The human IL-17A/F heterodimer: a two-faced cytokine with unique receptor recognition properties.
ABSTRACT: IL-17A and IL-17F are prominent members of the IL-17 family of cytokines that regulates both innate and adaptive immunity. IL-17A has been implicated in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and anti-IL-17A antibodies have shown remarkable clinical efficacy in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis patients. IL-17A and IL-17F are homodimeric cytokines that can also form the IL-17A/F heterodimer whose precise role in health and disease remains elusive. All three cytokines signal through the assembly of a ternary complex with the IL-17RA and IL-17RC receptors. Here we report the X-ray analysis of the human IL-17A/F heterodimer that reveals a two-faced cytokine closely mimicking IL-17A as well as IL-17F. We also present the crystal structure of its complex with the IL-17RA receptor. Unexpectedly in view of the much higher affinity of this receptor toward IL-17A, we find that IL-17RA is bound to the "F-face" of the heterodimer in the crystal. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we then demonstrate that IL-17RA can also bind to the "A-face" of IL-17A/F with similar affinity. Further, we show that IL-17RC does not discriminate between the two faces of the cytokine heterodimer either, thus enabling the formation of two topologically-distinct heterotrimeric complexes with potentially different signaling properties.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F have a high degree of sequence similarity and share many biological properties. Both have been implicated as factors contributing to the progression of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, reagents that neutralize IL-17A significantly ameliorate disease severity in several mouse models of human disease. IL-17A mediates its effects through interaction with its cognate receptor, the IL-17 receptor (IL-17RA). We report here that the IL-17RA-related molecule, IL-17RC is the receptor for IL-17F. Notably, both IL-17A and IL-17F bind to IL-17RC with high affinity, leading us to suggest that a soluble form of this molecule may serve as an effective therapeutic antagonist of IL-17A and IL-17F. We generated a soluble form of IL-17RC and demonstrate that it effectively blocks binding of both IL-17A and IL-17F, and that it inhibits signaling in response to these cytokines. Collectively, our work indicates that IL-17RC functions as a receptor for both IL-17A and IL-17F and that a soluble version of this protein should be an effective antagonist of IL-17A and IL-17F mediated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:IL-17 cytokine family, though still young since discovery, has recently emerged as critical players in immunity and inflammatory diseases. The prototype cytokine, IL-17A, plays essential roles in promoting inflammation and host defense. IL-17RA, a member of the IL-17 receptor family, forms a complex with another member, IL-17RC, to mediate effective signaling for IL-17A as well as IL-17F, which is most similar to IL-17A, via Act1 and TRAF6 factors. On the other hand, IL-17RA appears to interact with IL-17RB to regulate signaling by another cytokine IL-25. IL-25, the most distant from IL-17A in the IL-17 family, is involved in allergic disease and defense against helminthic parasites. In this review, we discuss recent advancements on signaling mechanisms and biological functions of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-25, which will shed light on the remaining IL-17 family cytokines and help understand and treat inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor, IL-17RA, are approved to treat psoriasis and are being evaluated for other autoimmune conditions. Conversely, IL-17 signaling is critical for immunity to opportunistic mucosal infections caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans, as mice and humans lacking the IL-17R experience chronic mucosal candidiasis. IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17AF bind the IL-17RA-IL-17RC heterodimeric complex and deliver qualitatively similar signals through the adaptor Act1. Here, we used a mouse model of acute oropharyngeal candidiasis to assess the impact of blocking IL-17 family cytokines compared with specific IL-17 cytokine gene knockout mice. Anti-IL-17A antibodies, which neutralize IL-17A and IL-17AF, caused elevated oral fungal loads, whereas anti-IL-17AF and anti-IL-17F antibodies did not. Notably, there was a cooperative effect of blocking IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F together. Termination of anti-IL-17A treatment was associated with rapid C. albicans clearance. IL-17F-deficient mice were fully resistant to oropharyngeal candidiasis, consistent with antibody blockade. However, IL-17A-deficient mice had lower fungal burdens than anti-IL-17A-treated mice. Act1-deficient mice were much more susceptible to oropharyngeal candidiasis than anti-IL-17A antibody-treated mice, yet anti-IL-17A and anti-IL-17RA treatment caused equivalent susceptibilities. Based on microarray analyses of the oral mucosa during infection, only a limited number of genes were associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis susceptibility. In sum, we conclude that IL-17A is the main cytokine mediator of immunity in murine oropharyngeal candidiasis, but a cooperative relationship among IL-17A, IL-17AF, and IL-17F exists in vivo. Susceptibility displays the following hierarchy: IL-17RA- or Act1-deficiency > anti-IL-17A + anti-IL-17F antibodies > anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-17RA antibodies > IL-17A deficiency.
