Development of a Hypertension Health Literacy Assessment Tool for use in primary healthcare clinics in South Africa, Gauteng.
ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a universal risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both the ageing and obese populations and patients must be literate in hypertension health issues to participate actively in the management of their disease. Little research has been done to investigate hypertension health literacy levels among South Africans.To develop a Hypertension Heath Literacy Assessment Tool to establish patients' comprehension of the health education they receive in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in Tshwane, Gauteng, South Africa.PHC clinics in Tshwane, Gauteng, South Africa.The design was quantitative, descriptive and contextual in nature. The study population comprised health promoters who were experts in the field of health, documents containing hypertension health education content and individuals with hypertension. Participants were conveniently and purposefully selected. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop and validate the Hypertension Health Literacy Assessment Tool (HHLAT). To ensure validity and reliability of the HHLAT, the tool was administered to 195 participants concurrently with the Learning Ability Battery (LAB).There was a strong positive (F = 76.0, p < 0.0001, R2 = 28.25%) correlation between the LAB and the HHLAT. The HHLAT indicated that only 37 (19%) of the patients with hypertension had poor hypertension health literacy levels.The HHLAT is a valid tool that can be used in busy PHC clinics as it takes less than two minutes to administer. This tool can inform the healthcare worker on the depth of hypertension health education to be given to the patient, empowering the patient and saving time in PHC facilities.
Project description:PURPOSE:Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have an appreciable impact on patients' health. Little is known however about ADR reporting in ambulatory care environments especially in low- and middle-income countries. Consequently, our aim was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among health care professionals (HCPs) towards ADR reporting in primary health care (PHC) facilities in South Africa. The findings will be used to direct future activities. METHODS:Descriptive, cross-sectional design using quantitative methodology among 8 public sector community health care centres and 40 PHC clinics in the Tshwane Health District, Gauteng Province. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 218 HCPs, including all key groups. RESULTS:A total of 200 responses were received (91.7%). Although an appropriate attitude towards ADR reporting existed, the actual frequency of ADR reporting was low (16.0%). Of the respondents, 60.5% did not know how to report, where to report or when to report an ADR and 51.5% said the level of their clinical knowledge made it difficult to decide whether or not an ADR had occurred. Over 97.5% stated they should be reporting ADRs with 89% feeling that ADR reporting is a professional obligation and over 70% that ADR reporting should be compulsory. When results were combined, the overall mean score in terms of positive or preferred practices for ADR reporting was 24.6% with pharmacists having the highest scores. CONCLUSION:Under-reporting of ADRs with gaps in KAP was evident. There is a serious and urgent need for education and training of HCPs on ADR reporting in South Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2010 South Africa revised its HIV treatment guidelines to allow the initiation and management of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by nurses, rather than solely doctors, under a program called NIMART (Nurse Initiated and Managed Antiretroviral Therapy). We compared the outcomes and costs of NIMART between the two major public sector HIV treatment delivery models in use in South Africa today, primary health clinics and hospital-based HIV clinics. METHODS AND FINDINGS:The study was conducted at one hospital-based outpatient HIV clinic and one primary health clinic (PHC) in Gauteng Province. A retrospective cohort of adult patients initiated on ART at the PHC was propensity-score matched to patients initiated at the hospital outpatient clinic. Each patient was assigned a 12-month outcome of alive and in care or died/lost to follow up. Costs were estimated from the provider perspective for the 12 months after ART initiation. The proportion of patients alive and in care at 12 months did not differ between the PHC (76.5%) and the hospital-based site (74.2%). The average annual cost per patient alive and in care at 12 months after ART initiation was significantly lower at the PHC (US$238) than at the hospital outpatient clinic (US$428). CONCLUSIONS:Initiating and managing ART patients at PHCs under NIMART is producing equally good outcomes as hospital-based HIV clinic care at much lower cost. Evolution of hospital-based clinics into referral facilities that serve complicated patients, while investing most program expansion resources into PHCs, may be a preferred strategy for achieving treatment coverage targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The high co-morbidity of