Feasibility and Acceptability of a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Program for Young Adults in Lima, Peru: Pilot Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In Peru's urban communities, tobacco smoking generally starts during adolescence and smoking prevalence is highest among young adults. Each year, many attempt to quit, but access to smoking cessation programs is limited. Evidence-based text messaging smoking cessation programs are an alternative that has been successfully implemented in high-income countries, but not yet in middle- and low-income countries with limited tobacco control policies. OBJECTIVE:The objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an short message service (SMS) text message-based cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program for young adults in Lima, Peru. METHODS:Recruitment included using flyers and social media ads to direct young adults interested in quitting smoking to a website where interested participants completed a Google Drive survey. Inclusion criteria were being between ages 18 and 25 years, smoking at least four cigarettes per day at least 6 days per week, willing to quit in the next 30 days, owning a mobile phone, using SMS text messaging at least once in past year, and residing in Lima. Participants joined one of three phases: (1) focus groups and in-depth interviews whose feedback was used to develop the SMS text messages, (2) validating the SMS text messages, and (3) a pilot of the SMS text message-based smoking cessation program to test its feasibility and acceptability among young adults in Lima. The outcome measures included adherence to the SMS text message-based program, acceptability of content, and smoking abstinence self-report on days 2, 7, and 30 after quitting. RESULTS:Of 639 participants who completed initial online surveys, 42 met the inclusion criteria and 35 agreed to participate (focus groups and interviews: n=12; validate SMS text messages: n=8; program pilot: n=15). Common quit practices and beliefs emerged from participants in the focus groups and interviews informed the content, tone, and delivery schedule of the messages used in the SMS text message smoking cessation program. A small randomized controlled pilot trial was performed to test the program's feasibility and acceptability; nine smokers were assigned to the SMS text message smoking cessation program and six to a SMS text message nutrition program. Participant retention was high: 93% (14/15) remained until day 30 after quit day. In all, 56% of participants (5/9) in the SMS text message smoking cessation program reported remaining smoke-free until day 30 after quit day and 17% of participants (1/6) in the SMS text message nutrition program reported remaining smoke-free during the entire program. The 14 participants who completed the pilot reported that they received valuable health information and approved the delivery schedule of the SMS text messages. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides initial evidence that a SMS text message smoking cessation program is feasible and acceptable for young adults residing in Lima.
Project description:Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China.In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day.The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public health significance of other interventions, such as mental health interventions.NCT02693626 (Registration data April 11, 2016).
Project description:Samoa faces a persistently high prevalence of adult tobacco use and few existing cessation support services. Mobile phones are ubiquitous and generally affordable.This study aimed to adopt a text message (short message service, SMS) smoking cessation program designed in New Zealand (stop smoking with mobile phones, STOMP) for use in Samoa to assist national objectives in reducing the tobacco use.Using focus groups with smokers and ex-smokers, we explored the context for tobacco use and preferences for SMS text messages. Postintervention focus groups were held after participants received SMS text messages for 1 week. Frequent face-to-face meetings with the primary partner (Ministry of Health Samoa) and key stakeholders contributed to the adaptation process. Participatory feedback and collaboration from stakeholders became an integral part of the cultural adaptation and translation of the program. Furthermore, detailed document analyses were included as part of the formal evaluation of the initiative to explore the core determinants of success in adapting the program to the Samoan cultural context.The SMS text messages evolved remarkably following an iterative process of consultation, in situ testing, revision, and retesting to arrive at an acceptable country-specific version of the mobile smoking cessation program. The SMS text messages retained in the final set were consistent with the theory of behavioral change but reflected both linguistic and cultural nuances appropriate for Samoa. Adapting messages required simultaneous multilevel processes, including complex high-level engagement, between the team and the stakeholders, along with crafting the precise content for (character limited) messages.Receiving cessation support messages through a mobile phone is promising and appears to be an acceptable and accessible mode of delivery for tobacco cessation, particularly in the absence of alternative support. Adapting a text-based program in Samoa requires fastidious attention to the nuances of culture, language, and sociopolitical structures in the country.
