Characterization of pathogenic SORL1 genetic variants for association with Alzheimer's disease: a clinical interpretation strategy.
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic variants in the SORL1 gene are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD), but a strategy to identify which variants are pathogenic is lacking. In a discovery sample of 115 SORL1 variants detected in 1908 Dutch AD cases and controls, we identified the variant characteristics associated with SORL1 variant pathogenicity. Findings were replicated in an independent sample of 103 SORL1 variants detected in 3193 AD cases and controls. In a combined sample of the discovery and replication samples, comprising 181 unique SORL1 variants, we developed a strategy to classify SORL1 variants into five subtypes ranging from pathogenic to benign. We tested this pathogenicity screen in SORL1 variants reported in two independent published studies. SORL1 variant pathogenicity is defined by the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) score and the minor allele frequency (MAF) reported by the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database. Variants predicted strongly damaging (CADD score >30), which are extremely rare (ExAC-MAF <1 × 10-5) increased AD risk by 12-fold (95% CI 4.2-34.3; P=5 × 10-9). Protein-truncating SORL1 mutations were all unknown to ExAC and occurred exclusively in AD cases. More common SORL1 variants (ExAC-MAF?1 × 10-5) were not associated with increased AD risk, even when predicted strongly damaging. Findings were independent of gender and the APOE-?4 allele. High-risk SORL1 variants were observed in a substantial proportion of the AD cases analyzed (2%). Based on their effect size, we propose to consider high-risk SORL1 variants next to variants in APOE, PSEN1, PSEN2 and APP for personalized risk assessments in clinical practice.
Project description:We report a family from Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, previously screened for Acrodermatitis Enteropathica (AE), in which two siblings presented with typical features of acral dermatitis and a pustular eruption but differing severity. Affected members of our family carry a rare genetic variant, p.Gly512Trp in the SLC39A4 gene which encodes a zinc transporter; disease is thought to result from zinc deficiency. Similar mutations have been reported previously; however, the variable severity within cases carrying the p.Gly512Trp variant and in AE overall led us to hypothesise that additional genetic modifiers may be contributing to the disease phenotype. Therefore whole genome sequencing was carried out in five family members, for whom material was available to search for additional modifiers of AE; this included one individual with clinically diagnosed AE. We confirmed that the p.Gly512Trp change in SLC39A4 was the only candidate homozygous change which was sufficiently rare (ExAC allele frequency 1.178e-05) and predicted deleterious (CADD score 35) to be attributable as a fully penetrant cause of AE. To identify other genes which may carry relevant genetic variation, we reviewed the relevant literature and databases including Gene Ontology Consortium, GeneMANIA, GeneCards, and MalaCards to identify zinc transporter genes and possible interacting partners. The affected individual carried variants in RECQL4 and GPAA1 genes with ExAC allele frequency <0.01 and CADD score >10. p.Gly512Trp is highly likely to be the pathogenic variant in this family. This variant was previously detected in a Tunisian proband with perfect genotype-phenotype segregation suggestive of pathogenicity. Further research is required in this area due to small sample size, but attention should be given to RECQL4 and GPAA1 to understand their role in the skin disease.
Project description:Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. The majority of AD cases are sporadic, while up to 5% are families with an early onset AD (EOAD). Mutations in one of the three genes: amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or presenilin 2 (PSEN2) can be disease causing. However, most EOAD families do not carry mutations in any of these three genes, and candidate genes, such as the sortilin-related receptor 1 (SORL1), have been suggested to be potentially causative. To identify AD causative variants, we performed whole-exome sequencing on five individuals from a family with EOAD and a missense variant, p.Arg1303Cys (c.3907C?>?T) was identified in SORL1 which segregated with disease and was further characterized with immunohistochemistry on two post mortem autopsy cases from the same family. In a targeted re-sequencing effort on independent index patients from 35 EOAD-families, a second SORL1 variant, c.3050-2A?>?G, was found which segregated with the disease in 3 affected and was absent in one unaffected family member. The c.3050-2A?>?G variant is located two nucleotides upstream of exon 22 and was shown to cause exon 22 skipping, resulting in a deletion of amino acids Gly1017- Glu1074 of SORL1. Furthermore, a third SORL1 variant, c.5195G?>?C, recently identified in a Swedish case control cohort included in the European Early-Onset Dementia (EU EOD) consortium study, was detected in two affected siblings in a third family with familial EOAD. The finding of three SORL1-variants that segregate with disease in three separate families with EOAD supports the involvement of SORL1 in AD pathology. The cause of these rare monogenic forms of EOAD has proven difficult to find and the use of exome and genome sequencing may be a successful route to target them.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Genetic risk factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of familial intracranial aneurysms (FIAs); however, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate potential FIA-causing genetic variants by rare variant interrogation and a family-based genomics approach in a large family with an extensive multigenerational pedigree with FIAs.