Project description:IL-17A and IL-17F together with their coreceptor (IL-17RA/RC) were reported to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. The group of axial spondyloarthritis comprises ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a rheumatic disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints in the spine. This study is aimed at investigating IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17RA, and IL-17RC polymorphisms as potential biomarkers of disease susceptibility, clinical parameters, and anti-TNF treatment outcome in a cohort of Polish ankylosing spondylitis patients. In total, 328 subjects, including 138 AS patients and 190 healthy volunteers, participated in the study. Genotyping of IL-17A rs2275913 (G/A), IL-17F rs763780 (A/G), IL-17RA rs4819554 (A/G), and IL-17RC rs708567 (G/A) was performed on real-time PCR instrument using LightSNiP assays. No significant differences were revealed in genotype and allele distribution between patients and controls despite the association of the IL-17RC rs708567 AA homozygosity with the earlier onset of the disease. Moreover, some relationships between IL-17F rs763780 and IL-17RA rs4819554 polymorphisms with clinical parameters related to the disease activity and anti-TNF treatment outcome were observed. IL-17F rs763780 G allele was found to be associated with high disease activity and BASDAI after 6 months and poor response to the treatment while higher VAS values were more common among IL-17RA rs4819554 G variant carriers. In conclusion, the IL-17F rs763780 polymorphism should be considered as a promising biomarker of disease activity and anti-TNF treatment outcome. The IL-17RA rs48419554 G allele may serve as a potential marker of disease severity in Polish AS patients.
Project description:The dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) inactivates MAP kinases by dephosphorylation. Here we show that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A induces adult mouse primary cardiac fibroblast (CF) proliferation and migration via IL-17 receptor A//IL-17 receptor C-dependent MKP-1 suppression, and activation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2. IL-17A mediated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation is inhibited by MKP-1 overexpression, but prolonged by MKP-1 knockdown. IL-17A induced miR-101 expression via PI3K/Akt, and miR-101 inhibitor reversed MKP-1 down regulation. Importantly, MKP-1 knockdown, pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2, or overexpression of dominant negative MEK1, each markedly attenuated IL-17A-mediated CF proliferation and migration. Similarly, IL-17F and IL-17A/F heterodimer that also signal via IL-17RA/IL-17RC, stimulated CF proliferation and migration. These results indicate that IL-17A stimulates CF proliferation and migration via Akt/miR-101/MKP-1-dependent p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation. These studies support a potential role for IL-17 in cardiac fibrosis and adverse myocardial remodeling.
Project description:The interleukin (IL)-17 cytokine family members IL-17A and IL-17F mediate inflammatory activities via the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) complex, comprised of the IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Proper regulation of the IL-17 signaling axis results in effective host defense against extracellular pathogens, while aberrant signaling can drive autoimmune pathology. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying IL-17 signal transduction can yield an enhanced understanding of inflammatory immune processes and also create an avenue for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of IL-17-dependent diseases. To date, the fundamental signaling mechanisms used by the IL-17R complex are still incompletely defined. While current structure-function studies have primarily focused on the IL-17RA subunit, recent research indicates that the IL-17RC subunit plays a key role in modulating IL-17 responses. This review will examine what is known regarding IL-17RC function and provide a framework for future work on this subunit and its impact on human health.