mental disorders, particularly depression, with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), is concerning given the rising burden of NCDs globally, and the role depression plays in confounding prevention and treatment of NCDs. The objective of this randomised control trial (RCT) is to determine the real-world effectiveness of strengthened depression identification and management on depression outcomes in hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) facilities in South Africa (SA). METHODS/DESIGN:The study design is a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel-cluster RCT, the unit of randomisation being the clinics, with outcomes being measured for individual participants. The 20 largest eligible clinics from one district in the North West Province are enrolled in the trial. Equal numbers of hypertensive patients (n = 50) identified as having depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) are enrolled from each clinic, making up a total of 1000 participants with 500 in each arm. The nurse clinicians in the control facilities receive the standard training in Primary Care 101 (PC101), a clinical decision support tool for integrated chronic care that includes guidelines for hypertension and depression care. Referral pathways available include referrals to PHC physicians, clinical or counselling psychologists and outpatient psychiatric and psychological services. In the intervention clinics, this training is supplemented with strengthened training in the depression components of PC101 as well as training in clinical communication skills for nurse-led chronic care. Referral pathways are strengthened through the introduction of a facility-based behavioural health counsellor, trained to provide structured manualised counselling for depression and adherence counselling for all chronic conditions. The primary outcome is defined as at least 50% reduction in PHQ-9 score measured at 6 months. DISCUSSION:This trial should provide evidence of the real world effectiveness of strengtheneddepression identification and collaborative management on health outcomes of hypertensive patients withcomorbid depression attending PHC facilities in South Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION:South African National Clinical Trial Register: SANCTR ( http://www.sanctr.gov.za/SAClinicalTrials ) (DOH-27-0916-5051). Registered on 9 April 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov : ID: NCT02425124 . Registered on 22 April 2015.
Project description:Background:Understanding of risk factors and developing healthy lifestyles is a way of tackling the surging burden of chronic diseases in low-to-middle income countries such as Nepal. Health literacy (HL) has a pivotal role in prevention, adherence to treatment, self-care, and better use of health care; therefore, factors associated with HL need to be studied in the context of Nepal. Objective:This study was conducted to assess the level of HL and explore disease-specific knowledge among patients with chronic diseases. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted among 426 respondents with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a tertiary care hospital and primary care clinics using face-to-face interviews. HL was measured using a translated and pretested HL questionnaire (the Europe-Asia Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire). Disease-related knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Key Results:The study found that 27% of the respondents had sufficient HL, 19% had marginal HL, and 54% had inadequate HL. Factors associated with inadequate HL included being older and female, and having lower or no education, unemployment or retired status, poverty, and having a history of smoking or a history of consuming alcohol. HL was a strong predictor of knowledge regarding hypertension (? = 0.32; p < .05), diabetes mellitus (? = 0.41; p < .05), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (? = 0.37; p < .05) in multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age, gender, education, marriage, family history of disease, attendance at follow-up clinics at recommended intervals, information received regarding disease at clinics, smoking, and alcohol intake. Conclusions:A sufficient level of HL was uncommon among participants in our study. People with sufficient HL knew significantly more about their diseases or conditions than those with inadequate HL. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2018;2(4):e221-e230.]. Plain Language Summary:Very little is known about health literacy in Nepal. We conducted a study to learn how much people in Nepal with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease knew about their condition and sought to check its association with health literacy. We found that more than one-half of the participants did not have adequate health literacy levels. Participants who were older, female, uneducated, retired from work, or poor had lower levels of health literacy. We also found that those with high levels of health literacy had better knowledge of their disease. Therefore, we recommend that in Nepal health literacy should be measured for each patient and support regarding management of his or her condition should be provided if necessary.
