Degradable Hollow Mesoporous Silicon/Carbon Nanoparticles for Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Highly Effective Chemo-Thermal Tumor Therapy in Vitro and in Vivo.
ABSTRACT: The development of nanoscaled theranostic agents for cancer combination therapies has received intensive attention in recent years. In this report, a degradable hollow mesoporous PEG-Si/C-DOX NP is designed and fabricated for pH-responsive, photoacoustic imaging-guided highly effective chemo-thermal combination therapy. The intrinsic hollow mesoporous structure endows the as-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) with a high drug loading capacity (31.1%). Under NIR (808 nm) irradiation, the photothermal conversion efficiency of the Si/C NPs is as high as 40.7%. Preferential accumulation of the PEG-Si/C-DOX NPs around tumor tissue was demonstrated with photoacoustic images. Cellular internalization of the NPs and release of the DOX in nuclei are shown with fluorescent images. With efficient NIR photothermal conversion and high DOX loading capacity, the PEG-Si/C-DOX NPs are demonstrated to have remarkable cancer-cell-killing ability and to achieve complete in vivo tumor elimination via combinational chemo-thermal therapy. Last but not least, the NPs show good biodegradability and biosafety, making them a promising candidate for multifunctional drug delivery and cancer theranostic.
Project description:Multifunctional polymer-inorganic Janus nanoparticles (JNPs) that simultaneously have therapeutic and imaging functions are highly desired in biomedical applications. Here, we fabricated spherical polydopamine/mesoporous calcium phosphate hollow JNPs (PDA/mCaP H-JNPs) via a novel and facile approach. The obtained PDA/mCaP H-JNPs were further selectively functionalized with indocyanine green (ICG) and methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)thiol (PEG-SH) on PDA domains to achieve a superior photoacoustic (PA) imaging capability and stability, while the other mCaP sides with hollow cavities served as storage spaces and passages for the anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). The resultant PEG-ICG-PDA/mCaP H-JNPs possess excellent biocompatibility, a competent drug loading capability, high photothermal conversion efficiency, strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, and pH/NIR dual-responsive properties, enabling the H-JNPs to be applied for PA imaging-guided synergistic cancer chemo-phototherapy in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the synthetic approach could be extended to prepare PDA/various mesoporous inorganic H-JNPs with spherical shapes for specific applications.
Project description:A facile strategy to fabricate gold nanorod@polyacrylic acid/calcium phosphate (AuNR@PAA/CaP) yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) composed with a PAA/CaP shell and an AuNR yolk is reported. The as-obtained AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs possess ultrahigh doxorubicin (DOX) loading capability (1 mg DOX/mg NPs), superior photothermal conversion property (26%) and pH/near-infrared (NIR) dual-responsive drug delivery performance. The released DOX continuously increased due to the damage of the CaP shell at low pH values. When the DOX-loaded AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs were exposed to NIR irradiation, a burst-like drug release occurs owing to the heat produced by the AuNRs. Furthermore, AuNR@PAA/CaP yolk-shell NPs are successfully employed for synergic dual-mode X-ray computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging and chemo-photothermal cancer therapy. Therefore, this work brings new insights for the synthesis of multifunctional nanomaterials and extends theranostic applications.
