Microbial Diversity in Sulfate-Reducing Marine Sediment Enrichment Cultures Associated with Anaerobic Biotransformation of Coastal Stockpiled Phosphogypsum (Sfax, Tunisia).
ABSTRACT: Anaerobic biotechnology using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a promising alternative for reducing long-term stockpiling of phosphogypsum (PG), an acidic (pH ~3) by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries containing high amounts of sulfate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the diversity and ability of anaerobic marine microorganisms to convert sulfate from PG into sulfide, in order to look for marine SRB of biotechnological interest. A series of sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures were performed using different electron donors (i.e., acetate, formate, or lactate) and sulfate sources (i.e., sodium sulfate or PG) as electron acceptors. Significant sulfide production was observed from enrichment cultures inoculated with marine sediments, collected near the effluent discharge point of a Tunisian fertilizer industry (Sfax, Tunisia). Sulfate sources impacted sulfide production rates from marine sediments as well as the diversity of SRB species belonging to Deltaproteobacteria. When PG was used as sulfate source, Desulfovibrio species dominated microbial communities of marine sediments, while Desulfobacter species were mainly detected using sodium sulfate. Sulfide production was also affected depending on the electron donor used, with the highest production obtained using formate. In contrast, low sulfide production (acetate-containing cultures) was associated with an increase in the population of Firmicutes. These results suggested that marine Desulfovibrio species, to be further isolated, are potential candidates for bioremediation of PG by immobilizing metals and metalloids thanks to sulfide production by these SRB.
Project description:Pitting corrosion due to microbial activity is the most severe type of corrosion that occurs in ship hull. Since biogenic sulfide produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is involved in the acceleration of pitting corrosion of marine vessels, so it is important to collect information about SRB community involved in maritime vessel failure. We investigated the SRB community on corroded hull portion of the ship. With the use of common cultural method and 16S rDNA sequencing, ten bacteria with sulfate reduction ability were isolated and identified. They belonged to both traditional (Desulfovibrio, Desulfotomaculum) and non-traditional (Citrobacter) sulfate-reducing bacteria. All the isolates were able to produce a high amount of sulfide. However, only traditional isolates were showing the amplification for the SRB-specific gene, dsrAB. Further studies on corrosion potential of these two groups of bacteria showed that in spite of high sulfide and biofilm production by non-traditional SRB, they are less aggressive towards the mild steel compare to the traditional group.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play a major role in the coupled biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and chalcophilic metal(loid)s. By implication, they can exert a strong influence on the speciation and mobility of multiple metal(loid) contaminants. In this study, we combined DsrAB gene sequencing and sulfur isotopic profiling to identify the phylogeny and distribution of SRB and to assess their metabolic activity in salt marsh sediments exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) for over 100 years. Recovered dsrAB sequences from three sites sampled along an AMD flow path indicated the dominance of a single Desulfovibrio species. Other major sequence clades were related most closely to Desulfosarcina, Desulfococcus, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfosporosinus species. The presence of metal sulfides with low delta(34)S values relative to delta(34)S values of pore water sulfate showed that sediment SRB populations were actively reducing sulfate under ambient conditions (pH of approximately 2), although possibly within less acidic microenvironments. Interestingly, delta(34)S values for pore water sulfate were lower than those for sulfate delivered during tidal inundation of marsh sediments. 16S rRNA gene sequence data from sediments and sulfur isotope data confirmed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria drove the reoxidation of biogenic sulfide coupled to oxygen or nitrate reduction over a timescale of hours. Collectively, these findings imply a highly dynamic microbially mediated cycling of sulfate and sulfide, and thus the speciation and mobility of chalcophilic contaminant metal(loid)s, in AMD-impacted marsh sediments.
Project description:Sulfur cycling is primarily driven by sulfate reduction mediated by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in marine sediments. The dissimilatory sulfate reduction drives the production of enormous quantities of reduced sulfide and thereby the formation of highly insoluble metal sulfides in marine sediments. Here, a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium designated <i>Pseudodesulfovibrio cashew</i> SRB007 was isolated and purified from the deep-sea cold seep and proposed to represent a novel species in the genus of <i>Pseudodesulfovibrio</i>. A detailed description of the phenotypic traits, phylogenetic status and central metabolisms of strain SRB007 allowed the reconstruction of the metabolic potential and lifestyle of a novel member of deep-sea SRB. Notably, <i>P. cashew</i> SRB007 showed a strong ability to resist and remove different heavy metal ions including Co<sup>2+</sup>, Ni<sup>2+</sup>, Cd<sup>2+</sup> and Hg<sup>2+</sup>. The dissimilatory sulfate reduction was demonstrated to contribute to the prominent removal capability of <i>P. cashew</i> SRB007 against different heavy metals via the formation of insoluble metal sulfides.
Project description:Microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation are vital processes to enhance organic matter degradation in sediments. However, the diversity and composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their environmental driving factors are still poorly understood in aquaculture ponds, which received mounting of organic matter. In this study, bacterial communities, SRB and SOB from sediments of aquaculture ponds with different sizes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were analysed using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results indicated that microbial communities in aquaculture pond sediments of large juvenile fish showed the highest richness and abundance of SRB and SOB, potentially further enhancing microbial sulfur cycling. Specifically, SRB were dominated by Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio, whereas SOB were dominated by Dechloromonas and Leptothrix. Although large juvenile fish ponds had relatively lower concentrations of sulfur compounds (i.e. total sulfur, acid-volatile sulfide and elemental sulfur) than those of larval fish ponds, more abundant SRB and SOB were found in the large juvenile fish ponds. Further redundancy analysis (RDA) and linear regression indicated that sulfur compounds and sediment suspension are the major environmental factors shaping the abundance and community structure of SRB and SOB in aquaculture pond sediments. Findings of this study expand our current understanding of microbial driving sulfur cycling in aquaculture ecosystems and also provide novel insights for ecological and green aquaculture managements.
