that parasite neutral glycosphingolipids may play an immunologically relevant role in alveolar hydatid disease.
Project description:A synthesis of glycosphingolipids that centers on the reaction of O- and C-glycosyl crotylstannanes and relatively simple lipid aldehydes is described. The modularity of this strategy and versatility of the crotylation products make this an attractive approach to diverse, highly substituted libraries. The methodology is applied to analogues of the potent imunostimulatory glycolipid KRN7000, including O-, methylene-, and fluoromethine-linked isosteres with diastereomeric ceramide segments and 2-amido substitutes.
Project description:Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway and the formation of neuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chronic neuroinflammation, another hallmark of the disease, is thought to play an important role in the neurodegenerative process. Glycosphingolipids are a well-defined subclass of lipids that regulate crucial aspects of the brain function and recently emerged as potent regulators of the inflammatory process. Deregulation in glycosphingolipid metabolism has been reported in Parkinson's disease. However, the interrelationship between glycosphingolipids and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease is not well known. This review provides a thorough overview of the links between glycosphingolipid metabolism and immune-mediated mechanisms involved in neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease. After a brief presentation of the metabolism and function of glycosphingolipids in the brain, it summarizes the evidences supporting that glycosphingolipids (i.e. glucosylceramides or specific gangliosides) are deregulated in Parkinson's disease. Then, the implications of these deregulations for neuroinflammation, based on data from human inherited lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders and gene-engineered animal studies are outlined. Finally, the key molecular mechanisms by which glycosphingolipids could control neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease are highlighted. These include inflammasome activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered calcium homeostasis, changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of peripheral immune cells or production of autoantibodies.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the major nonepithelial neoplasms of the human gastrointestinal tract with a worldwide incidence between 11 and 15 per million cases annually. In this study the acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids of three GISTs were characterized using a combination of thin-layer chromatography, chemical staining, binding of carbohydrate recognizing ligands, and mass spectrometry. In the non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions of the tumors globotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, and glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A, B, H, Lex, Lea, Ley and Leb determinants were found. The relative amounts of these non-acid compounds were different in the three tumour samples. The acid glycosphingolipid fractions had sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GM1, Neu5Ac?3neolactotetraosylceramide, GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b. In summary, we have characterized the glycosphingolipids of GISTs and found that the pattern differs in tumours from different individuals. This detailed characterization of glycosphingolipid composition of GISTs could contribute to recognition of new molecular targets for GIST treatment and sub-classification.
Project description:The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAc?3Gal?4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Gal?3Gal?3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.
Project description:The glycosphingolipids of normal human lymphocytes from individual donors were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition, purified T- and B-lymphocytes were examined separately. Lactosylceramide was shown to be the major neutral glycosphingolipid in human lymphocytes, and monohexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, globoside and paragloboside were all detected in smaller amounts. Analysis of purified B- and T-cell fractions revealed that each of these populations contained a similar qualitative profile for neutral glycosphingolipids, but that quantitatively, B-cells contained several times more of each glycosphingolipid per cell than did T-cells.
Project description:Recent genetic evidence suggests that aberrant glycosphingolipid metabolism plays an important role in several neuromuscular diseases including hereditary spastic paraplegia, hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1, and non-5q spinal muscular atrophy. Here, we investigated whether altered glycosphingolipid metabolism is a modulator of disease course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Levels of ceramide, glucosylceramide, galactocerebroside, lactosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide, and the gangliosides GM3 and GM1 were significantly elevated in spinal cords of ALS patients. Moreover, enzyme activities (glucocerebrosidase-1, glucocerebrosidase-2, hexosaminidase, galactosylceramidase, ?-galactosidase, and ?-galactosidase) mediating glycosphingolipid hydrolysis were also elevated up to threefold. Increased ceramide, glucosylceramide, GM3, and hexosaminidase activity were also found in SOD1(G93A) mice, a familial model of ALS. Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthesis accelerated disease course in SOD1(G93A) mice, whereas infusion of exogenous GM3 significantly slowed the onset of paralysis and increased survival. Our results suggest that glycosphingolipids are likely important participants in pathogenesis of ALS and merit further analysis as potential drug targets.
Project description:Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide.
Project description:Glycosphingolipids are a diverse family of biologically important glycolipids. In addition to variations on the lipid component, more than 300 glycosphingolipid glycans have been characterized. These glycans are directly involved in various molecular recognition events. Several naturally occurring sialic acid forms have been found in sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, namely gangliosides. However, ganglioside glycans containing less common sialic acid forms are currently not available. Herein, highly effective one-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems are used in sequential for high-yield and cost-effective production of glycosphingolipid glycans, including those containing different sialic acid forms such as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-nononic acid (Kdn), and 8-O-methyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac8OMe). A library of 64 structurally distinct glycosphingolipid glycans belonging to ganglio-series, lacto-/neolacto-series, and globo-/isoglobo-series glycosphingolipid glycans is constructed. These glycans are essential standards and invaluable probes for bioassays and biomedical studies.
Project description:In recent years, obesity has been considered a pathological stage of early lifestyle-related diseases, and adipose tissue and adipocyte research has been active. Glycosphingolipids are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes induced by insulin resistance, but the details of the glycosphingolipid molecular species composition of adipocytes have yet to be elucidated. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the 1,2-dichloroethane-wash method to remove triacylglycerols, which are abundant in adipocytes, and analyzed the structures of glycosphingolipids, particularly neutral glycosphingolipids, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.