BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is involved in pentylenetetrazole-evoked progression of epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons in anesthetized rats.
ABSTRACT: Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a widely-used convulsant used in studies of epilepsy; its subcutaneous injection generates an animal model with stable seizures. Here, we compared the ability of PTZ via the intravenous and subcutaneous routes to evoke progressive epileptiform activity in the hippocampal CA1 neurons of anesthetized rats. The involvement of the BDNF-TrkB pathway was then investigated. When PTZ was given intravenously, it induced epileptiform bursting activity at a short latency in a dose-dependent manner. However, when PTZ was given subcutaneously, it induced a slowly-developing pattern of epileptogenesis; first, generating multiple population-spike peaks, then spontaneous interictal discharge-like spike, leading to the final ictal discharge-like, highly synchronized bursting fi ring in the CA1 pyramidal layer of the hippocampus. K252a, a TrkB receptor antagonist, when given by intracerebroventricular injection, significantly reduced the probability of multiple population spike peaks induced by subcutaneous injection of PTZ, delayed the latency of spontaneous spikes, and reduced the burst frequency. Our results indicate that PTZ induces a progressive change of neuronal epileptiform activity in the hippocampus, and the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway is mainly involved in the early phases of epileptogenesis, but not the synchronized neuronal burst activity associated with epileptic seizure in the PTZ animal model. These results provide basic insights into the changing pattern of hippocampal neuronal activity during the development of the PTZ seizure model, and establish an in vivo seizure model useful for future electrophysiological studies of epilepsy.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The sodium channel is a primary target for treating central nervous system disorders such as epilepsy. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of BmK IT2, a sodium channel-specific neurotoxin, was evaluated in different animal models of epilepsy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Experiments were performed on freely moving rats made epileptic by administration of either pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or pilocarpine. BmK IT2 (0.05-0.5 microg in 2 microl) was microinjected into the CA1 area and its effects on PTZ-induced widespread, seizure-like behaviour and cortex epileptiform EEG, as well as on pilocarpine-induced seizure-like behaviour and c-Fos expression were studied. KEY RESULTS: Intrahippocampal application of BmK IT2 dose-dependently inhibited PTZ-induced seizure-like behaviour, and reduced the numbers and duration of the high amplitude and frequency discharges (HAFDs) of the epileptiform EEG component induced by PTZ. Similarly, in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model, BmK IT2 significantly prolonged the latency to onset of the SE, reduced the severity of SE and suppressed hippocampal c-Fos expression during SE. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: BmK IT2 showed anticonvulsant activity as it inhibited the widespread seizures induced by PTZ and pilocarpine-induced SE in rats. This activity might be due to the modulation of sodium channels in the hippocampus. Hence, BmK IT2 could be used as a novel tool to explore the molecular and pathological mechanisms of epilepsy with regard to the involvement of sodium channels.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that seizure occurrences at different zeitgeber times alter sleep and circadian rhythm differently. On the other hand, the synchronized delta wave of electroencephalogram (EEG) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep facilitates seizure, while the desynchronized EEG of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suppresses it. We also elucidated that unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) suppresses seizure recurrence. In the present study, we intraperitoneally injected pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 40 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days (PTZ kindling) to induce spontaneous seizure in rats, and a 30-min (delivered 10 min before each PTZ injection) or a 3-h DBS of unilateral ANT (delivered 1 h before each PTZ injection) was applied to suppress seizure. The frequency of DBS stimulation was 200 Hz and the electrical current consisted of biphasic square pulses with 50-?A intensity, 100-?s pulse width, and 4.1-ms stimulation interval. Our results found that PTZ-induced spontaneous seizure did not cause a significant change in the quantity of NREM sleep but suppressed the amount of REM sleep. Unilateral ANT DBS prolonged the onset latency of ictal seizure, decreased the spontaneous seizure duration, and increased the survival rate but did not change the amplitude of epileptiform EEGs during ictal period. Unilateral ANT DBS did not significantly alter NREM sleep but increased the amount of REM sleep. An analysis of the spectrograms of fast Fourier transform indicated that the intensities of all frequencies were enhanced during the PTZ-induced ictal period and the subsequent spontaneous seizure. Thirty minutes of unilateral ANT DBS suppressed the augmentation of low-frequency (<10 Hz) intensities during the spontaneous seizure induced by PTZ kindling. We further found that consecutive injections of PTZ progressively increased the enhancement of the delta powers during NREM sleep, whereas unilateral ANT DBS inhibited this progressive enhancement. It was also noticed that 30 min of ANT DBS exhibited a better efficacy in epilepsy suppression than 3 h of ANT DBS. These results elucidated that unilateral ANT DBS enhanced the seizure threshold by increasing the amount of REM sleep and decreasing the progressive enhancement of delta power during NREM sleep to suppress spontaneous seizure recurrences in PTZ kindling-induced epileptic rats.