Project description:Our exploiting versatile multimodal theranostic agent aims to integrate the complementary superiorities of photoacoustic imaging (PAI), second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1700) fluorescence and T<sub>1</sub>-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an ultimate objective of perfecting cancer diagnosis, thus improving cancer therapy efficacy. Herein, we engineered and prepared a water-soluble gadolinium-chelated conjugated polymer-based theranostic nanomedicine (PFTQ-PEG-Gd NPs) for in vivo tri-mode PA/MR/NIR-II imaging-guided tumor photothermal therapy (PTT). <b>Methods</b>: We firstly constructed a semiconducting polymer composed of low-bandgap donor-acceptor (D-A) which afforded the strong NIR absorption for PAI/PTT and long fluorescence emission to NIR-II region for in vivo imaging. Then, the remaining carboxyl groups of the polymeric NPs could effectively chelate with Gd<sup>3+</sup> ions for MRI. The in vitro characteristics of the PFTQ-PEG-Gd NPs were studied and the in vivo multimode imaging as well as anti-tumor efficacy of the NPs was evaluated using 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. <b>Results</b>: The obtained theranostic agent showed excellent chemical and optical stability as well as low biotoxicity. After 24 h of systemic administration using PQTF-PEG-Gd NPs, the tumor sites of living mice exhibited obvious enhancement in PA, NIR-II fluorescence and positive MR signal intensities. Better still, a conspicuous tumor growth restraint was detected under NIR light irradiation after administration of PQTF-PEG-Gd NPs, indicating the efficient photothermal potency of the nano-agent. <b>Conclusion</b>: we triumphantly designed and synthesized a novel and omnipotent semiconducting polymer nanoparticles-based theranostic platform for PAI, NIR-II fluorescence imaging as well as positive MRI-guided tumor PTT in living mice. We expect that such a novel organic nano-platform manifests a great promise for high spatial resolution and deep penetration cancer theranostics.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Theranostic nanomaterials composed of fluorescent and photothermal agents can both image and provide a method of disease treatment in clinical oncology. For in vivo use, the near-infrared (NIR) window has been the focus of the majority of studies, because of greater light penetration due to lower absorption and scatter of biological components. Therefore, having both fluorescent and photothermal agents with optical properties in the NIR provides the best chance of improved theranostic capabilities utilizing nanotechnology.<h4>Methods</h4>We developed nonplasmonic multi-dye theranostic silica nanoparticles (MDT-NPs), combining NIR fluorescence visualization and photothermal therapy within a single nanoconstruct comprised of molecular components. A modified NIR fluorescent heptamethine cyanine dye was covalently incorporated into a mesoporous silica matrix and a hydrophobic metallo-naphthalocyanine dye with large molar absorptivity was loaded into the pores of these fluorescent particles. The imaging and therapeutic capabilities of these nanoparticles were demonstrated in vivo using a direct tumor injection model.<h4>Results</h4>The fluorescent nanoparticles are bright probes (300-fold enhancement in quantum yield versus free dye) that have a large Stokes shift (>110 nm). Incorporation of the naphthalocyanine dye and exposure to NIR laser excitation results in a temperature increase of the surrounding environment of the MDT-NPs. Tumors injected with these NPs are easily visible with NIR imaging and produce significantly elevated levels of tumor necrosis (95%) upon photothermal ablation compared with controls, as evaluated by bioluminescence and histological analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MDT-NPs are novel, multifunctional nanomaterials that have optical properties dependent upon the unique incorporation of NIR fluorescent and NIR photothermal dyes within a mesoporous silica platform.
Project description:Optical nanomaterials with intense absorption in near-infrared (NIR) region hold great promise for biomedical applications such as photothermal therapy (PTT) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). In this work, we report mesoporous carbon nanospheres (Meso-CNs) with broadband and intense absorption in the UV-Vis-NIR region (300-1400 nm) and explore their potential as a multifunctional platform for photoacoustic imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy. Methods: Meso-CNs were prepared by a "silica-assisted" synthesis strategy and characterized by transmission electron microscope and optical spectroscopy. We investigated the photothermal conversion and photoacoustic imaging of Meso-CNs in comparison with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), graphene and gold nanorods (GNRs). In vitro cellular assays and in vivo chemo-photothermal combination therapy were performed. Results: The absorption coefficients of Meso-CNs are 1.5-2 times higher than those of SWCNTs and graphene and are comparable to those of GNRs in both the first and the second near-infrared optical windows (NIR-I and NIR-II) of tissues. When exposed to an NIR laser, the photothermal and photoacoustic signal generation of Meso-CNs are also stronger than those of SWCNTs, graphene, and GNRs. DOX was loaded into Meso-CNs with a high efficiency (35 wt%) owing to the unique mesoporous structure. Particularly, the drug release from Meso-CNs is sensitive to both pH and NIR light stimulation. In vivo chemo-photothermal combination therapy demonstrates a remarkable inhibition effect on tumor growth under NIR laser treatment. Conclusions: We have developed Meso-CNs for photothermal conversion and photoacoustic imaging. The porous structure also serves as a drug carrier and the drug release can be controlled by pH and external light. The high drug loading capacity, superior photothermal and photoacoustic generation, together with the apparent chemo-photothermal therapeutic effect, make Meso-CNs a promising platform for cancer theranostics.
