Activation of cell surface GRP78 decreases endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuronal death.
ABSTRACT: The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -related stress conserved pathway that aims to protect cells from being overwhelmed. However, when prolonged, UPR activation converts to a death signal, which relies on its PERK-eIF2? branch. Overactivation of the UPR has been implicated in many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischaemia. Here, by using an in vivo thromboembolic model of stroke on transgenic ER stress-reporter mice and neuronal in vitro models of ischaemia, we demonstrate that ischaemic stress leads to the deleterious activation of the PERK branch of the UPR. Moreover, we show that the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) can bind to cell surface Grp78 (78?kD glucose-regulated protein), leading to a decrease of the PERK pathway activation, thus a decrease of the deleterious factor CHOP, and finally promotes neuroprotection. Altogether, this work highlights a new role and a therapeutic potential of the chaperone protein Grp78 as a membrane receptor of tPA capable to prevent from ER stress overactivation.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta), which triggers a cellular stress response called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR signaling pathway is a cellular defense system for dealing with the accumulation of misfolded proteins but switches to apoptosis when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is prolonged. ER stress is involved in neurodegenerative diseases including AD, but the molecular mechanisms of ER stress-mediated Abeta neurotoxicity still remain unknown. Here, we show that treatment of Abeta triggers the UPR in the SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells. Abeta mediated UPR pathway accompanies the activation of protective pathways such as Grp78/Bip and PERK-eIF2alpha pathway, as well as the apoptotic pathways of the UPR such as CHOP and caspase-4. Knockdown of PERK enhances Abeta neurotoxicity through reducing the activation of eIF2alpha and Grp8/Bip in neurons. Salubrinal, an activator of the eIF2alpha pathway, significantly increased the Grp78/Bip ER chaperone resulted in attenuating caspase-4 dependent apoptosis in Abeta treated neurons. These results indicate that PERK-eIF2alpha pathway is a potential target for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases including AD.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to allow cells to adapt to stress targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Induction of ER chaperone GRP78/BiP increases protein folding capacity; as such it represents a major survival arm of UPR. Considering the central importance of the UPR in regulating cell survival and death, evidence is emerging that cells evolve feedback regulatory pathways to modulate the key UPR executors, however, the precise mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the fortuitous discovery of GRP78va, a novel isoform of GRP78 generated by alternative splicing (retention of intron 1) and alternative translation initiation. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses revealed that expression of GRP78va is enhanced by ER stress and is notably elevated in human leukemic cells and leukemia patients. In contrast to the canonical GRP78 which is primarily an ER lumenal protein, GRP78va is devoid of the ER signaling peptide and is cytosolic. Through specific knockdown of endogenous GRP78va by siRNA without affecting canonical GRP78, we showed that GRP78va promotes cell survival under ER stress. We further demonstrated that GRP78va has the ability to regulate PERK signaling and that GRP78va is able to interact with and antagonize PERK inhibitor P58(IPK). Our study describes the discovery of GRP78va, a novel cytosolic isoform of GRP78/BiP, and the first characterization of the modulation of UPR signaling via alternative splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA. Our study further reveals a novel survival mechanism in leukemic cells and other cell types where GRP78va is expressed.
Project description:Disturbances in the homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) referred to as ER stress is involved in a variety of human diseases. ER stress activates unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular mechanism the purpose of which is to restore ER homeostasis. Previous studies show that Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) is an important novel component in the regulation of UPR. In vertebrates, MANF is upregulated by ER stress and protects cells against ER stress-induced cell death. Biochemical studies have revealed an interaction between mammalian MANF and GRP78, the major ER chaperone promoting protein folding. In this study we discovered that the upregulation of MANF expression in response to drug-induced ER stress is conserved between Drosophila and mammals. Additionally, by using a genetic in vivo approach we found genetic interactions between Drosophila Manf and genes encoding for Drosophila homologues of GRP78, PERK and XBP1, the key components of UPR. Our data suggest a role for Manf in the regulation of Drosophila UPR.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly conserved protein-quality-control mechanism critical for cells to make survival-or-death decisions under ER-stress conditions. However, how UPR sensors are activated remains unclear. Here, we report that ER luminal protein canopy homolog 2 (CNPY2) is released from grp78 upon ER stress. Free CNPY2 then engages protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) to induce expression of the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), thereby initiating the UPR. Indeed, deletion of CNPY2 blocked the PERK-CHOP pathway and protected mice from UPR-induced liver damage and steatosis. Additionally, CNPY2 is transcriptionally upregulated by CHOP in a forward-feed loop to further enhance UPR signaling. These findings demonstrate the critical roles of CNPY2 in ER stress and suggest that CNPY2 is a potential new therapeutic target for UPR-related diseases such as metabolic disorders, inflammation and cancer.