Project description:Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) usually develops in a small percentage of patients of traumatic brain injury after a varying latent period. Modeling this chronic neurological condition in rodents is time consuming and inefficient, which constitutes a significant obstacle in studying its mechanism and discovering novel therapeutics for its prevention and treatment. Partially isolated neocortex, or undercut, is known to induce cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity in vitro, and has been used extensively for studying the neurophysiological mechanism of posttraumatic epileptogenesis. However, whether the undercut lesion in rodents causes chronic epileptic seizures has not been systematically characterized. Here we used a miniature telemetry system to continuously monitor electroencephalography (EEG) in adult C57BL mice for up to 3 months after undercut surgery. We found that 50% of animals developed spontaneous seizures between 16-50 days after injury. The mean seizure duration was 8.9±3.6 seconds, and the average seizure frequency was 0.17±0.17 times per day. There was no progression in seizure frequency and duration over the recording period. Video monitoring revealed behavioral arrests and clonic limb movement during seizure attacks. A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) test further showed increased seizure susceptibility in the undercut mice. We conclude that undercut lesion in mice is a model of chronic PTE that involves spontaneous epileptic seizures.
Project description:GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition depends on the maintenance of low level intracellular [Cl-] concentration, which in adult depends on neuron specific K+-Cl- cotransporter-2 (KCC2). Previous studies have shown that KCC2 was downregulated in both epileptic patients and various epileptic animal models. However, the temporal relationship between KCC2 downregulation and seizure induction is unclear yet. In this study, we explored the temporal relationship and the influence of KCC2 downregulation on seizure induction. Significant downregulation of plasma membrane KCC2 was directly associated with severe (Racine Score III and above) behavioral seizures in vivo, and occurred before epileptiform bursting activities in vitro induced by convulsant. Overexpression of KCC2 using KCC2 plasmid effectively enhanced resistance to convulsant-induced epileptiform bursting activities in vitro. Furthermore, suppression of membrane KCC2 expression, using shRNAKCC2 plasmid in vitro and shRNAKCC2 containing lentivirus in vivo, induced spontaneous epileptiform bursting activities in vitro and Racine III seizure behaviors accompanied by epileptic EEG in vivo. Our findings novelly demonstrated that altered expression of KCC2 is not the consequence of seizure occurrence but likely is the contributing factor.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms of limbic epileptogenesis in cellular and molecular terms may provide novel therapeutic targets for its prevention. The neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) is thought to be critical for limbic epileptogenesis. Enhanced activation of TrkB, revealed by immunodetection of enhanced phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB), a surrogate measure of its activation, has been identified within the hippocampus in multiple animal models. Knowledge of the cellular locale of activated TrkB is necessary to elucidate its functional consequences. Using an antibody selective to pTrkB in conjunction with confocal microscopy and cellular markers, we determined the cellular and subcellular locale of enhanced pTrkB induced by status epilepticus (SE) evoked by infusion of kainic acid into the amygdala of adult mice. SE induced enhanced pTrkB immunoreactivity in two distinct populations of principal neurons within the hippocampus-the dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced immunoreactivity within granule cells was found within mossy fiber axons and giant synaptic boutons. By contrast, enhanced immunoreactivity was found within apical dendritic shafts and spines of CA1 pyramidal cells. A common feature of this enhanced pTrkB at these cellular locales is its localization to excitatory synapses between excitatory neurons, presynaptically in the granule cells and postsynaptically in CA1 pyramidal cells. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is one cellular consequence of TrkB activation at these excitatory synapses that may promote epileptogenesis.