Project description:Aim: We aimed to assess adult primary health care (PHC) users' understanding of their medication information in a transitional South Eastern European population across seven domains. Methods: A cross-sectional study, carried out in Albania in 2018-19, included a representative sample of 1,553 PHC users aged ?18 years (55% women; overall mean age: 54.6 ± 16.4 years; overall response rate: 94%). Participants were asked about their understanding of information they received from their respective family physicians about prescribed medicines in terms of factors like cost, dosage, and side-effects. Socio-demographic data were also gathered. Binary logistic regression was employed to assess the socio-demographic predictors of information about medication use and administration. Results: Across different aspects of use and administration, 21-60% of participants did not understand their medications. Less understanding of medication use was particularly high among the poor and those with low education and among urban residents, irrespective of socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study provides important evidence about the level and socio-demographic determinants on understanding of information about medication use and administration among adult PHC users in a transitional former communist country in South Eastern Europe. Policymakers should be aware of the joint role and interplay between health literacy (demand side) and information provision (supply side), which both significantly influence the understanding of medication use by the general population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The World Health Organization (WHO) called for new clinical diagnostic for settings with limited access to laboratory services. Access to diagnostic testing may not be uniform in rural settings, which may result in poor access to essential healthcare services. The aim of this study is to determine the availability, current usage, and need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests among rural primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province. METHODS:We used the KZN's Department of Health (DoH) clinic classification to identify the 232 rural PHC clinics in KZN, South Africa. We then randomly sampled 100 of 232 rural PHC clinics. Selected health clinics were surveyed between April to August 2015 to obtain clinic-level data for health-worker volume and to determine the accessibility, availability, usage and need for POC tests. Professional healthcare workers responsible for POC testing at each clinic were interviewed to assess the awareness of POC testing. Data were survey weighted and analysed using Stata 13. RESULTS:Among 100 rural clinics, the average number of patients seen per week was 2865?±?2231 (range 374-11,731). The average number of POC tests available and in use was 6.3 (CI: 6.2-6.5) out of a potential of 51 tests. The following POC tests were universally available in all rural clinics: urine total protein, urine leukocytes, urine nitrate, urine pregnancy, HIV antibody and blood glucose test. The average number of desired POC diagnostic tests reported by the clinical staff was estimated at 15 (CI: 13-17) per clinic. The most requested POC tests reported were serum creatinine (37%), CD4 count (37%), cholesterol (32%), tuberculosis (31%), and HIV viral load (23%). CONCLUSION:Several POC tests are widely available and in use at rural PHC clinics in South Africa's KZN province. However, healthcare workers have requested additional POC tests to improve detection and management of priority disease conditions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02692274.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Patient satisfaction is widely used to measure quality of healthcare by identifying potential areas for improvement. Aim of study is to assess patient satisfaction towards pharmacy services and its associated factors using newly developed questionnaire among outpatients attending public health clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Public Health Clinic Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PHC-PSQ) towards pharmacy services was developed using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's ?. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 patients visiting the pharmacy in three randomly selected public health clinics recruited via systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a set of questionnaire including PHC-PSQ. Factors associated with patient satisfaction was analysed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS:Final PHC-PSQ consisted of three domains (administrative competency, technical competency and convenience of location) and 22 items with 69.9% total variance explained. Cronbach's ? for total items was 0.96. Total mean score for patient satisfaction was 7.56 (SD 1.32). Older age and higher education were associated with lower patient satisfaction mean score. Patients who had visited the pharmacy more than once in the past three months, perceived to be in better health status and had a more correct general knowledge of pharmacists expressed higher patient satisfaction mean score. CONCLUSIONS:PHC-PSQ is a newly developedtool to measure patient satisfaction towards pharmacy services in public health clinics in Malaysia. Patient satisfaction was relatively high. Age, education, frequency of visit, self-perceived health status and general knowledge of pharmacists were factors significantly associated with patient satisfaction.
