Atopic children and use of prescribed medication: A comprehensive study in general practice.
ABSTRACT: A comprehensive and representative nationwide general practice database was explored to study associations between atopic disorders and prescribed medication in children.All children aged 0-18 years listed in the NIVEL Primary Care Database in 2014 were selected. Atopic children with atopic eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) were matched with controls (not diagnosed with any of these disorders) within the same general practice on age and gender. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the differences in prescribed medication between both groups by calculating odds ratios (OR); 93 different medication groups were studied.A total of 45,964 children with at least one atopic disorder were identified and matched with controls. Disorder-specific prescriptions seem to reflect evidence-based medicine guidelines for atopic eczema, asthma and AR. However, these disorder-specific prescriptions were also prescribed for children who were not registered as having that specific disorder. For eczema-related medication, about 3.7-8.4% of the children with non-eczematous atopic morbidity received these prescriptions, compared to 1.4-3.5% of the non-atopic children. The same pattern was observed for anti-asthmatics (having non-asthmatic atopic morbidity: 0.8-6.2% vs. controls: 0.3-2.1%) and AR-related medication (having non-AR atopic morbidity: 4.7-12.5% vs. controls: 2.8-3.1%). Also, non-atopic related medication, such as laxatives and antibiotics were more frequently prescribed for atopic children.The present study shows that atopic children received more prescriptions, compared to non-atopic children. Non-atopic controls frequently received specific prescriptions for atopic disorders. This indicates that children with atopic disorders need better monitoring by their GP.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate both atopic and non-atopic comorbid symptoms and diseases in children with physician-diagnosed atopic disorders (atopic eczema, asthma and allergic rhinitis). METHODS:All children aged 0-18 years listed in a nationwide primary care database (the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research-Primary Care Database) with routinely collected healthcare data in 2014 were selected. Children with atopic disorders were matched on age and gender with non-atopic controls within the same general practice. A total of 404 International Classification of Primary Care codes were examined. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between the presence of atopic disorders and (non-)atopic symptoms and diseases by calculating ORs. RESULTS:Having one of the atopic disorders significantly increased the risk of having other atopic-related symptoms, even if the child was not registered as having the related atopic disorder. Regarding non-atopic comorbidity, children with atopic eczema (n=15 530) were at significantly increased risk for (infectious) skin diseases (OR: 1.2-3.4). Airway symptoms or (infectious) diseases (OR: 2.1-10.3) were observed significantly more frequently in children with asthma (n=7887). Children with allergic rhinitis (n=6835) had a significantly distinctive risk of ear-nose-throat-related symptoms and diseases (OR: 1.5-3.9). Neither age nor gender explained these increased risks. CONCLUSION:General practitioners are not always fully aware of relevant atopic and non-atopic comorbidity. In children known to have at least one atopic disorder, specific attention is required to avoid possible insufficient treatment and unnecessary loss of quality of life.
Project description:Electronic health records stored in primary care databases might be a valuable source to study the epidemiology of atopic disorders and their impact on health-care systems and costs. However, the prevalence of atopic disorders in such databases varies considerably and needs to be addressed. For this study, all children aged 0-18 years listed in a representative primary care database in the period 2002-2014, with sufficient data quality, were selected. The effects of four different strategies on the prevalences of atopic disorders were examined: (1) the first strategy examined the diagnosis as recorded in the electronic health records, whereas the (2) second used additional requirements (i.e., the patient had at least two relevant consultations and at least two relevant prescriptions). Strategies (3) and (4) assumed the atopic disorders to be chronic based on strategy 1 and 2, respectively. When interested in cases with a higher probability of a clinically relevant disorder, strategy 2 yields a realistic estimation of the prevalence of atopic disorders derived from primary care data. Using this strategy, of the 478,076 included children, 28,946 (6.1%) had eczema, 29,182 (6.1%) had asthma, and 28,064 (5.9%) had allergic rhinitis; only 1251 (0.3%) children had all three atopic disorders. Prevalence rates are highly dependent on the clinical atopic definitions used. The strategy using cases with a higher probability of clinically relevant cases, yields realistic prevalences to establish the impact of atopic disorders on health-care systems. However, studies are needed to solve the problem of identifying atopic disorders that are missed or misclassified.CLINICAL INFORMATION IMPROVES PREVALENCE ESTIMATES: The prevalence of atopic disorders in children can be more reliably calculated by incorporating clinical information with diagnosis data. Researchers in the Netherlands, led by David Pols from the Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, examined the electronic health records of more than 660,000 children, aged 0 to 18, from a Dutch primary care database to determine the number of cases of atopic eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis. They looked for diagnosed children who also had at least two relevant clinical consultations and at least two relevant prescriptions. This strategy helps correct for the problem of overestimation, because it doesnot assume that a child, once diagnosed, will have an atopic disorder for life. However, other methods are still needed to identify cases that are missed or misclassified in the health database.
