Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States: Analysis of Healthcare Claims Data in the Commercial, Medicare, and Medi-Cal Databases.
ABSTRACT: Comparative data on the burden of atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults relative to the general population are limited. We performed a large-scale evaluation of the burden of disease among US adults with AD relative to matched non-AD controls, encompassing comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), and costs, using healthcare claims data. The impact of AD disease severity on these outcomes was also evaluated.Adult AD patients in the Commercial (n = 83,106), Medicare (n = 31,060), and Medi-Cal (n = 5550) databases were matched (1:1) to non-AD controls by demographic characteristics. AD patients were stratified by disease severity (higher, lower) using treatment as a surrogate measure of severity. The comorbidity burden, HCRU, and costs were evaluated during a 12-month follow-up period.In the Commercial, Medicare, and Medi-Cal populations, patients with AD had a significantly higher overall comorbidity burden (P < 0.0001), an increased risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis (both P < 0.0001), higher HCRU (P < 0.05), and higher mean total per patient costs (Commercial: US$10,461 versus US$7187; Medicare: US$16,914 versus US$13,714; Medi-Cal; US$19,462 versus US$10,408; all P < 0.0001), compared with matched non-AD controls. Higher disease severity was associated with an increased comorbidity burden (P < 0.0001), HCRU (P < 0.05), and total costs (Commercial: US$14,580 versus US$7192; Medicare: US$21,779 versus US$12,490; Medi-Cal; US$22,123 versus US$16,639; all P < 0.0001) relative to lower severity disease.In this large-scale, healthcare claims database analysis, AD patients had a significantly higher comorbidity burden, HCRU, and costs compared with matched non-AD controls. Higher disease severity was associated with an even greater comorbidity and economic burden.Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to examine patient characteristics and health care resource utilization (HCRU) in the 36 months prior to a confirmatory diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to a matched cohort without dementia during the same time interval. METHODS:Patients newly diagnosed with AD (with ?2 claims) were identified between January 1, 2013 to September 31, 2015, and the date of the second claim for AD was defined as the index date. Patients were enrolled for at least 36 months prior to index date. The AD cohort was matched to a cohort with no AD or dementia codes (1:3) on age, gender, race/ethnicity, and enrollment duration prior to the index date. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize patient characteristics, HCRU, and healthcare costs prior to the confirmatory AD diagnosis. The classification and regression tree analysis and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with the AD diagnosis. RESULTS:The AD cohort (N?=?16,494) had significantly higher comorbidity indices and greater odds of comorbid mental and behavioral diagnoses, including mild cognitive impairment, mood and anxiety disorders, behavioral disturbances, and cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia than the matched non-AD or dementia cohort (N = 49,482). During the six-month period before the confirmatory AD diagnosis, AD medication use and diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, or mood disorder were the strongest predictors of a subsequent confirmatory diagnosis of AD. Greater HCRU and healthcare costs were observed for the AD cohort primarily during the six-month period before the confirmatory AD diagnosis. CONCLUSION:The results of this study demonstrated a higher comorbidity burden and higher costs for patients prior to a diagnosis of AD in comparison to the matched cohort. Several comorbidities were associated with a subsequent diagnosis of AD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:California's Workers' Compensation System (CAWCS) Department of Industrial Relations questioned the adequacy of the current Medi-Cal fee-schedule pricing and requested analysis of alternatives that maximize price availability and maintain budget neutrality. OBJECTIVES:To compare CAWCS pharmacy-dispensed (PD) drug prices under alternative fee schedules, and identify combinations of alternative benchmarks that have prices available for the largest percentage of PD drugs and that best reach budget neutrality. METHODS:Claims transaction-level data (2011-2013) from CAWCS were used to estimate total annual PD pharmaceutical payments. Medi-Cal pricing data was from the Workman's Compensation Insurance System (WCIS). Average Wholesale Prices (AWP), Wholesale Acquisition Costs (WAC), Direct Prices (DP), Federal Upper Limit (FUL) prices, and National Average Drug Acquisition Costs (NADAC) were from Medi-Span. We matched National Drug Codes (NDCs), pricing dates, and drug quantity for comparisons. We report pharmacy-dispensed (PD) claims frequency, reimbursement matching rate, and paid costs by CAWCS as the reference price against all alternative price benchmarks. RESULTS:Of 12,529,977 CAWCS claims for pharmaceutical products 11.6% (1,462,814) were for PD drugs. Prescription drug cost for CAWCS was over $152M; $63.9M, $47.9M, and $40.6M in 2011-2013. Ninety seven percent of these CAWCS PD claims had a Medi-Cal price. Alternative mechanisms provided a price for fewer claims; NADAC 94.23%, AWP 90.94%, FUL 73.11%, WAC 66.98%, and DP 14.33%. Among CAWCS drugs with no Medi-Cal price in PD claims, AWP, WAC, NADAC, DP, and FUL provided prices for 96.7%, 63.14%, 24.82%, 20.83%, and 15.08% of claims. Overall CAWCS paid 100.52% of Medi-Cal, 60% of AWP, 97% of WAC, 309.53% of FUL, 103.83% of DP, and 136.27% of NADAC. CONCLUSIONS:CAWCS current Medi-Cal fee-schedule price list for PD drugs is more complete than all alternative fee-schedules. However, all reimbursement approaches would require combinations of pricing benchmarks. We suggest keeping primary reimbursement at 100% of Medi-Cal and for drugs without a primary Medi-Cal price calculating the maximum fee as 60% of AWP and then 97% of WAC. Alternatively, we suggest using NADAC as a primary fee-schedule followed by either 60% AWP and 97% WAC or AWP-40% for drugs with no NADAC price. Fee-schedules may not offer the best price and a formulary approach may provide more flexibility.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study sought to compare healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), costs, and workplace productivity among patients with depression, with and without overactive bladder (OAB). METHODS:This retrospective, case-control cohort analysis compares HCRU, costs, and workplace productivity among propensity score matched patients with depression and OAB (case cohort) and patients with depression without OAB (control cohort). Patients were aged 18 years or older, insured/on Medicare, and had diagnosed depression and an antidepressant medication claim pre index. First OAB-related event was index for cases; controls were assigned a proxy (study period 12 months). Comparisons of HCRU and costs and regression models assessed the relationship between OAB and costs. For the workplace productivity subset analyses cases and controls were balanced on baseline covariates for the short-term disability analyses but as they were unbalanced for the absentee analyses, multivariate regression analyses were used for this subset. RESULTS:The study criteria were met by 39,085 cases and 308,736 controls, from which, 37,997 patients were successfully matched 1:1 (mean age 55 years; 81% female). Most depression-related HCRU measures were similar across cohorts; however, outpatient visits, ER visits, and number of unique depression medications were significantly higher (all p?<?0.05) among cases. Cases also had 13% higher total depression-related costs (p?<?0.0001). Total mean (standard deviation [SD]) depression-related costs were $1796 ($4235) for cases versus $1597 ($3863) for controls (p?<?0.0001). For workplace productivity (absentee data: cases [n?=?686], controls [n?=?642]; short-term disability data: cases [n?=?4395], controls [n?=?4433]) absentee outcomes were similar across cohorts. However, a higher percentage of cases used short-term disability benefits compared to controls (21.3% versus 16.9%; p?<?0.0001) and cases experienced more case days (11.0 versus 8.6 mean days) and received higher mean payments than controls ($1226 versus $1033; p?<?0.0001) in this subset. CONCLUSIONS:OAB was associated with 13% higher depression-related costs and 4.4% more cases used short-term disability benefits.
Project description:Although the global economic burden of asthma is well described, detailed data regarding Asia, particularly for Japan, are relatively scarce. This retrospective study aims to fill this evidence gap by evaluating asthma-associated healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and economic burden in Japanese patients aged ≥16 years, identified using anonymized patient data from the Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) database from April 2009 to March 2015. Asthma severity was classified according to asthma treatment guidelines from the Japanese Society of Allergology. HCRU was calculated based on hospitalizations, emergency room visits, outpatient visits, and prescriptions. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for HCRU and per-patient-per-year direct costs were reported. In addition, differences across HCRU and cost variables for severe versus non-severe asthma patients were also compared. Of 541,434 asthma cases identified from the JMDC database during the study period, 54,433 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. HCRU and costs were heavily concentrated within severe asthma, a subgroup comprising 12.7% of total study population. Moreover, patients with severe asthma had significantly higher all-cause hospitalizations, outpatient visits, outpatient prescriptions (IRR [95% CI], 1.60 [1.46-1.76]; 1.43 [1.41-1.45]; 1.24 [1.22-1.25], respectively), and total medical costs (mean ± SD costs, US$ 4345 ± 11,104 versus US$ 1528 ± 3989, P < 0.001 (t-test); US$ 1 = 110 JPY) compared with those with non-severe asthma. The burden of asthma is significantly and disproportionately concentrated in Japanese severe asthma patients, suggesting clinical failure to achieve adequate disease control. This study highlights the unmet needs for severe asthma in Japan and provides a catalyst for important dialogues in advancing public health.
