GADD45A plays a protective role against temozolomide treatment in glioblastoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ. Notably, GADD45A was found to be up-regulated by TMZ in both cell cycle and apoptosis arrays. Furthermore, GADD45A knockdown (GADD45Akd) enhanced the cell growth arrest and cell death induced by TMZ, even in natural (T98) and adapted (TR-U373) TMZ-resistant cells. Interestingly, GADD45Akd decreased the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in TMZ-resistant cells (T98 and TR-U373). In MGMT-deficient/TMZ-sensitive cells (U87 and U373), GADD45Akd decreased TMZ-induced TP53 expression. Thus, in this study, we investigated the genes influenced by TMZ that were important in GBM therapy, and revealed that GADD45A plays a protective role against TMZ treatment which may through TP53-dependent and MGMT-dependent pathway in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM, respectively. This protective role of GADD45A against TMZ treatment may provide a new therapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.
Project description:Alterations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene occur in ~30% of primary glioblastoma (GBM) with a high frequency of missense mutations associated with the acquisition of oncogenic "gain-of-function" (GOF) mutant (mut)p53 activities. PRIMA-1MET/APR-246, emerged as a promising compound to rescue wild-type (wt)p53 function in different cancer types. Previous studies suggested the role of wtp53 in the negative regulation of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a major determinant in resistance to therapy in GBM treatment. The potential role of MGMT in expression of p53 and the efficacy of PRIMA-1MET with respect to TP53 status and expression of MGMT in GBM remain unknown. We investigated response to PRIMA-1MET of wtp53/MGMT-negative (U87MG, A172), mutp53/MGMT-positive U138, LN-18, T98/Empty vector (T98/EV) and its isogenic MGMT/shRNA gene knockdown counterpart (T98/shRNA). We show that MGMT silencing decreased expression of mutp53/GOF in T98/shRNA. PRIMA-1MET further cleared T98/shRNA cells of mutp53, decreased proliferation and clonogenic potential, abrogated the G2 checkpoint control, increased susceptibility to apoptotic cell death, expression of GADD45A and sustained expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2. PRIMA-1MET increased expression of p21 protein in U87MG and A172 and promoted senescence in U87MG cell line. Importantly, PRIMA-1MET decreased relative cell numbers, disrupted the structure of neurospheres of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and enabled activation of wtp53 with decreased expression of MGMT in MGMT-positive GSCs or decreased expression of mutp53. Our findings highlight the cell-context dependent effects of PRIMA-1MET irrespective of p53 status and suggest the role of MGMT as a potential molecular target of PRIMA-1MET in MGMT-positive GSCs.
Project description:Overcoming temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in glioma cancer cells remains a major challenge to the effective treatment of the disease. Increasing TMZ efficacy for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is urgently needed because TMZ treatment is the standard chemotherapy protocol for adult patients with glioblastoma. O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) overexpression is associated with TMZ resistance, and low MGMT is a positive response marker for TMZ therapy. Here, we used 3 glioma cell lines (SF767, U373, and LN229), which had different levels of TMZ sensitivity. We found TMZ sensitivity is positively correlated with MGMT expression and multidrug-resistance protein ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) in these cells. CK2-STAT3 signaling and Hippo-YAP signaling are reported to regulate MGMT expression and ABCG2 expression, respectively. We combined CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 and YAP inhibitor verteporfin with TMZ treatment. We found that CX-4945 but not verteporfin can sensitize TMZ-resistant cells SF767 to TMZ and that CX-4945 and TMZ combinational treatment was effective for glioma treatment in mouse models compared with TMZ alone. IMPLICATIONS: A combination of CK2 inhibitor with TMZ may improve the therapeutic efficiency of TMZ toward GBM with acquired resistance.