Project description:Organic chromophores have been well developed for multimodality imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) due to their outstanding optical properties and excellent designability. However, the theranostic efficiencies of most currently available organic chromophores are restricted intrinsically, owing to their poor photostability or complex synthesis procedures. These drawbacks not only increase their cost of synthesis, but also cause side effects in PTT.Method: We presented a facile strategy for constructing a near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing perylenediimide structured with pH-responsive piperazine ring at the bay region. The chromophore was conjugated with carboxyl-end-capped PEG as side chains that can self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution. The NIR optical properties and photothermal conversation ability of PPDI-NPs were investigated. We then studied the imaging-guided PTT of PPDI-NPs under NIR light illumination in 4T1 cells and mice respectively.Results: The excellent photostable PPDI-NPs had near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) emission and high photothermal conversion efficiency in acidic microenvironment. Importantly, PPDI-NPs can be utilized for the precise detection of tumors by NIRF/photoacoustic/thermal trimodality imaging. Efficient PTT of PPDI-NPs was applied in vitro and in vivo with high biosafety.Conclusion: In summary, we developed pH-responsive perylenediimide nanoparticles as multifunctional phototheranostic agent with high stability and simple synthesis procedures. This study offers a promising organic chromophore for developing phototheranostics in cancer therapy.
Project description:Photothermal ablation (PTA) is an emerging technique that uses near-infrared (NIR) laser light-generated heat to destroy tumor cells. However, complete eradication of tumor cells with PTA is difficult because of uneven heat distribution in the treatment volume. We hypothesized that combining PTA with chemotherapy using a single multifunctional nanoconstruct that mediates simultaneous photothermal cell killing and drug release (photothermal-chemotherapy) would result in enhanced antitumor activity and reduced toxicity compared to chemotherapy alone. Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded to hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of both DOX and HAuNS in the resulting nanoconstruct, DOX@PEG-HAuNS having different DOX:PEG:HAuNS ratios, were evaluated using dual isotope labeling techniques. The antitumor activity of DOX@PEG-HAuNS with DOX:PEG:HAuNS weight ratio of 1:3:1 (NP3) in combination with NIR laser was studied in vitro and in vivo using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In vitro, NP3 mediated PTA of both cancer cells and DOX release upon NIR laser treatment. In vivo, NP3 showed slower clearance in blood and greater accumulation in tumors than free DOX. NP3-plus-NIR laser demonstrated greater antitumor activity than free DOX, NP3, or liposomal DOX. Moreover, NP3 displayed significantly decreased systemic toxicity compared to free DOX or liposomal DOX. Enhanced antitumor effect with NP3-plus-laser can be attributed to both the cytotoxic effect of DOX released from NP3 and the photothermal effect mediated by HAuNS. Slow release of DOX from NP3 in normal tissues contributed to reduced systemic toxicity. Photothermal-chemotherapy exemplified by a single-agent nanoconstruct NP3 is a promising approach to anticancer therapy.