Project description:Despite promising data in Western countries, there is a dearth of research into the efficacy of text messaging-based smoking cessation programs in other settings, including the Middle East, where smoking prevalence rates are higher.This paper reports cessation rates observed in SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program for adult smokers in Ankara, Turkey.This study was a small-scale, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in Ankara, Turkey. Participants were adult daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the next 15 days and living in Ankara, Turkey. The text messaging intervention, SMS Turkey, provided 6 weeks of daily messages aimed at giving participants skills to help them quit smoking. Messages were sent in an automated fashion, except 2 days and 7 days after the initial quit day. On days 2 and 7, the research assistant manually assigned participants to content "paths" based on whether they were still not smoking or had relapsed. The control arm received a brochure that provided similar information about smoking cessation. The main outcome measure was self-reported 3-month sustained abstinence, verified by carbon monoxide (CO) readings. Neither participants nor researchers were blinded to arm assignment.The 151 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 76 to the SMS Turkey intervention group and 75 to the brochure control group. Using intention to treat, all 151 participants were included in analyses. Three-month cessation trends were not significantly higher in the intervention group: 11% intervention vs 5% control had quit (χ(2)(1)=1.4, P=.24; R(2)=2.0, 95% CI 0.62-6.3). When the sample was stratified by sex, female intervention participants (14%, n=5) were significantly more likely to have quit at 3 months than female control participants (0%, n=0; χ(2)(1)=3.7, P=.05). Among light smokers (ie, those smoking less than 20 cigarettes per day), intervention participants (17%, n=5) also were significantly more likely to have quit compared to control participants (0%, n=0; χ(2)(1)=5.3, P=.02). We noted no difference in cessation rates for males or heavy smokers. Participants experienced significant technology problems during the study. Some participants received duplicate text messages at least once during the trial; others failed to receive some program messages. Neither receiving duplicate messages (χ(2)(1)=0.12, P=.73), or missing 5 or more program messages (χ(2)(1)=0.75, P=.39) negatively affected quitting rates.Although the study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences, as the primary aim was to provide estimates of effect size that could be used to better inform a power analysis for a larger trial, findings provide optimism that SMS Turkey may be able to affect quitting rates in environments with high smoking prevalence, such as Ankara, Turkey. The SMS Turkey software program did not work as well as it did 2 years previous. The system will need to be updated to maintain software compatibility with ongoing technology evolution.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00912795 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00912795 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6Ch1cIA8l).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Smoking during pregnancy poses serious risks to baby and mother. Few disseminable programs exist to help pregnant women quit or reduce their smoking. We hypothesized that an SMS text-delivered scheduled gradual reduction (SGR) program plus support texts would outperform SMS support messages alone. METHODS:We recruited 314 pregnant women from 14 prenatal clinics. Half of the women received theory-based support messages throughout their pregnancy to promote cessation and prevent relapse. The other half received the support messages plus alert texts that gradually reduced their smoking more than 3-5 weeks. We conducted surveys at baseline, end of pregnancy, and 3 months postpartum. Our primary outcome was biochemically validated 7-day point prevalence abstinence at late pregnancy. Our secondary outcome was reduction in cigarettes per day. RESULTS:Adherence to the SGR was adequate with 70% responding to alert texts to smoke within 60 minutes. Women in both arms quit smoking at the same rate (9%-12%). Women also significantly reduced their smoking from baseline to the end of pregnancy from nine cigarettes to four; we found no arm differences in reduction. CONCLUSIONS:Support text messages alone produced significant quit rates above naturally occurring quitting. SGR did not add significantly to helping women quit or reduce. Sending support messages can reach many women and is low-cost. More obstetric providers might consider having patients who smoke sign up for free texting programs to help them quit. IMPLICATIONS:A disseminable texting program helped some pregnant women quit smoking.Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT01995097.