Project description:Soda lake sediments usually contain high concentrations of sulfide indicating active sulfate reduction. Monitoring of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in soda lakes demonstrated a dominance of two groups of culturable SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales specialized in utilization of inorganic electron donors, such as formate, H(2) and thiosulfate. The most interesting physiological trait of the novel haloalkaliphilic SRB isolates was their ability to grow lithotrophically by dismutation of thiosulfate and sulfite. All isolates were obligately alkaliphilic with a pH optimum at 9.5-10 and moderately salt tolerant. Among the fifteen newly isolated strains, four belonged to the genus Desulfonatronum and the others to the genus Desulfonatronovibrio. None of the isolates were closely related to previously described species of these genera. On the basis of phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the novel soda lake SRB isolates, two novel species each in the genera Desulfonatronum and Desulfonatronovibrio are proposed.
Project description:The small-large intestine axis in hydrogen sulfide accumulation and testing of sulfate and lactate in the gut-gut axis of the intestinal environment has not been well described. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of the Desulfovibrio genus reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide and can be involved in ulcerative colitis development. The background of the research was to find correlations between hydrogen sulfide production under the effect of an electron acceptor (sulfate) and donor (lactate) at different concentrations and Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 growth, as well as their dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the intestinal small-large intestinal environment. METHODS:Microbiological, biochemical, and biophysical methods, and statistical processing of the results (principal component and cross-correlation analyses) were used. RESULTS:D. piger Vib-7 showed increased intensity of bacterial growth and hydrogen sulfide production under the following concentrations of sulfate and lactate: 17.4 mM and 35.6 mM, respectively. The study showed in what kind of intestinal environment D. piger Vib-7 grows at the highest level and produces the highest amount of hydrogen sulfide. CONCLUSIONS:The optimum intestinal environment of D. piger Vib-7 can serve as a good indicator of the occurrence of inflammatory bowel diseases; meaning that these findings can be broadly used in medicine practice dealing with the monitoring and diagnosis of intestinal ailments.
Project description:Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.
Project description:Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266-269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Increased numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often found in the feces of people and animals with inflammatory bowel disease. The final products of their metabolism are hydrogen sulfide and acetate, which are produced during dissimilatory sulfate reduction process.<h4>Objectives</h4>The aim of the study was to monitor processes concerning sulfate reduction microbial metabolisms, including: the main microbial genera monitoring and their hydrogen sulfide production in the intestines of healthy and not healthy individuals, phylogenetic analysis of SRB isolates, cluster analysis of SRB physiological and biochemical parameters, SRB growth kinetic parameters calculation, same as the application of the two-factor dispersion analysis for finding relationship between SRB biomass accumulation, temperature and pH. Feces samples from healthy people and patients with colitis were used for isolation of sulfate-reducing microbial communities.<h4>Methods</h4>Microbiological, biochemical, biophysical, molecular biology methods, and statistical processing of the results have been used for making an evaluation of gained results.<h4>Results</h4>Two dominant SRB morphotypes differed in colony size and quantitative ratio in the feces of healthy and colitis patients were observed and identified. In the feces of healthy people, 93% of SRB of morphotype I prevailed <i>(Desulfovibrio)</i> while morphotype II made only 7% <i>(Desulfomicrobium)</i>; in the feces of patients with colitis, the ratio of these morphotypes was 99:1, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations are also higher in the feces of people with colitis and certain synergy effects exist among acetate produced by SRB.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study results brought important findings concerning colony environments with developed colitis and these findings can lead to the development of possible risk indicators of ulcerative colitis prevalence.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the metabolically versatile Desulfobacteriaceae are abundant in marine sediments and contribute to the global carbon cycle by complete oxidation of organic compounds. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2 is the first member of this ecophysiologically important group with a now available genome sequence. With 5.6 megabasepairs (Mbp) the genome of Db. autotrophicum HRM2 is about 2 Mbp larger than the sequenced genomes of other sulfate reducers (SRB). A high number of genome plasticity elements (> 100 transposon-related genes), several regions of GC discontinuity and a high number of repetitive elements (132 paralogous genes Mbp(-1)) point to a different genome evolution when comparing with Desulfovibrio spp. The metabolic versatility of Db. autotrophicum HRM2 is reflected in the presence of genes for the degradation of a variety of organic compounds including long-chain fatty acids and for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, which enables the organism to completely oxidize acetyl-CoA to CO(2) but also to grow chemolithoautotrophically. The presence of more than 250 proteins of the sensory/regulatory protein families should enable Db. autotrophicum HRM2 to efficiently adapt to changing environmental conditions. Genes encoding periplasmic or cytoplasmic hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases have been detected as well as genes for the transmembrane TpII-c(3), Hme and Rnf complexes. Genes for subunits A, B, C and D as well as for the proposed novel subunits L and F of the heterodisulfide reductases are present. This enzyme is involved in energy conservation in methanoarchaea and it is speculated that it exhibits a similar function in the process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in Db. autotrophicum HRM2.