Project description:Limited evidence exists on the clinical and economic burden of advanced fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) due to the invasiveness of liver biopsies for accurately staging liver disease. The fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score allows for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by using clinical and laboratory data alone. This study aimed to characterize the comorbidity burden, health care resource use (HCRU), and costs among patients with NAFLD/NASH with FIB-4-defined F3 (bridging fibrosis) and F4 (compensated cirrhosis) fibrosis. Using the Optum Research Database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 251,725 commercially insured adult patients with ?1 NAFLD/NASH diagnosis from January 1, 2008, to August 31, 2016, and laboratory data required to calculate FIB-4 scores. Five criteria using varying FIB-4 score cutoffs were identified based on expert clinical opinion and published literature. Date of the first valid FIB-4 score marked the index date. Mean annual HCRU and costs were calculated during the pre-index and post-index periods. The prevalence of FIB-4-based F3 and F4 fibrosis was 0.40%-2.72% and 1.03%-1.61%, respectively. Almost 50% of patients identified with FIB-4-based F3 or F4 had type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or renal impairment. Total all-cause health care costs increased significantly from pre-index to post-index for patients with FIB-4-based F3 fibrosis across most criteria (17%-29% increase) and patients with FIB-4-based F4 fibrosis across all criteria (47%-48% increase). Inpatient costs were the primary drivers of this increment. Conclusion: Significant increases in HCRU and costs were observed following FIB-4-based identification of F3 and F4 fibrosis among U.S. adults with NAFLD/NASH. These data suggest the importance of early identification and management of NAFLD/NASH that may halt or reduce the risk of disease progression and limit the underlying burden.
Project description:Aims:Hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with poor health outcomes, such as reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to assess the impact of hypoglycaemic events by severity on HRQoL, work productivity and healthcare costs in patients with T2DM. Materials and Methods:European patients with T2DM selected from the National Health and Wellness Survey who were currently receiving pharmacologic therapy were stratified into 3 groups based on the reported history and severity of hypoglycaemic events (no event, nonsevere, severe) experienced in the previous 3 months. Patients' work productivity, HRQoL, healthcare resource use (HCRU) and associated costs were assessed as self-reported outcomes. Results:Of 1269 patients included in the study, 652 (51.4%) patients had not experienced an event, while 533 (42.0%) and 84 (6.6%) patients had experienced nonsevere and severe hypoglycaemic events, respectively, in the previous 3 months. An increase in hypoglycaemia severity was associated with a decrease in HRQoL, and an increase in HCRU and healthcare costs. Conclusions:The impact of hypoglycaemia varies by severity and has a negative impact on HRQoL and overall HCRU and costs.
Project description:The real-world evidence on the profiles of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) in Japan is sparse. A retrospective claim database analysis was conducted to estimate the health-care resource use (HCRU) and current AD treatment. Data from October 2013 to September 2016 were extracted from the JMDC (Tokyo, Japan) claims database. HCRU was assessed by a comparison of AD patients and matched non-AD controls. A multivariate analysis was performed to estimate HCRU attributable to AD. AD patients (n = 39 893) have more claims of certain diagnoses such as rhinitis, viral and fungal infections, sleep disorders and conjunctivitis as well as higher HCRU (outpatient visits, prescriptions of AD-related and non-AD-related medications, phototherapy, laboratory tests) than matched non-AD controls (n = 39 893). Treatment pattern analysis included treatment-naive patients (n = 8478) and previously treated AD patients (n = 30 109). Approximately 20% of previously treated patients were on the continuous systemic treatment during 18-month follow up. Systemic corticosteroids were the most frequently used systemic treatments. Oral cyclosporin was less frequently used in both groups, but for the longest duration. Almost half of previously treated patients with oral cyclosporin continued treatment for more than 3 months. In conclusion, HCRU was higher in AD patients than non-AD controls, indicating a high burden of the disease imposed on AD patients. Continuous administration of systemic treatment, such as oral cyclosporin, systemic corticosteroids and phototherapy, observed in AD patients sheds light on the difficulties of managing AD in Japanese clinical practise.
