In vivo topoisomerase II cleavage of the Drosophila histone and satellite III repeats: DNA sequence and structural characteristics.
ABSTRACT: We have identified two classes of in vivo topoisomerase II cleavage sites in the Drosophila histone gene repeat. One class co-localizes with DNase I-hypersensitive regions and another novel class maps to a subset of consecutive nucleosome linker sites in the scaffold-associated region (SAR) of the histone gene loop. Prominent topoisomerase II cleavage is also observed in one of the linker regions of the two nucleosomes spanning satellite III, a centromeric SAR-like DNA sequence with a repeat length of 359 bp. At the sequence level, in vivo topoisomerase II cleavage is highly site specific. Comparison of 10 nucleosome linker sites defines an in vivo cleavage sequence whose major characteristic is a prominent GC-rich core. These GC-rich cleavage sites are flanked by extensive arrays of oligo(dA).oligo(dT) tracts characteristic of SAR sequences. Treatment of cells with distamycin selectively enhances cleavage at nucleosome linker sites of the SAR and satellite regions, suggesting that AT-rich sequences flanking cleavage sites may be involved in determining topoisomerase II activity in the cell. These observations provide evidence for the association of topoisomerase II with SARS in vivo.
Project description:As RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes a gene, it encounters an array of well-ordered nucleosomes. How it traverses through this array in vivo remains unresolved. One model proposes that torsional stress generated during transcription destabilizes nucleosomes ahead of Pol II. Here, we describe a method for high-resolution mapping of underwound DNA, using next-generation sequencing, and show that torsion is correlated with gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster cells. Accumulation of torsional stress, through topoisomerase inhibition, results in increased Pol II at transcription start sites. Whereas topoisomerase I inhibition results in increased nascent RNA transcripts, topoisomerase II inhibition causes little change. Despite the different effects on Pol II elongation, topoisomerase inhibition results in increased nucleosome turnover and salt solubility within gene bodies, thus suggesting that the elongation-independent effects of torsional stress on nucleosome dynamics contributes to the destabilization of nucleosomes.
Project description:Drugs that target DNA topoisomerase II, such as the epipodophyllotoxin etoposide, are a clinically important class of anticancer agents. A recently published X-ray structure of a ternary complex of etoposide, cleaved DNA and topoisomerase II? showed that the two intercalated etoposide molecules in the complex were separated by four DNA base pairs. Thus, using a structure-based design approach, a series of bis-epipodophyllotoxin etoposide analogs with piperazine-containing linkers was designed to simultaneously bind to these two sites. It was hypothesized that two-site binding would produce a more stable cleavage complex, and a more potent anticancer drug. The most potent bis-epipodophyllotoxin, which was 10-fold more growth inhibitory toward human erythroleukemic K562 cells than etoposide, contained a linker with eight methylene groups. All of the mono- and bis-epipodophyllotoxins, in a variety of assays, showed strong evidence that they targeted topoisomerase II. COMPARE analysis of NCI 60-cell GI50 endpoint data was also consistent with these compounds targeting topoisomerase II.
Project description:Although deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) was used to probe the structure of the nucleosome in the 1960s and 1970s, in the current high-throughput sequencing era, DNase I has mainly been used to study genomic regions devoid of nucleosomes. Here, we reveal for the first time that DNase I can be used to precisely map the (translational) positions of in vivo nucleosomes genome-wide. Specifically, exploiting a distinctive DNase I cleavage profile within nucleosome-associated DNA--including a signature 10.3 base pair oscillation that corresponds to accessibility of the minor groove as DNA winds around the nucleosome--we develop a Bayes-factor-based method that can be used to map nucleosome positions along the genome. Compared to methods that require genetically modified histones, our DNase-based approach is easily applied in any organism, which we demonstrate by producing maps in yeast and human. Compared to micrococcal nuclease (MNase)-based methods that map nucleosomes based on cuts in linker regions, we utilize DNase I cuts both outside and within nucleosomal DNA; the oscillatory nature of the DNase I cleavage profile within nucleosomal DNA enables us to identify translational positioning details not apparent in MNase digestion of linker DNA. Because the oscillatory pattern corresponds to nucleosome rotational positioning, it also reveals the rotational context of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. We show that potential binding sites within nucleosome-associated DNA are often centered preferentially on an exposed major or minor groove. This preferential localization may modulate TF interaction with nucleosome-associated DNA as TFs search for binding sites.