Project description:The development of nanotheranostic agents that integrate diagnosis and therapy for effective personalized precision medicine has obtained tremendous attention in the past few decades. In this report, biocompatible electron donor-acceptor conjugated semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (PPor-PEG NPs) with light-harvesting unit is prepared and developed for highly effective photoacoustic imaging guided photothermal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the concept of light-harvesting unit is exploited for enhancing the photoacoustic signal and photothermal energy conversion in polymer-based theranostic agent. Combined with additional merits including donor-acceptor pair to favor electron transfer and fluorescence quenching effect after NP formation, the photothermal conversion efficiency of the PPor-PEG NPs is determined to be 62.3%, which is the highest value among reported polymer NPs. Moreover, the as-prepared PPor-PEG NP not only exhibits a remarkable cell-killing ability but also achieves 100% tumor elimination, demonstrating its excellent photothermal therapeutic efficacy. Finally, the as-prepared water-dispersible PPor-PEG NPs show good biocompatibility and biosafety, making them a promising candidate for future clinical applications in cancer theranostics.
Project description:Multifunctional supramolecular nanoplatforms that integrate the advantages of different therapeutic techniques can trigger multimodal synergistic treatment of tumors, thus representing an emerging powerful tool for cancer therapeutics. Methods: In this work, we design and fabricate a multifunctional supramolecular drug delivery platform, namely Fa-mPEG@CP5-CuS@HMSN-Py nanoparticles (FaPCH NPs), consisting of a pyridinium (Py)-modified hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles-based drug reservoir (HMSN-Py) with high loading capacity, a layer of NIR-operable carboxylatopillararene (CP5)-functionalized CuS nanoparticles (CP5-CuS) on the surface of HMSN-Py connected through supramolecular host-guest interactions between CP5 rings and Py stalks, and another layer of folic acid (Fa)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (Fa-PEG) antennas by electrostatic interactions capable of active targeting at tumor lesions, in a controlled, highly integrated fashion for synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy. Results: Fa-mPEG antennas endowed the enhanced active targeting effect toward cancer cells, and CP5-CuS served as not only a quadruple-stimuli responsive nanogate for controllable drug release but also a special agent for NIR-guided photothermal therapy. Meanwhile, anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) could be released from the HMSN-Py reservoirs under tumor microenvironments for chemotherapy, thus realizing multimodal synergistic therapeutics. Such a supramolecular drug delivery platform showed effective synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: This novel supramolecular nanoplatform possesses great potential in controlled drug delivery and tumor cellular internalization for synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy, providing a promising approach for multimodal synergistic cancer treatment.
Project description:Hepatic cancer is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality. Theranostic agents with effective diagnostic and therapeutic capability are highly needed for the treatment of hepatic cancer. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel mesoporous polydopamine (MPDA)-based theranostic agent for T1/T2 dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cancer chemo-photothermal therapy. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded MPDA NPs (MPDA@SPIO) was firstly prepared, followed by modifying with a targeted molecule of sialic acid (SA) and chelating with Fe3+ (SA-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs). After that, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded SA-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs (SA-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+) was prepared for tumor theranostics. The prepared SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs were water-dispersible and biocompatible as evidenced by MTT assay. In vitro photothermal and relaxivity property suggested that the novel theranostic agent possessed excellent photothermal conversion capability and photostability, with relaxivity of being r1 = 4.29 mM-1s-1 and r2 = 105.53 mM-1s-1, respectively. SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs could effectively encapsulate the DOX, showing dual pH- and thermal-triggered drug release behavior. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that SA-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs could effectively target to the hepatic tumor tissue, which was possibly due to the specific interaction between SA and the overexpressed E-selectin. This behavior also endowed SA-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs with a more precise T1-T2 dual mode contrast imaging effect than the one without SA modification. In addition, SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs displayed a superior therapeutic effect, which was due to its active targeting ability and combined effects of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. These results demonstrated that SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs is an effective targeted nanoplatform for tumor theranostics, having potential value in the effective treatment of hepatic cancer.