Project description:The nature of allergic rhinitis (AR) in preschool aged children remains incompletely characterized. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AR and its associated risk factors in preschool-aged children and to assess the clinical utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO).This general population-based, cross-sectional survey included 933 preschool-aged (3- to 7-year-old) children from Korea. Current AR was defined as having nasal symptoms within the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed AR.The prevalence of current AR in preschool children was 17.0% (156/919). Mold exposure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-2.43) and the use of antibiotics (aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.33-2.90) during infancy were associated with an increased risk of current AR, whereas having an older sibling (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75) reduced the risk. Children with current atopic AR had significantly higher geometric mean levels of FeNO compared to those with non-atopic rhinitis (12.43; range of 1standard deviation [SD], 7.31-21.14 vs 8.25; range of 1SD, 5.62-12.10, P=0.001) or non-atopic healthy children (8.58; range of 1SD, 5.51-13.38, P<0.001). The FeNO levels were higher in children with current atopic AR compared with atopic healthy children (9.78; range of 1SD, 5.97-16.02, P=0.083).Mold exposure and use of antibiotics during infancy increases the risk of current AR, whereas having an older sibling reduces it. Children with current atopic AR exhibit higher levels of FeNO compared with non-atopic rhinitis cases, suggesting that FeNO levels may be a useful discriminatory marker for subtypes of AR in preschool children.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Pediatric CKD management focuses on limiting kidney injury, including avoiding nephrotoxic medications. Nephrotoxic medication prescription practices for children with CKD are unknown. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and rates of primary care prescriptions for potentially nephrotoxic medications in children with CKD versus without CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:We conducted a retrospective, matched population-based cohort study of patients aged <18 years, registered at a general practice participating in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 1997 to 2017. Children with a clinical code indicating an incident diagnosis of CKD were matched 1:4 to patients without CKD on CKD diagnosis date, sex, age, CPRD practice, and number of general practitioner visits in the year before cohort entry. We calculated the prevalence and the rate of potentially nephrotoxic medication prescriptions throughout the follow-up period in patients with versus without CKD. Primary analyses included the following medication classes: aminoglycosides, antivirals, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, salicylates, proton pump inhibitors, and immunomodulators. Secondary analyses used an expanded nephrotoxicity definition that also included, among others, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Adjusted prescription rates were calculated using multivariable binomial regression. RESULTS:From 1,535,816 eligible patients, we identified 1018 incident CKD and 4072 non-CKD matches (mean age, 9.8 years [range, 1.1-17.9 years]; 52% male; mean follow-up time, 3.3 years). Overall, 26% of patients with and 15% of patients without CKD were prescribed one or more potentially nephrotoxic medication during follow-up. The overall rate of nephrotoxic medication prescriptions was 71 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 55 to 93) prescriptions per 100 person-years in patients with CKD and eight (95% CI, 7 to 9) prescriptions per 100 person-years in patients without CKD (adjusted rate ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 2.7 to 6.1). CONCLUSIONS:Potentially nephrotoxic medications are prescribed at high rates to children with CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Over a fifth of children and adolescents suffer with asthma or atopic disease. It is unclear whether asthma impacts academic performance in children and adolescents, and little is known about the association of eczema, food allergy or hayfever and academic performance. OBJECTIVE:To examine whether asthma, eczema, food allergy or hayfever impacts on adolescent academic performance and to assess the role of unmeasured confounding. METHODS:This study used the Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden cohort born 1992-1998. At age 9-12 years, parents reported on their child's ever or current asthma, eczema, food allergy and hayfever status (n = 10 963). At age 15, linked national patient and medication register information was used to create current and ever asthma definitions including severe and uncontrolled asthma for the same children. Academic outcomes in Grade 9 (age 15-16 years) included: eligibility for high school (Grades 10-12), and total mark of the best 16 subject units, retrieved from the Grade 9 academic register. Whole cohort analyses adjusted for known covariates were performed, and co-twin control analyses to assess unmeasured confounders. RESULTS:There were no associations found for asthma or food allergy at 9-12 years and academic outcomes in adolescence. In addition, at age 15, there were no statistically significant associations with current, ever, severe or uncontrolled asthma and academic outcomes. Eczema and hayfever at age 9-12 years were found to be positively associated with academic outcomes; however, co-twin control analyses did not support these findings, suggesting the main analyses may be subject to unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Having asthma or an atopic disease during childhood or adolescence does not negatively impact on academic performance. This information can be used by clinicians when talking with children and parents about the implications of living with asthma or atopic disease.
