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Direct and Systemic Administration of a CNS-Permeant Tamoxifen Analog Reduces Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release and Reinforcing Effects.


ABSTRACT: Amphetamines (AMPHs) are globally abused. With no effective treatment for AMPH addiction to date, there is urgent need for the identification of druggable targets that mediate the reinforcing action of this stimulant class. AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux is modulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Inhibition of PKC reduces AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux and locomotor activity. The only known CNS-permeant PKC inhibitor is the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. In this study, we demonstrate that a tamoxifen analog, 6c, which more potently inhibits PKC than tamoxifen but lacks affinity for the estrogen receptor, reduces AMPH-stimulated increases in extracellular dopamine and reinforcement-related behavior. In rat striatal synaptosomes, 6c was almost fivefold more potent at inhibiting AMPH-stimulated dopamine efflux than [3H]dopamine uptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT). The compound did not compete with [3H]WIN 35,428 binding or affect surface DAT levels. Using microdialysis, direct accumbal administration of 1??M 6c reduced dopamine overflow in freely moving rats. Using LC-MS, we demonstrate that 6c is CNS-permeant. Systemic treatment of rats with 6?mg/kg 6c either simultaneously or 18?h prior to systemic AMPH administration reduced both AMPH-stimulated dopamine overflow and AMPH-induced locomotor effects. Finally, 18?h pretreatment of rats with 6?mg/kg 6c s.c. reduces AMPH-self administration but not food self-administration. These results demonstrate the utility of tamoxifen analogs in reducing AMPH effects on dopamine and reinforcement-related behaviors and suggest a new avenue of development for therapeutics to reduce AMPH abuse.

SUBMITTER: Carpenter C 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5561350 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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