Project description:To conduct a systematic review of all studies to determine whether there is an association between the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and cognitive impairment.We conducted a comprehensive search of the major databases and hand-searched proceedings of major neurology, psychiatry, and dementia conferences through November 2012. Prospective cohort studies examining the MeDi with longitudinal follow-up of at least 1 year and reporting cognitive outcomes (mild cognitive impairment [MCI] or Alzheimer's disease [AD]) were included. The effect size was estimated as hazard-ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q-test and I2-statistic.Out of the 664 studies screened, five studies met eligibility criteria. Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with reduced risk of MCI and AD. The subjects in the highest MeDi tertile had 33% less risk (adjusted HR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55-0.81; p < 0.0001) of cognitive impairment (MCI or AD) as compared to the lowest MeDi score tertile. Among cognitively normal individuals, higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96; p = 0.02) and AD (HR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46-0.89; p = 0.007). There was no significant heterogeneity in the analyses.While the overall number of studies is small, pooled results suggest that a higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with a reduced risk of developing MCI and AD, and a reduced risk of progressing from MCI to AD. Further prospective-cohort studies with longer follow-up and randomized controlled trials are warranted to consolidate the evidence. Systematic review registration number: PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013003868.
Project description:The economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and costs attributable to primary CDI and recurrent CDI (rCDI).This is a database (MarketScan) study. Patients without CDI were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI but no recurrences to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI. Patients with primary CDI but no recurrences were matched 1:1 by propensity score to those with primary CDI plus 1 recurrence in order to obtain HCRU and costs attributable to rCDI. Adjusted estimates for incremental cumulative hospitalized days and healthcare costs over a 6-month follow-up period were obtained by generalized linear models with a Poisson or gamma distribution and a log link. Bootstrapping was used to obtain 95% confidence intervals (CIs).A total of 55504 eligible CDI patients were identified. Approximately 25% of these CDI patients had rCDI. The cumulative hospitalized days attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were 5.20 days (95% CI, 5.01-5.39) and 1.95 days (95% CI, 1.48-2.43), respectively. The healthcare costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI over the 6-month follow-up period were $24205 (95% CI, $23436-$25013) and $10580 (95% CI, $8849-$12446), respectively.The HCRU and costs attributable to primary CDI and rCDI are quite substantial. It is necessary to reduce the burden of CDI, especially rCDI.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:A worsening heart failure event (WHFE) is defined as progressively escalating heart failure signs/symptoms requiring intravenous diuretic treatment or hospitalization. No studies have compared the burden of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) following a WHFE versus stable disease to inform healthcare decision makers. METHODS:A retrospective study using the IBM® MarketScan® Commercial Database included patients younger than 65 years of age with HFrEF (one inpatient or two outpatient claims of systolic HF or one outpatient claim of systolic HF plus one outpatient claim of any HF). The first claim for HFrEF during 2016 was the index date. Patients were followed for the first 12 months after the index date (the worsening assessment period) to identify a WHFE, and for an additional 12 months or until the end of continuous enrollment (the post-worsening assessment period). Mean per patient per month (PPPM) health care resource use (HCRU) and costs were compared between patients following a WHFE and stable patients during the two periods using generalized linear models adjusting for patient characteristics. RESULTS:Of 16,646 patients with chronic HFrEF, 26.8% developed a WHFE. Adjusted all-cause hospitalizations (0.16 vs. 0.02 PPPM, P?<?0.0001), outpatient visits (3.54 vs. 2.73 PPPM, P?<?0.0001), and emergency department visits (0.25 vs. 0.06 PPPM, P?<?0.0001) were higher in patients following a WHFE than stable patients during the worsening assessment period. Similar differences in HCRU were observed between the two cohorts during the post-worsening assessment period. Mean total adjusted cost of care PPPM was $8657 in patients with HFrEF following a WHFE versus $2195 in stable patients during the worsening assessment period, and $6809 versus $2849, respectively, during the post-worsening assessment period. CONCLUSION:HCRU and costs were significantly greater in patients with chronic HFrEF following a WHFE compared to those who remained stable, suggesting an unmet need to improve clinical and economic outcomes among these patients.