Project description:Mobile technology offers the potential to deliver health-related interventions to individuals who would not otherwise present for in-person treatment. Text messaging (short message service, SMS), being the most ubiquitous form of mobile communication, is a promising method for reaching the most individuals.The goal of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention program delivered through text messaging.Adult participants (N=60, age range 18-52 years) took part in a single individual smoking cessation counseling session, and were then randomly assigned to receive either daily non-smoking related text messages (control condition) or the TXT-2-Quit (TXT) intervention. TXT consisted of automated smoking cessation messages tailored to individual's stage of smoking cessation, specialized messages provided on-demand based on user requests for additional support, and a peer-to-peer social support network. Generalized estimating equation analysis was used to assess the primary outcome (7-day point-prevalence abstinence) using a 2 (treatment groups)×3 (time points) repeated measures design across three time points: 8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.Smoking cessation results showed an overall significant group difference in 7-day point prevalence abstinence across all follow-up time points. Individuals given the TXT intervention, with higher odds of 7-day point prevalence abstinence for the TXT group compared to the Mojo group (OR=4.52, 95% CI=1.24, 16.53). However, individual comparisons at each time point did not show significant between-group differences, likely due to reduced statistical power. Intervention feasibility was greatly improved by switching from traditional face-to-face recruitment methods (4.7% yield) to an online/remote strategy (41.7% yield).Although this study was designed to develop and provide initial testing of the TXT-2-Quit system, these initial findings provide promising evidence that a text-based intervention can be successfully implemented with a diverse group of adult smokers.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01166464; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01166464 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IOE8XdE0).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several large studies have shown that the risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, and wound-healing complications (including death) within 30 days of surgery is greater for smokers than for nonsmokers. However, there is evidence that even short-term perioperative smoking cessation may reduce postoperative morbidity. Over the past few years, it has become more evident that short message service (SMS)-based interventions can help individuals quit smoking. OBJECTIVE:The overall aim of this project is to fill the knowledge gap on whether an SMS-based smoking-cessation intervention can be effective in helping patients stop smoking perioperatively. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an SMS-based intervention on smoking behavior of patients undergoing elective surgery. METHODS:A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial will be conducted at 20 surgical departments in southeast Sweden. Smokers undergoing elective surgery who own a mobile phone will be included. Power calculations indicate that it will be necessary to randomize 434 participants. One group will be given access to a novel 12-week SMS program, which includes daily SMS messages with behavior change-enforcing text content and hyperlinks to interactive modules, while the other group will not be given access to the intervention. Both groups will have access to the surgical departments' current routine for smoking cessation prior to surgery. Primary outcome measures, prolonged abstinence, and point prevalence of smoking cessation will be measured through questionnaires at 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. Logistic regression models adjusted using baseline characteristics will be explored to identify potential effects of the intervention. RESULTS:Recruitment started in late October 2018 and is expected to last for a maximum of 30 months. The first results are expected to be available approximately 3 months after the final date of recruitment. CONCLUSIONS:Owing to the structural problems and scarcity of time and resources, patients at most Swedish surgical departments are simply instructed to quit smoking, and perhaps, referred to a primary health care clinic. An SMS-based smoking-cessation aid can be effective in helping individuals quit smoking and is a very simple and time-efficient tool for surgical departments to use. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN33869008; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN33869008. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):PRR1-10.2196/12511.
Project description:To estimate the short-term effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of a smoking cessation intervention (the iQuit system) that consists of tailored printed and Short Message Service (SMS) text message self-help delivered as an adjunct to cessation support in primary care to inform the design of a definitive trial.A stratified two parallel-group randomized controlled trial comparing usual care (control) with usual care plus the iQuit system (intervention), delivered by primary care nurses/healthcare assistants who were blinded to the allocation sequence.Thirty-two general practice (GP) surgeries in England, UK.A total of 602 smokers initiating smoking cessation support from their local GP surgery were randomized (control n?=?303, intervention n?=?299).Primary outcome was self-reported 2-week point prevalence abstinence at 8 weeks follow-up. Secondary smoking outcomes and feasibility and acceptability measures were collected at 4 weeks after quit date, 8 weeks and 6 months follow-up.There were no significant between-group differences in the primary outcome [control 40.3%, iQuit 45.2%; odds ratio (OR)?=?1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.88-1.69] or in secondary short-term smoking outcomes. Six-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher in the iQuit arm (control 8.9%, iQuit 15.1%; OR?=?1.81, 95% CI?=?1.09-3.01). iQuit support took on average 7.7 minutes (standard deviation?=?4.0) to deliver and 18.9% (95% CI?=?14.8-23.7%) of intervention participants discontinued the text message support during the programme.Tailored printed and text message self-help delivered alongside routine smoking cessation support in primary care does not significantly increase short-term abstinence, but may increase long-term abstinence and demonstrated feasibility and acceptability compared with routine cessation support alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions show promise as a way to help cigarette smokers quit. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of text messaging (SMS) programs targeting smokers associated with primary care or hospital settings. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to develop a text messaging (SMS) program targeting primary care smokers. METHODS:Adult smokers in primary care were recruited from February 2017 to April 2017. We sent patients 10 to 11 draft text messages (SMS) over 2 days and asked them to rate each message in real time. Patients were interviewed daily by telephone to discuss ratings, message preferences, and previous experiences with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Content analysis of interviews was directed by a step-wise text messaging (SMS) intervention development process and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of medication adherence. RESULTS:We sent 149 text messages (SMS) to 15 patients. They replied with ratings for 93% (139/149) of the messages: 134 (96%, 134/139) were rated as clear or useful and 5 (4%, 5/139) as unclear or not useful. Patients' preferences included the addition of graphics, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) content, and use of first names. Regarding NRT, patients identified informational gaps around safety and effectiveness, preferred positively framed motivational messages, and needed behavioral skills to dose and dispose of NRT. CONCLUSIONS:Patients recommended text message (SMS) personalization, inclusion of e-cigarette information and graphics, and identified barriers to NRT use. Combining real-time ratings with telephone interviews is a feasible method for incorporating primary care patients' preferences into a behavioral text messaging (SMS) program.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Homeless smokers want to quit smoking but face numerous barriers to doing so, including pervasive smoking among peers and a lack of social support for quitting. An SMS (short message service) text messaging intervention could address these challenges by providing virtual daily support for homeless smokers who are trying to quit but coping with multiple triggers to smoke. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to assess whether a free SMS text messaging program, added to evidence-based pharmacotherapy and counseling, improved smoking abstinence among homeless adult smokers. METHODS:From October 2015 to June 2016, we conducted an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of nicotine patch therapy and weekly in-person counseling with (n=25) or without (n=25) SmokefreeTXT, a free SMS text messaging service administered by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. All participants were provided with a mobile phone and a 2-month prepaid voice and text plan at no cost. SmokefreeTXT enrollees were sent 1 to 5 automated SMS text messages daily for up to 8 weeks and could receive on-demand tips for managing cravings, mood symptoms, and smoking lapses. The primary outcome was smoking abstinence, defined as an exhaled carbon monoxide count of <8 parts per million, assessed 14 times over 8 weeks of follow-up, and analyzed using repeated-measures logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Other outcomes were use of SmokefreeTXT, assessed by data obtained from NCI; perceptions of SmokefreeTXT, assessed by surveys and qualitative interviews; and mobile phone retention, assessed by self-report. RESULTS:Of the SmokefreeTXT arm participants (n=25), 88% (22) enrolled in the program, but only 56% (14) had confirmed enrollment for ?2 weeks. Among 2-week enrollees, the median response rate to interactive messages from SmokefreeTXT was 2.1% (interquartile range 0-10.5%). Across all time points, smoking abstinence did not differ significantly between SmokefreeTXT and control arm participants (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.30-2.84). Of SmokefreeTXT enrollees who completed exit surveys (n=15), two-thirds were very or extremely satisfied with the program. However, qualitative interviews (n=14) revealed that many participants preferred in-person intervention formats over phone-based, found the SMS text messages impersonal and robotic, and felt that the messages were too frequent and repetitive. Only 40% (10/25) of SmokefreeTXT arm participants retained their study-supplied mobile phone for the 8-week duration of the trial, with phone theft being common. Storing and charging phones were cited as challenges. CONCLUSIONS:SmokefreeTXT, added to nicotine patch therapy and in-person counseling, did not significantly improve smoking abstinence in this 8-week pilot RCT for homeless smokers. SMS text messaging interventions for this population should be better tuned to the unique circumstances of homelessness and coupled with efforts to promote mobile phone retention over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02565381; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02565381 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/78PLpDptZ).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Automated text messages on mobile phones have been found to be effective for smoking cessation in adult smokers. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to test the acceptability and feasibility of SmokefreeMOM, a national smoking cessation text-messaging program for pregnant smokers. METHODS:Participants were recruited from prenatal care and randomized to receive SmokefreeMOM (n=55), an automated smoking cessation text-messaging program, or a control text message quitline referral (n=44). Participants were surveyed by phone at baseline and at 1 month and 3 months after enrollment. RESULTS:Results indicate that the SmokefreeMOM program was highly rated overall and rated more favorably than the control condition in its helpfulness at 3-month follow-up (P<.01) and in its frequency of messaging at both 1-month and 3-month follow-ups (P<.001, P<.01, respectively). Despite the presence of technical problems, the vast majority of intervention participants read all program messages, and few participants unsubscribed from the program. There were no significant differences between groups on the use of extra treatment resources or on smoking-related outcomes. However, at the 3-month follow-up, some outcomes favored the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS:SmokefreeMOM is acceptable for pregnant smokers. It is recommended that SmokefreeMOM be further refined and evaluated. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02412956; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02412956 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6tcmeRnbC).