Project description:Etoposide and other topoisomerase II-targeted drugs are important anticancer therapeutics. Unfortunately, the safe usage of these agents is limited by their indiscriminate induction of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage throughout the genome and by a lack of specificity toward cancer cells. Therefore, as a first step toward constraining the distribution of etoposide-induced DNA cleavage sites and developing sequence-specific topoisomerase II-targeted anticancer agents, we covalently coupled the core of etoposide to oligonucleotides centered on a topoisomerase II cleavage site in the PML gene. The initial sequence used for this 'oligonucleotide-linked topoisomerase inhibitor' (OTI) was identified as part of the translocation breakpoint of a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Subsequent OTI sequences were derived from the observed APL breakpoint between PML and RARA. Results indicate that OTIs can be used to direct the sites of etoposide-induced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase II? and topoisomerase II?. OTIs increased levels of enzyme-mediated cleavage by inhibiting DNA ligation, and cleavage complexes induced by OTIs were as stable as those induced by free etoposide. Finally, OTIs directed against the PML-RARA breakpoint displayed cleavage specificity for oligonucleotides with the translocation sequence over those with sequences matching either parental gene. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using oligonucleotides to direct topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage to specific sites in the genome.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases regulate the topological state of the DNA double helix and are key enzymes in the processes of DNA replication, transcription and genome stability. Using the fission yeast model Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we investigate genome wide how DNA topoisomerases I and II affect chromatin dynamics and gene expression in vivo. We show that topoisomerase I activity is directly required for efficient nucleosome disassembly at gene promoter regions. Lack of topoisomerase activity results in increased nucleosome occupancy, perturbed histone modifications and reduced transcription from these promoters. Strong correlative evidence suggests that topoisomerase I cooperates with the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Hrp1 in nucleosome disassembly. Our study links topoisomerase activity to the maintenance of open chromatin and regulating transcription in vivo.
Project description:We report that point mutations causing alteration of the fourth alpha-helix (alpha4-helix) of the CAP homology domain of eukaryotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) type II topoisomerases (Ser(740)Trp, Gln(743)Pro, and Thr(744)Pro) change the selection of type II topoisomerase-mediated DNA cleavage sites promoted by Ca(2+) or produced by etoposide, the fluoroquinolone CP-115,953, or mitoxantrone. By contrast, Thr(744)Ala substitution had minimal effect on Ca(2+)- and drug-stimulated DNA cleavage sites, indicating the selectivity of single amino acid substitutions within the alpha4-helix on type II topoisomerase-mediated DNA cleavage. The equivalent mutation in the gene for Escherichia coli gyrase causing Ser(83)Trp also changed the DNA cleavage pattern generated by Ca(2+) or quinolones. Finally, Thr(744)Pro substitution in the yeast type II topoisomerase rendered the enzyme sensitive to antibacterial quinolones. This study shows that the alpha4-helix within the conserved CAP homology domain of type II topoisomerases is critical for selecting the sites of DNA cleavage. It also demonstrates that selective amino acid residues in the alpha4-helix are important in determining the activity and possibly the binding of quinolones to the topoisomerase II-DNA complexes.
Project description:Using a recently developed chemical approach, we have generated a genome-wide map of nucleosomes in vivo in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) at base pair resolution. The shorter linker length previously identified in S. pombe is due to a preponderance of nucleosomes separated by ?4/5 bp, placing nucleosomes on opposite faces of the DNA. The periodic dinucleotide feature thought to position nucleosomes is equally strong in exons as in introns, demonstrating that nucleosome positioning information can be superimposed on coding information. Unlike the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, A/T-rich sequences are enriched in S. pombe nucleosomes, particularly at ±20 bp around the dyad. This difference in nucleosome binding preference gives rise to a major distinction downstream of the transcription start site, where nucleosome phasing is highly predictable by A/T frequency in S. pombe but not in S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the genomes and DNA binding preferences of nucleosomes have coevolved in different species. The poly (dA-dT) tracts affect but do not deplete nucleosomes in S. pombe, and they prefer special rotational positions within the nucleosome, with longer tracts enriched in the 10- to 30-bp region from the dyad. S. pombe does not have a well-defined nucleosome-depleted region immediately upstream of most transcription start sites; instead, the -1 nucleosome is positioned with the expected spacing relative to the +1 nucleosome, and its occupancy is negatively correlated with gene expression. Although there is generally very good agreement between nucleosome maps generated by chemical cleavage and micrococcal nuclease digestion, the chemical map shows consistently higher nucleosome occupancy on DNA with high A/T content.