<h4>Method</h4>Exome sequencing (ES) was performed in a dominant likely family with intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Variants were analyzed by an in-house developed pipeline and prioritized using various filtering strategies, including population frequency, variant type, and predicted variant pathogenicity. Sanger sequencing was also performed to evaluate the segregation of the variants with the phenotype.<h4>Results</h4>Based on the ES data obtained from five individuals from a family with 7/21 living members affected with IAs, a total of 14 variants were prioritized as candidate variants. Familial segregation analysis revealed that <i>NFX1</i> c.2519T>C (p.Leu840Pro) segregated in accordance with Mendelian expectations with the phenotype within the family-that is, present in all IA-affected cases and absent from all unaffected members of the second generation. This missense variant is absent from public databases (1000genome, ExAC, gnomAD, ESP5400), and has damaging predictions by bioinformatics tools (Gerp ++ score = 5.88, CADD score = 16.43, MutationTaster score = 1, LRT score = 0). In addition, 840Leu in NFX1 is robustly conserved in mammals and maps in a region before the RING-type zinc finger domain.<h4>Conclusion</h4><i>NFX1</i> c.2519T>C (p.Leu840Pro) may contribute to the pathogenetics of a subset of FIAs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact of rare variants underlying neurodegenerative-related genes to familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS:We performed targeted sequencing of 277 neurodegenerative-related genes on probands from 75 Chinese AD families non-carrying causative mutation of dementia genes. Rare coding variants segregated in families were tested for association in an independent cohort of 506 patients with sporadic AD and 498 cognitively normal controls. East Asians data from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) were used as a reference control. RESULTS:A novel rare variant, P410S of PLD3 was found in an early-onset AD family. LRRK2 I2012T, a causative mutation of Parkinson's disease, was identified in another early-onset AD family. Missense variants in ABCA7 (P143S and A1507T) and CR1(T239M) were significantly associated with familial AD (P = 0.005437, 0.001383, 0.000549), a missense variant in TREM2(S183C) was significantly associated with AD (P = 0.000396) when compared with the East Asian controls in ExAC database. A non-frameshift variant in FUS (G223del) was frequent in AD cases and significantly associated with familial AD (P = 0.008). INTERPRETATION:Multiple rare coding variants of causal and risk neurodegenerative genes were presented in clinically diagnosed AD families that may confer risk of AD. Our data supported that the clinical, pathological, and genetic architectures of AD, PD, and FTD/ALS may overlapping. We propose that targeted sequencing on neurodegenerative-related genes is necessary for genetically unclear AD families.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SORL1 gene have been associated with late onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), but causal variants have not been fully characterized nor has the mechanism been established. The study was undertaken to identify functional SORL1 mutations in patients with LOAD. METHODS:This was a family- and cohort-based genetic association study. Caribbean Hispanics with familial and sporadic LOAD and similarly aged controls were recruited from the United States and the Dominican Republic, and patients with sporadic disease of Northern European origin were recruited from Canada. Prioritized coding variants in SORL1 were detected by targeted resequencing and validated by genotyping in additional family members and unrelated healthy controls. Variants transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines were tested for A?40 and A?42 secretion, and the amount of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) secreted at the cell surface was determined. RESULTS:Seventeen coding exonic variants were significantly associated with disease. Two rare variants (rs117260922-E270K and rs143571823-T947M) with minor allele frequency (MAF)?<?1% and 1 common variant (rs2298813-A528T) with MAF?=?14.9% segregated within families and were deemed deleterious to the coding protein. Transfected cell lines showed increased A?40 and A?42 secretion for the rare variants (E270K and T947M) and increased A?42 secretion for the common variant (A528T). All mutants increased the amount of APP at the cell surface, although in slightly different ways, thereby failing to direct full-length APP into the retromer-recycling endosome pathway. INTERPRETATION:Common and rare variants in SORL1 elevate the risk of LOAD by directly affecting APP processing, which in turn can result in increased A?40 and A?42 secretion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A recent study identified DCHS1 as a causal gene for mitral valve prolapse. The goal of this study is to investigate the presence and frequency of known and novel variants in this gene in 100 asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe organic mitral regurgitation. METHODS:DNA sequencing assays were developed for two previously identified functional missense variants, namely p.R2330C and p.R2513H, and all 21 exons of DCHS1. Pathogenicity of variants was evaluated in silico. RESULTS:p.R2330C and p.R2513H were not identified in this cohort. Sequencing all coding regions revealed eight missense variants including six considered deleterious. This includes one novel variant (p.A2464P) and two rare variants (p.R2770Q and p.R2462Q). These variants are predicted to be deleterious with combined annotation-dependent depletion (CADD) scores greater than 25, which are in the same range as p.R2330C (CADD = 28.0) and p.R2513H (CADD = 24.3). More globally, 24 of 100 cases were carriers of at least one in silico-predicted deleterious missense variant in DCHS1, suggesting that this single gene may account for a substantial portion of cases. CONCLUSION:This study reveals an important contribution of germline variants in DCHS1 in unrelated patients with mitral valve prolapse and supports genetic testing of this gene to screen individuals at risk.