Project description:In our recent studies, we identified compound N-benzyl-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)propanamide (AS-1) as a broad-spectrum hybrid anticonvulsant which showed potent protection across the most important animal acute seizure models such as the maximal electroshock (MES) test, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (s.c. PTZ) test, and the 6-Hz (32 mA) test in mice. Therefore, AS-1 may be recognized as a candidate for new anticonvulsant effective in different types of human epilepsy with a favorable safety margin profile determined in the rotarod test in mice. In the aim of further pharmacological evaluation of AS-1, in the current study, we examined its activity in the 6-Hz (44 mA) test, which is known as the model of drug-resistant epilepsy. Furthermore, we determined also the antiseizure activity in the kindling model of epilepsy induced by repeated injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in mice. As a result, AS-1 revealed relatively potent protection in the 6-Hz (44 mA) test, as well as delayed the progression of kindling induced by repeated injection of PTZ in mice at doses of 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, and 60 mg/kg. Importantly, the isobolographic analysis showed that a combination of AS-1 and valproic acid (VPA) at the fixed ratio of 1:1 displayed a supra-additive (synergistic) interaction against PTZ-induced seizures in mice. Thus, AS-1 may be potentially used in an add-on therapy with VPA. Moreover, incubation of zebrafish larvae with AS-1 substantially decreased the number, cumulative but not the mean duration of epileptiform-like events in electroencephalographic assay. Finally, the in vitro ADME-Tox studies revealed that AS-1 is characterized by a very good permeability in the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay test, excellent metabolic stability on human liver microsomes (HLMs), no significant influence on CYP3A4/CYP2D6 activity, and moderate inhibition of CYP2C9 in a concentration of 10 μM, as well as no hepatotoxic properties in HepG2 cells (concentration of 10 μM).
Project description:Neonatal seizures are harmful to the developing brain and are associated with mortality and long-term neurological comorbidities. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) seizures represent a significant proportion of such seizures. Phenobarbital (PB) remains the first line anti-seizure drug (ASD) treatment but fails ~50% of the time. Translational models of neonatal seizures are crucial to investigating mechanisms underlying PB-resistance. A model of PB-resistant ischemic seizures in postnatal day 7 (P7) CD-1 mice reported K-Cl cotransporter 2 (KCC2) degradation that has been shown to be due to activation of the TrkB pathway. We investigated PB-efficacy in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model of neonatal seizures in the same strain and age using identical treatment protocols to gain insights into mechanisms underlying PB-resistance. A single dose of PTZ (80 mg/kg; IP) consistently induced repetitive seizures that did not progress to status epilepticus (SE). PB (25 mg/kg; IP, single dose) significantly suppressed the PTZ-induced seizures. This was associated with significant KCC2 upregulation and stable Na-K-Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) expression at 24h. The TrkB pathway was not activated. PTZ seizure burdens were significantly higher than those reported for ischemic seizures, indicating seizure severity did not dictate the differences in PB-efficacy. Bumetanide (BTN) (0.1-0.2 mg/kg; IP) did not work as an anti-seizure agent, similar to the ischemic model. When investigating mechanisms underlying the emergence of PB-resistance in translational models, the method by which seizures are induced may dictate mechanisms underlying emergence of PB-resistance.