Project description:Background:Access to referral healthcare facilities from primary healthcare (PHC) clinics for diagnostic services is critical for improving maternal health outcomes. We described the geographical distribution and accessibility to district hospitals/medical laboratories for comprehensive antenatal point-of-care (POC) diagnostic services in the Upper East region (UER), Ghana. Methods:We assembled detailed spatial data on 100 participated PHC clinics in our previous survey, their nearest referral district hospitals/medical laboratories, and landscape features influencing journeys in the UER. These were used in a geospatial model to estimate actual distance and travel time from a PHC facility to the nearest referral health facility for antenatal POC diagnostic services. Spatial distribution of the facilities was determined using spatial auto-correlation tool run in ArcMap 10.4.1. We employed Stata V14 for all other analysis. Findings:Of the 100 PHC clinics included in the analysis, only 15% were located less than 10 km to their nearest referral health facilities. The mean distance ± standard deviation from a PHC clinic to the nearest referral district hospital/medical laboratory for comprehensive antenatal POC diagnostic services was 7.0 km ± 4.9. Whilst the mean travel time using a motorized tricycle speed of 20 km/h to the nearest referral health facility for comprehensive antenatal POC diagnostic was 14.0 min ± 8.8. The spatial auto-correlation results for the PHC clinics suggested that the PHC clinics were spatially distributed at random rather than clustered (MI = 0.01, z-score = 0.33, p = 0.74). Whereas the spatial distribution of the referral health facilities suggested that the hospitals or medical laboratories were spatially dispersed (MI = - 0.69 z-score = - 2.05, p = 0.04). Interpretation:Although there is moderate geographical accessibility to district hospitals/medical laboratories for comprehensive antenatal diagnostic services in the UER, targeted improvement of POC diagnostic services in PHC clinics is recommended for improved maternal healthcare. Funding:University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Health Sciences Research Scholarship.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Limited health literacy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) led to poorer diabetes knowledge, less medication adherence and increased healthcare cost. The purpose of this paper was to report the prevalence of limited health literacy in patients with T2DM and to identify factors that are associated with it. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2018; data on patients' sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes knowledge, perceived social support and health literacy level were collected. Health literacy level was measured using the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47). SETTING:Patients were recruited from four primary care clinics in Perak, Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS:Adult patients diagnosed with T2DM who attended the study clinics during the study period. PRIMARY OUTCOME VARIABLE:Patients with HLS-EU-Q47 General Index of ?33 points were classified as having limited health literacy. RESULTS:The prevalence of limited health literacy was 65.3% (n=279). In bivariate analysis, patients' ethnicity (p=0.04), highest education level (p<0.001), monthly income (p=0.003), having health insurance (p=0.007), English language fluency (p<0.001), Malay language fluency (p=0.021), attending diabetes education sessions (p<0.001), perceived social support (p<0.001) and diabetes knowledge (p=0.019) were factors associated with limited health literacy. In logistic regression, not being fluent in English was associated with limited health literacy (OR=2.36, 95% CI 1.30 to 4.30) whereas having high perceived social support (OR=0.52, 95%?CI 0.40 to 0.69) and having attended diabetes education sessions (OR=0.42, 95%?CI 0.27 to 0.68) were associated with adequate health literacy. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of limited health literacy is high among patients with T2DM in Perak, Malaysia. Strategies to improve health literacy in these patients must consider the influences of English fluency, attendance at diabetes education sessions and social support, and may need to adopt a universal approach to addressing limited health literacy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess whether organisational culture influences the fidelity of implementation of the Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study. SETTING:The ICDM model was introduced in South African clinics to strengthen delivery of care and improve clinical outcomes for patients with chronic conditions, but the determinants of its implementation have not been assessed. PARTICIPANTS:The abbreviated Denison organisational culture (DOC) survey tool was administered to 90 staff members to assess three cultural traits: involvement, consistency and adaptability of six PHC clinics in Dr. Kenneth Kaunda and West Rand (WR) health districts. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Each cultural trait has three indices with five items, giving a total of 45 items. The items were scored on a Likert scale ranging from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree), and mean scores were calculated for each item, cultural traits and indices. Descriptive statistics were used to describe participants and clinics, and Pearson correlation coefficient to asses association between fidelity and culture. RESULTS:Participants' mean age was 38.8 (SD=10.35) years, and 54.4% (49/90) were nurses. The overall mean score for the DOC was 3.63 (SD=0.58). The involvement (team orientation, empowerment and capability development) cultural trait had the highest (3.71; SD=0.72) mean score, followed by adaptability (external focus) (3.62; SD=0.56) and consistency (3.56; SD=0.63). There were no statistically significant differences in cultural scores between PHC clinics. However, culture scores for all three traits were significantly higher in WR (involvement 3.39 vs 3.84, p=0.011; adaptability 3.40 vs 3.73, p=0.007; consistency 3.34 vs 3.68, p=0.034). CONCLUSION:Leadership intervention is required to purposefully enhance adaptability and consistency cultural traits of clinics to enhance the ICDM model's principles of coordinated, integrated, patient-centred care.