Project description:The sortilin-related receptor 1 (SORL1) gene has been associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rare genetic variants in the SORL1 gene have also been implicated in autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD). Here we report a large-scale investigation of the contribution of genetic variability in SORL1 to EOAD in a European EOAD cohort. We performed massive parallel amplicon-based re-sequencing of the full coding region of SORL1 in 1255 EOAD patients and 1938 age- and origin-matched control individuals in the context of the European Early-Onset Dementia (EOD) consortium, originating from Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Sweden, Germany, and Czech Republic. We identified six frameshift variants and two nonsense variants that were exclusively present in patients. These mutations are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which could be confirmed experimentally for SORL1 p.Gly447Argfs*22 observed in a Belgian EOAD patient. We observed a 1.5-fold enrichment of rare non-synonymous variants in patients (carrier frequency 8.8 %; SkatOMeta p value 0.0001). Of the 84 non-synonymous rare variants detected in the full patient/control cohort, 36 were only detected in patients. Our findings underscore a role of rare SORL1 variants in EOAD, but also show a non-negligible frequency of these variants in healthy individuals, necessitating the need for pathogenicity assays. Premature stop codons due to frameshift and nonsense variants, have so far exclusively been found in patients, and their predicted mode of action corresponds with evidence from in vitro functional studies of SORL1 in AD.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing in clinical diagnostics is providing valuable genomic variant data, which can be used to support healthcare decisions. In silico tools to predict pathogenicity are crucial to assess such variants and we have evaluated a new tool, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD), and its classification of gene variants in Lynch syndrome by using a set of 2,210 DNA mismatch repair gene variants. These had already been classified by experts from InSiGHT's Variant Interpretation Committee. Overall, we found CADD scores do predict pathogenicity (Spearman's ρ = 0.595, P < 0.001). However, we discovered 31 major discrepancies between the InSiGHT classification and the CADD scores; these were explained in favor of the expert classification using population allele frequencies, cosegregation analyses, disease association studies, or a second-tier test. Of 751 variants that could not be clinically classified by InSiGHT, CADD indicated that 47 variants were worth further study to confirm their putative pathogenicity. We demonstrate CADD is valuable in prioritizing variants in clinically relevant genes for further assessment by expert classification teams.
Project description:Variations in sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) expression and function have been implicated in Alzheimers Disease (AD). Here, to gain insights into SORL1, we evaluated SORL1 expression and splicing as a function of AD and AD neuropathology, neural gene expression and a candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).To identify SORL1 splice variants, we scanned each of the 46 internal SORL1 exons in human brain RNA samples and readily found SORL1 isoforms that lack exon 2 or exon 19. Quantification in a case-control series of the more abundant isoform lacking exon 2 (delta-2-SORL1), as well as the "full-length" SORL1 (FL-SORL1) isoform containing exon 2 showed that expression of FL-SORL1 was reduced in AD individuals. Moreover, FL-SORL1 was reduced in cognitively intact individuals with significant AD-like neuropathology. In contrast, the expression of the delta-2-SORL1 isoform was similar in AD and non-AD brains. The expression of FL-SORL1 was significantly associated with synaptophysin expression while delta-2-SORL1 was modestly enriched in white matter. Lastly, FL-SORL1 expression was associated with rs661057, a SORL1 intron one SNP that has been associated with AD risk. A linear regression analysis found that rs661057, synaptophysin expression and AD neuropathology were each associated with FL-SORL1 expression.These results confirm that FL-SORL1 expression declines in AD and with AD-associated neuropathology, suggest that FL-SORL1 declines in cognitively-intact individuals with AD-associated neuropathology, identify a novel SORL1 splice variant that is expressed similarly in AD and non-AD individuals, and provide evidence that an AD-associated SNP is associated with SORL1 expression. Overall, these results contribute to our understanding of SORL1 expression in the human brain.
Project description:The gene encoding the neuronal sortilin-related receptor SORL1 has been claimed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) by independent groups and across various human populations. We evaluated six genetic markers in SORL1 in a sample of 1,558 Swedish dementia cases (including 1,270 AD cases) and 2,179 controls. For both single-marker-based and haplotype-based analyses, we found no strong support for SORL1 as a dementia or AD risk-modifying gene in our sample in isolation nor did we observe association with AD/dementia-related traits, including cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid(1-42), tau levels, or age at onset. However, meta-analyses of markers in this study together with previously published studies on SORL1 encompassing in excess of 13,000 individuals does suggest significant association with AD (best odds ratio = 1.097; 95% confidence interval = 1.038-1.158, p = 0.001). All six markers were significant in meta-analyses and it is notable that they occur in two distinct linkage disequilibrium blocks. These data are consistent with either allelic heterogeneity or the existence of as yet untested functional variants and these will be important considerations in further attempts to evaluate the importance of sequence variation in SORL1 with AD risk.