Project description:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States due to the late-stage disease at diagnosis. Overexpression of GRP78 and PDI following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) promote growth and invasion in cancer. To identify novel prognostic biomarkers in EOC, here we determined the expression of ER stress-associated proteins (GRP78, ATF6 and PERK) and correlated with clinical outcome in EOC. Tissue microarray (TMA) samples from 415 tissues collected from three cancer centers (UM, USC, and KCCRI) were used to assess the expression levels of ER-associated proteins using immunohistochemistry (IHC). We observed that the expression levels of GRP78 (p?<?0.0001), ATF6 (p?<?0.0001), and PERK (p?<?0.0001) were significantly increased in specimens of EOC compared to normal tissues, including in the serous subtype (p?<?0.0001). Previously we reported that high expression of PDI correlated with poor patient survival in EOC. Here we showed that overexpression of GRP78 and PDI protein expression correlated with poor patient survival (p?=?0.03), while low expression of combined GRP78 and PDI correlated with better survival (p?=?0.01) in high-grade serous. The increased expression of ER stress-associated proteins in EOC suggests a role for ER stress and the UPR in EOC. More importantly, our results demonstrate that GRP78 and PDI are potential biomarkers for EOC and could be used as dual prognostic markers.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) regulates the protein-folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) according to cellular demand. In mammalian cells, three ER transmembrane components, IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, initiate distinct UPR signaling branches. We show that these UPR components display distinct sensitivities toward different forms of ER stress. ER stress induced by ER Ca2+ release in particular revealed fundamental differences in the properties of UPR signaling branches. Compared with the rapid response of both IRE1 and PERK to ER stress induced by thapsigargin, an ER Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, the response of ATF6 was markedly delayed. These studies are the first side-by-side comparisons of UPR signaling branch activation and reveal intrinsic features of UPR stress sensor activation in response to alternate forms of ER stress. As such, they provide initial groundwork toward understanding how ER stress sensors can confer different responses and how optimal UPR responses are achieved in physiological settings.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, also known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a complex cellular response to ER protein misfolding that involves transcriptional regulatory branches and a PERK-mediated translational regulatory branch. Here we revealed that amino acid biosynthesis regulation is coupled to protein synthesis demands during ER stress. Specifically, we demonstrated that the UPR leads to PERK-dependent induction in the biosynthesis of specific amino acids, and to upregulation of their corresponding tRNA synthetases. Furthermore, we found that sequences of UPR-upregulated proteins are significantly enriched with these UPR-induced amino acids. Interestingly, whereas the UPR leads to repression of ER target proteins, we showed that secreted proteins tended to escape this repression and were highly enriched for the UPR-induced amino acids. Our results unravel coordination between amino acid supply, namely, biosynthesis and tRNA loading, and demand from UPR-induced proteins under ER stress, thus revealing an additional regulatory layer of protein synthesis.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates a set of signaling pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The three UPR branches (IRE1, PERK, and ATF6) promote cell survival by reducing misfolded protein levels. UPR signaling also promotes apoptotic cell death if ER stress is not alleviated. How the UPR integrates its cytoprotective and proapoptotic outputs to select between life or death cell fates is unknown. We found that IRE1 and ATF6 activities were attenuated by persistent ER stress in human cells. By contrast, PERK signaling, including translational inhibition and proapoptotic transcription regulator Chop induction, was maintained. When IRE1 activity was sustained artificially, cell survival was enhanced, suggesting a causal link between the duration of UPR branch signaling and life or death cell fate after ER stress. Key findings from our studies in cell culture were recapitulated in photoreceptors expressing mutant rhodopsin in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa.
Project description:Patients with aggressive brain tumors, named glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), have a poor prognoses. Here we explored if the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathophysiology of GBM and may provide novel therapeutic targets. Immunohistochemical analyses of a tissue microarray containing primary GBM specimens showed strong variability in expression of the UPR markers GRP78/BiP, XBP1, and ATF4. Interestingly, high ATF4 expression was associated with poor overall survival suggesting involvement of PERK signaling in GBM progression. In vitro experiments using patient-derived neurospheres, enriched for GBM stem cells (GSCs), showed high sensitivity for the ER stressor thapsigargin (Tg) mainly via PERK signaling. In contrast, neurospheres-derived differentiated GBM cells were less sensitive likely due to lower UPR activity as indicated by comparative transcriptional profiling. Tg and Tunicamycin strongly reduced neurosphere forming ability of GSCs that was linked with potent PERK-dependent downregulation of SOX2 protein. Interestingly, SOX2 downregulation occurred directly via PERK, not requiring downstream activation of the PERK-UPR pathway. Moreover, PERK inactivation resulted in aberrant serum-induced differentiation of GBM neurospheres accompanied by persistent SOX2 expression, delayed upregulation of GFAP and reduced cell adherence. In conclusion, we provide evidence that PERK signaling contributes to the prognoses of primary GBM patients and identified PERK as a novel regulator of SOX2 expression and GSC differentiation. The role of PERK appeared to be pleiotropic involving UPR-dependent, as well as novel identified noncanonical mechanisms regulating SOX2. ER stress and PERK modulation appear to provide promising therapeutic targets for therapy in GBM.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection induces autophagy and apoptosis. These cellular responses could be connected with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It remains unknown if PCV2 induces ER stress and if autophagy or apoptosis is primary to PCV2 infection or secondary responses following ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that PCV2 triggered unfolded protein response (UPR) in PK-15 cells by activating the PERK/eIF2? pathway without concomitant activation of IRE1 or ATF6. Since ATF4 and CHOP were induced later than PERK/eIF2?, it is clear that persistent PCV2 infection could lead to selective activation of PERK via the PERK-eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP axis. Therefore, PERK activation could be part of the pro-apoptotic signaling via induced expression of CHOP by PCV2. Since PERK inhibition by GSK2606414 or RNA silencing or suppression of eIF2? dephosphorylation by salubrinal limited viral replication, we suppose that PCV2 deploys UPR to enhance its replication. Over-expression of GRP78 or treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid could enhance viral capsid expression and/or viral titers, indicating that these chaperones, endogenous or exogenous, could help correct folding of viral proteins. Our findings provide the first evidence that ER stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of PCV2 infection probably as part of autophagic and apoptotic responses.