Project description:Ripples (80-150 Hz) recorded from clinical macroelectrodes have been shown to be an accurate biomarker of epileptogenic brain tissue. We investigated coupling between epileptiform spike phase and ripple amplitude to better understand the mechanisms that generate this type of pathologic ripple (pRipple) event.We quantified phase amplitude coupling (PAC) between epileptiform electroencephalography (EEG) spike phase and ripple amplitude recorded from intracranial depth macroelectrodes during episodes of sleep in 12 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PAC was determined by (1) a phasor transform that corresponds to the strength and rate of ripples coupled with spikes, and a (2) ripple-triggered average to measure the strength, morphology, and spectral frequency of the modulating and modulated signals. Coupling strength was evaluated in relation to recording sites within and outside the seizure-onset zone (SOZ).Both the phasor transform and ripple-triggered averaging methods showed that ripple amplitude was often robustly coupled with epileptiform EEG spike phase. Coupling was found more regularly inside than outside the SOZ, and coupling strength correlated with the likelihood a macroelectrode's location was within the SOZ (p < 0.01). The ratio of the rate of ripples coupled with EEG spikes inside the SOZ to rates of coupled ripples in non-SOZ was greater than the ratio of rates of ripples on spikes detected irrespective of coupling (p < 0.05). Coupling strength correlated with an increase in mean normalized ripple amplitude (p < 0.01), and a decrease in mean ripple spectral frequency (p < 0.05).Generation of low-frequency (80-150 Hz) pRipples in the SOZ involves coupling between epileptiform spike phase and ripple amplitude. The changes in excitability reflected as epileptiform spikes may also cause clusters of pathologically interconnected bursting neurons to grow and synchronize into aberrantly large neuronal assemblies.
Project description:BDNF-TrkB signaling is implicated in experimental seizures and epilepsy. However, the downstream signaling involved in the epileptiform activity caused by TrkB receptor activation is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether TrkB-mediated N-Shc signal transduction was involved in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptiform activity. We investigated KA-induced behavioral seizures, epileptiform activities and neuronal cell loss in hippocampus between N-Shc deficient and control mice. There was a significant reduction in seizure severity and the frequency of epileptiform discharges in N-Shc deficient mice, as compared with wild-type and C57BL/6 mice. KA-induced neuronal cell loss in the CA3 of hippocampus was also inhibited in N-Shc deficient mice. This study demonstrates that the activation of N-Shc signaling pathway contributes to an acute KA-induced epileptiform activity and neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. We propose that the N-Shc-mediated signaling pathway could provide a potential target for the novel therapeutic approaches of epilepsy.
Project description:Epilepsy is a common disorder of the brain characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, which develop gradually during a process called epileptogenesis. The mechanistic processes underlying the changes of brain tissue and networks toward increased seizure susceptibility are not fully understood. In rodents, injection of kainic acid (KA) ultimately leads to the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures, reflecting similar neuropathological characteristics as seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although this model has significantly contributed to increased knowledge of epileptogenesis, it is technically demanding, costly to operate and hence not suitable for high-throughput screening of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Zebrafish, a vertebrate with complementary advantages to rodents, is an established animal model for epilepsy research. Here, we generated a novel KA-induced epilepsy model in zebrafish larvae that we functionally and pharmacologically validated. KA was administered by pericardial injection at an early zebrafish larval stage. The epileptic phenotype induced was examined by quantification of seizure-like behavior using automated video recording, and of epileptiform brain activity measured via local field potential (LFP) recordings. We also assessed GFP-labeled GABAergic and RFP-labeled glutamatergic neurons in double transgenic KA-injected zebrafish larvae, and examined the GABA and glutamate levels in the larval heads by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS). Finally, KA-injected larvae were exposed to five commonly used AEDs by immersion for pharmacological characterization of the model. Shortly after injection, KA induced a massive damage and inflammation in the zebrafish brain and seizure-like locomotor behavior. An abnormal reorganization of brain circuits was observed, a decrease in both GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal population and their associated neurotransmitters. Importantly, these changes were accompanied by spontaneous and continuous epileptiform brain discharges starting after a short latency period, as seen in KA rodent models and reminiscent of human pathology. Three out of five AEDs tested rescued LFP abnormalities but did not affect the seizure-like behavior. Taken together, for the first time we describe a chemically-induced larval zebrafish epilepsy model offering unique insights into studying epileptogenic processes in vivo and suitable for high-throughput AED screening purposes and rapid genetic investigations.