Project description:Cell-cycle-dependent protein levels and phosphorylation of DNA topoisomerase II in relation to its catalytic and cleavage activities were studied in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Immunoreactive topoisomerase II protein levels were maximal in G2-phase cells, intermediate in S- and M-phase cells, and minimal in a predominantly G1-phase population. When the phosphorylation of topoisomerase II in vivo was corrected for differences in specific radioactivity of intracellular ATP, the apparent phosphorylation of S- and M-phase topoisomerase II was altered significantly. Relative phosphorylation in vivo was found to be greatest in M-phase cells and decreased in the other populations in the order: S > G2 > asynchronous. Phosphoserine was detected in every phase of the cell cycle, with a minor contribution of phosphothreonine demonstrated in M-phase cells. Topoisomerase II activity measured in vivo as 9-(4,6-O-ethylidene-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-4'-demethylepipodophylloto xin (VP-16)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (determined by neutral filter elution) increased in the order: asynchronous < S < G2 < M. Topoisomerase II cleavage activity, assayed in vitro as the formation of covalent enzyme-DNA complexes, was lowest in S phase, intermediate in asynchronous and G2-phase cells, and maximal in M phase. Topoisomerase II decatenation activity was 1.6-1.8-fold greater in S-, G2- and M-phase populations relative to asynchronous cells. Therefore DNA topoisomerase II activity measured both in vivo and in vitro is maximal in M phase, that phase of the cell cycle with an intermediate level of immunoreactive topoisomerase II but the highest level of enzyme phosphorylation. The discordance between immunoreactive topoisomerase II protein levels, adjusted relative phosphorylation, catalytic activity, cleavage activity and amino acid residue(s) modified, suggests that the site of phosphorylation may be cell-cycle-dependent and critical in determining catalytic and cleavage activity.
Project description:The general model presented here for the formation of chromatin domains, LADs and TADs, is primarily based on the 3-D structures of the corresponding DNA sequences, the GC-poor and GC-rich isochores. Indeed, the low-heterogeneity GC-poor isochores locally are intrinsically stiff and curved because of the presence of interspersed oligo-Adenines. In contrast, the high-heterogeneity GC-rich isochores are in the shape of peaks characterized by increasing levels of GC and of interspersed oligo-Guanines. In LADs, oligo-Adenines induce local nucleosome depletions leading to structures that are well suited for the attachment to (and embedding in) the lamina. In TADs, the gradients of GC and of oligo-Guanines are responsible for a decreasing nucleosome density, decreasing supercoiling and increasing accessibility. This "moulding step" shapes the "primary TADs" into loops that lack self-interactions, being CTCF/cohesin-free structures. The cohesin complex then binds to the tips of "primary TADs" and slides down the loops, thanks to Nipbl, an essential factor for loading cohesin and for stimulating its ATPase activity and its translocation. This "extruding step" leads to closer contacts and to self-interactions in the loops and stops at the CTCF binding sites located at the base of the loops that are thus closed and insulated.
Project description:Topoisomerase II modulates DNA topology by generating double-stranded breaks in DNA. Results of the current study indicate that the presence of a nick at one scissile bond dramatically increases the rate of cleavage by human topoisomerase IIalpha at the scissile bond on the opposite strand. We propose that this enhanced activity at the second strand coordinates the two protomer subunits of topoisomerase II and allows the enzyme to create double-stranded breaks. Finally, the presence of a nick on one strand induces cleavage on the opposite strand. Thus, nicks are topoisomerase II poisons that generate novel sites of DNA cleavage.