Project description:Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections of the skin, nail, oral, and genital mucosae with Candida species, mainly C. albicans. Autosomal-recessive (AR) IL-17RA and ACT1 deficiencies and autosomal-dominant IL-17F deficiency, each reported in a single kindred, underlie CMC in otherwise healthy patients. We report three patients from unrelated kindreds, aged 8, 12, and 37 yr with isolated CMC, who display AR IL-17RC deficiency. The patients are homozygous for different nonsense alleles that prevent the expression of IL-17RC on the cell surface. The defect is complete, abolishing cellular responses to IL-17A and IL-17F homo- and heterodimers. However, in contrast to what is observed for the IL-17RA- and ACT1-deficient patients tested, the response to IL-17E (IL-25) is maintained in these IL-17RC-deficient patients. These experiments of nature indicate that human IL-17RC is essential for mucocutaneous immunity to C. albicans but is otherwise largely redundant.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-17A, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is linked to the pathology of several inflammatory diseases, has been shown to be upregulated in early human tendinopathy and to mediate inflammatory and tissue remodelling events. However, it remains unclear which cells in tendons can respond to IL-17A, and how IL-17A, and its family members IL-17F and IL-17AF, can affect intracellular signalling activation and mRNA expression in healthy and diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts. Using well-phenotyped human tendon samples, we show that IL-17A and its receptors IL-17RA and IL-17RC are present in healthy hamstring, and tendinopathic and torn supraspinatus tendon tissue. Next, we investigated the effects of IL-17A, IL-17F, or IL-17AF on cultured patient-derived healthy and diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts. In these experiments, IL-17A treatment significantly upregulated <i>IL6</i>, <i>MMP3</i>, and <i>PDPN</i> mRNA expression in diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts. IL-17AF treatment induced moderate increases in these target genes, while little change was observed with IL-17F. These trends were reflected in the activation of intracellular signalling proteins p38 and NF- κ B p65, which were significantly increased by IL-17A, modestly increased by IL-17AF, and not increased by IL-17F. In combination with TNF-α, all three IL-17 cytokines induced <i>IL6</i> and <i>MMP3</i> mRNA expression to similar levels. Therefore, this study confirms that healthy and diseased tendon-derived fibroblasts are responsive to IL-17 cytokines and that IL-17A induces the most profound intracellular signalling activation and mRNA expression of inflammatory genes, followed by IL-17AF, and finally IL-17F. The ability of IL-17 cytokines to induce a direct response and activate diverse pro-inflammatory signalling pathways through synergy with other inflammatory mediators suggests a role for IL-17 family members as amplifiers of tendon inflammation and as potential therapeutic targets in tendinopathy.
Project description:Th17 cells and interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokine family members are implicated in the pathogenesis of many rheumatic diseases. Most studies in mouse models of inflammatory arthritis have demonstrated a key role for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A and its receptor, the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) A/C heterodimer. The aim of this study was to use a rigorous genetic approach to evaluate the contribution of Th17 cells and IL-17 in the autoantibody-dependent KRN T cell receptor-transgenic mouse model of arthritis.We bred KRN mice expressing the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule A(g7) (referred to as K/B/g7 mice) and genetically lacking the related cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F or their critical receptor subunit, IL-17RA. Using bone marrow transplantation, we generated mice in which hematopoietic cells from K/B/g7 donor mice lacked the key Th17-differentiating transcription factor, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor ?t (Ror?t).K/B/g7 mice lacking both IL-17A and IL-17F produced normal titers of pathogenic autoantibodies, and arthritis developed in a typical manner. Similarly, neither IL-17RA nor Ror?t expression by hematopoietic cells was required for disease development in this model.Despite prior reports suggesting that Th17 cells and IL-17A are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis in K/BxN mice, the results presented here provide genetic evidence that IL-17A and IL-17F, IL-17RA, and Ror?t expression by hematopoietic cells are dispensable for normal arthritis progression in the K/B/g7 mouse model system. We discuss potential explanations for the discrepancies between these 2 highly similar model systems. These findings plus those in other mouse models of arthritis provide insight regarding why therapeutic biologic agents targeting the Th17/IL-17 axis are beneficial in some human rheumatic diseases but not others.
Project description:Interleukin (IL)-17A exists as a homodimer (A/A) or as a heterodimer (A/F) with IL-17F. IL-17A is expressed by a subset of T-cells, called Th17 cells, at inflammatory sites. Most cell types can respond to the local production of IL-17A because of the near ubiquitous expression of IL-17A receptors, IL-17RA and IL-17RC. IL-17A stimulates the release of cytokines and chemokines designed to recruit and activate both neutrophils and memory T-cells to the site of injury or inflammation and maintain a proinflammatory state. IL-17A-producing pathogenic T-cells contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. This study describes the generation and characterization of ixekizumab, a humanized IgG4 variant IL-17A-neutralizing antibody. Ixekizumab binds human and cynomolgus monkey IL-17A with high affinity and binds rabbit IL-17A weakly but does not bind to rodent IL-17A or other IL-17 family members. Ixekizumab effectively inhibits the interaction between IL-17A and its receptor in binding assays and potently blocks IL-17A-induced GRO or KC secretion in cell-based assays. In an in vivo mouse pharmcodynamic model, ixekizumab blocks human IL-17A-induced mouse KC secretion. These data provide a comprehensive preclinical characterization of ixekizumab, for which the efficacy and safety have been demonstrated in human clinical trials in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.