Project description:Here we investigate the effects of the novel transforming growth factor-? receptor I (TGF-?RI) serine/threonine kinase inhibitor LY2109761 on glioblastoma when combined with the present clinical standard combination regimen radiotherapy and temozolomide (TMZ). Human GBM U87 (methylated MGMT promoter), T98 (unmethylated MGMT promoter), and endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with combinations of LY2109761, TMZ, and radiation. We found that LY2109761 reduced clonogenic survival of U87 and T98 cells and further enhanced the radiation-induced anticlonogenicity. In addition, LY2109761 had antimigratory and antiangiogenic effects in Matrigel migration and tube formation assays. In vivo, in human xenograft tumors growing subcutaneously on BALB/c nu/nu mice, LY2109761 delayed tumor growth alone and in combination with fractionated radiation and TMZ. Interestingly, as expected, the methylated U87 model was more sensitive to TMZ than the unmethylated T98 model in all experiments, whereas the opposite was found for LY2109761. Moreover, with respect to tumor angiogenesis, while LY2109761 decreased the glioblastoma proliferation index (Ki-67) and the microvessel density (CD31 count), the relative pericyte coverage (?-SMA/CD31 ratio) increased in particular after triple therapy, suggesting a vascular normalization effect induced by LY2109761. This normalization could be attributed in part to a decrease in the Ang-2/Ang-1 messenger RNA ratio. LY2109761 also reduced tumor blood perfusion as quantified by noninvasive dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Together, the data indicate that the addition of a TGF-?RI kinase inhibitor to the present clinical standard (radiation plus TMZ) has the potential to improve clinical outcome in human glioblastoma, especially in patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter status.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) recurrences after temozolomide (TMZ) treatment result from the expansion of drug-resistant and potentially invasive GBM cells. This process is facilitated by O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT), which counteracts alkylating TMZ activity. We traced the expansion of invasive cell lineages under persistent chemotherapeutic stress in MGMT<sup>low</sup> (U87) and MGMT<sup>high</sup> (T98G) GBM populations to look into the mechanisms of TMZ-induced microevolution of GBM invasiveness. TMZ treatment induced short-term, pro-invasive phenotypic shifts of U87 cells, in the absence of Snail-1 activation. They were illustrated by a transient induction of their motility and followed by the hypertrophy and the signs of senescence in scarce U87 sub-populations that survived long-term TMZ stress. In turn, MGMT<sup>high</sup> T98G cells reacted to the long-term TMZ treatment with the permanent induction of invasiveness. Ectopic Snail-1 down-regulation attenuated this effect, whereas its up-regulation augmented T98G invasiveness. MGMT<sup>low</sup> and MGMT<sup>high</sup> cells both reacted to the long-term TMZ stress with the induction of Cx43 expression. However, only in MGMT<sup>high</sup> T98G populations, Cx43 was directly involved in the induction of invasiveness, as manifested by the induction of T98G invasiveness after ectopic Cx43 up-regulation and by the opposite effect after Cx43 down-regulation. Collectively, Snail-1/Cx43-dependent signaling participates in the long-term TMZ-induced microevolution of the invasive GBM front. High MGMT activity remains a prerequisite for this process, even though MGMT-related GBM chemoresistance is not necessary for its initiation.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of O<sup>6</sup>-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) is surrogate of intrinsic resistance to temozolomide (TMZ). However, mechanisms associated with adaptive resistance evolution of glioblastoma (GBM) relative to MGMT methylation remain unclear. We hereby report a paradoxical yet translational epigenetic regulation of plasticity towards adaptive resistance in GBM. Based on an adaptive resistance model of GBM cells with differential MGMT methylation profiles, MGMT-hypermethylation enhanced genetic and phenotypic plasticity towards adaptive resistance to TMZ while MGMT hypomethylation limited plasticity. The resulting model-associated adaptive resistance gene signature negatively correlated with GBM patient survival. XAF1, a tumor suppressor protein, paradoxically emerged as a mediator of differential plasticities towards adaptive resistance to TMZ through epigenetic regulation. XAF1 promoted resistance both in-vitro and in-vivo. Furthermore, XAF1 expression negatively correlated with XAF1 promoter methylation status, and negatively correlate with GBM patient survival. Collectively, XAF1 appears to have a pradoxical yet translational role in GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant human intracranial tumors. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the primary alkylating agent for GBM patients. However, many GBM patients are resistant to TMZ. Therefore, patients with GBM urgently need more effective therapeutic options. 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3 (20(S)-Rg3) is a natural chemical with anti-tumor effects, but at present there is little understanding of its functional mechanism. Several research reports have demonstrated that O<sup>6</sup> -methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs damaged DNA and contributes to TMZ resistance in gliomas. In addition, recent studies have shown that MGMT gene expression could be regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, whether 20(S)-Rg3 inhibits MGMT expression and augments chemosensitivity to Temozolomide (TMZ) in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the modulating effects of 20(S)-Rg3 on MGMT. We used glioma cell lines, primary cell strain (including T98G, U118 and GBM-XX; all of them are MGMT-positive glioma cell lines) and xenograft glioma models to examine whether 20(S)-Rg3 increased the sensitivity to TMZ and to reveal the underlying mechanisms. We found that the MGMT expression was effectively downregulated by 20(S)-Rg3 via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in glioma cell lines, and TMZ resistance was significantly reversed by 20(S)-Rg3. Meanwhile, 20(S)-Rg3 shows no obvious cytotoxicity at its effective dose and is well tolerated in vivo. In addition, we found that 20(S)-Rg3 significantly restrains the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression of glioma cells. Taken together, these results indicate that 20(S)-Rg3 may be a novel agent to use in treatment of GBM, especially in TMZ-resistant GBM with high MGMT expression.