Project description:To determine the effects of age related, structured educational programmes on the management of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in childhood and adolescence.Multicentre, randomised controlled trial.Seven hospitals in Germany.Parents of children with atopic dermatitis aged 3 months to 7 years (n = 274) and 8-12 years (n = 102), adolescents with atopic dermatitis aged 13-18 years (n = 70), and controls (n = 244, n = 83, and n = 50, respectively).Group sessions of standardised intervention programmes for atopic dermatitis once weekly for six weeks or no education (control group).Severity of eczema (scoring of atopic dermatitis scale), subjective severity (standardised questionnaires), and quality of life for parents of affected children aged less than 13 years, over 12 months.Significant improvements in severity of eczema and subjective severity were seen in all intervention groups compared with control groups (total score for severity: age 3 months to 7 years - 17.5, 95% confidence intervals - 19.6 to - 15.3 v - 12.2, - 14.3 to - 10.1; age 8-12 years - 16.0, - 20.0 to - 12.0 v - 7.8, - 11.4; - 4.3; and age 13-18 years - 19.7, - 23.7 to - 15.7 v - 5.2, - 10.5 to 0.1). Parents of affected children aged less than 7 years experienced significantly better improvement in all five quality of life subscales, whereas parents of affected children aged 8-12 years experienced significantly better improvement in three of five quality of life subscales.Age related educational programmes for the control of atopic dermatitis in children and adolescents are effective in the long term management of the disease.
Project description:The term "atopic march" has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level.Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts.The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (? 7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mouse models of atopic march suggest that systemic, skin-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) mediates progression from eczema to asthma. OBJECTIVE:We investigated whether circulating TSLP is associated with eczema, allergic sensitization, or recurrent wheezing in young children. METHODS:A prospective analysis of the relationship between plasma levels of TSLP to allergic sensitization and recurrent wheezing was conducted in the birth cohort from the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study. Plasma TSLP levels were measured at 1, 2, and 3 years of age and analysed for correlation with clinical parameters in each of the three years. Only those children with consecutive samples for all three years were included in this analysis. RESULTS:We detected TSLP in 33% of 236 children for whom plasma samples were available for all three years. Overall, a consistently significant association was not found between TSLP and eczema or allergic sensitization. With regard to recurrent wheezing, children with detectable TSLP at one year of age were significantly less likely to experience recurrent wheezing by 3 years compared with those children without detectable TSLP, but this was only seen in children without aeroallergen sensitization at 3 years (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Contrary to our expectations, circulating TSLP was not significantly associated with eczema, allergen sensitization, or recurrent wheezing during the first three years of life. Early presence of circulating TSLP was significantly associated with reduced incidence of recurrent wheeze in those children not sensitized to aeroallergen. These findings suggest a possible underlying distinction between pathogenesis of developing atopic vs. non-atopic recurrent wheeze.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cow's milk allergy (CMA) and egg allergy (EA) are common and can reduce quality of life in children. Infantile eczema is a well-established risk factor for the onset of food allergy via transdermal sensitization; however, various types of infantile eczema have not yet been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the association between CMA and EA and the sites and the severity of infantile eczema. METHODS:This retrospective study was based on data from patients aged 2-19 years with atopic disease who were treated between July 2015 and March 2019 in a pediatric allergy clinic in Japan. Data regarding the history of IgE-mediated symptoms, eczema in the first year of life, parental history of atopic diseases, and infantile nutrition were collected. RESULTS:A total of 289 patients were included in the study, of which 81 and 111 children had IgE-mediated CMA and EA, respectively. The rates of CMA and EA were higher in the children with infantile eczema than in those without (30% vs. 9% and 42% vs. 21%). The rate of CMA was also higher in children with eczema on the face. Significant differences were noted in the rate of CMA among children with facial eczema of exudation (adjusted odds ratio 2.398; P = 0.017) and papules (adjusted odds ratio 2.787; P = 0.008), using multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION:The rate of IgE-mediated CMA was high among children with atopic disease having severe facial eczema during infancy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to find disease-associated genes in atopic eczema. Experiment Overall Design: Skin biopsies were analyzed from ten patients with active atopic eczema and ten healthy controls.