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an incurable brain cancer with an average survival of approximately 15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is a DNA alkylating agent for the treatment of GBM. However, at least 50% of the patients treated with TMZ show poor response, primarily due to elevated expression of the repair protein O<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) or due to defects in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. These resistance mechanisms are either somatic or arise in response to treatment, highlighting the need to uncover treatments to overcome resistance. We found that administration of the NAD<sup>+</sup> precursor dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH) to raise cellular NAD<sup>+</sup> levels combined with PARG inhibition (PARGi) triggers hyperaccumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), resulting from both DNA damage-induced and replication-stress-induced PARP1 activation. Here, we show that the NRH/PARGi combination enhances the cytotoxicity of TMZ. Specifically, NRH rapidly increases NAD<sup>+</sup> levels in both TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM-derived cells and enhances the accumulation of PAR following TMZ treatment. Furthermore, NRH promotes hyperaccumulation of PAR in the presence of TMZ and PARGi. This combination strongly suppresses the cell growth of GBM cells depleted of MSH6 or cells expressing MGMT, suggesting that this regimen may improve the efficacy of TMZ to overcome treatment resistance in GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care chemotherapy drug for treating glioblastomas (GBMs), the most aggressive cancer that affects people of all ages. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited by the drug resistance mediated by a DNA repair protein, O<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which eliminates the TMZ-induced DNA lesions. Here we report the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) system for targeted delivery of siRNAs to suppress the TMZ-resistance gene (MGMT). We show that our NP is able to overcome biological barriers, bind specifically to tumor cells, and reduce MGMT expression in tumors of mice bearing orthotopic GBM serially-passaged patient-derived xenografts. The treatment with sequential administration of this NP and TMZ resulted in increased apoptosis of GBM stem-like cells, reduced tumor growth, and significantly-prolonged survival as compared to mice treated with TMZ alone. This study introduces an approach that holds great promise to improve the outcomes of GBM patients.
Project description:Diffusely infiltrating gliomas are among the most prognostically discouraging neoplasia in human. Temozolomide (TMZ) in combination with radiotherapy is currently used for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, but less than half of the patients respond to therapy and chemoresistance develops rapidly. Epigenetic silencing of the O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been associated with longer survival in GBM patients treated with TMZ, but nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)-mediated survival signaling and TP53 mutations contribute significantly to TMZ resistance. Enhanced NF-?B is in part owing to downregulation of negative regulators of NF-?B activity, including Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) and NF-?B inhibitor interacting RAS-like 2 (NKIRAS2). Here we provide a novel mechanism independent of TP53 and MGMT by which oncogenic miR-125b confers TMZ resistance by targeting TNFAIP3 and NKIRAS2. GBM cells overexpressing miR-125b showed increased NF-?B activity and upregulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle genes. This was significantly associated with resistance of GBM cells to TNF?- and TNF-related inducing ligand-induced apoptosis as well as resistance to TMZ. Conversely, overexpression of anti-miR-125b resulted in cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis and increased sensitivity to TMZ, indicating that endogenous miR-125b is sufficient to control these processes. GBM cells overexpressing TNFAIP3 and NKIRAS2 were refractory to miR-125b-induced apoptosis resistance as well as TMZ resistance, indicating that both genes are relevant targets of miR-125b. In GBM tissues, high miR-125b expression was significantly correlated with nuclear NF-?B confirming that miR-125b is implicated in NF-?B signaling. Most remarkably, miR-125b overexpression was clearly associated with shorter overall survival of patients treated with TMZ, suggesting that this microRNA is an important predictor of response to therapy.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant high-grade glioma with a poor clinical outcome. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line GBM chemotherapy; however, patients commonly develop resistance to its effects.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We investigated the antitumor activity of CAT<sub>3</sub> in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cell lines U251/TMZ and T98G. Orthotopic and subcutaneous mice tumor models were used to investigate the effects of various treatment regimes.<h4>Results</h4>We found that PF403, the active metabolite of CAT<sub>3</sub>, inhibited proliferation of both cell lines. PF403 repressed the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the U251/TMZ cell line, reduced O<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression, and abolished the effects of the Shh pathway. Moreover, PF403 blocked the Hedgehog signaling pathway in T98G MGMT-expressing cells and downregulated the expression of MGMT. CAT<sub>3</sub> suppressed growth in the U251/TMZ orthotopic and T98G subcutaneous xenograft tumor models in vivo. We also demonstrated that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway by PF403 counteracted TMZ resistance and enhanced the antitumor activity of TMZ in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results indicate that CAT<sub>3</sub> is a potential therapeutic agent for TMZ-resistant GBM.