Identification of NCAN as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia.
ABSTRACT: A whole-genome linkage analysis in a Finnish pedigree of eight cases with developmental dyslexia (DD) revealed several regions shared by the affected individuals. Analysis of coding variants from two affected individuals identified rs146011974G?>?A (Ala1039Thr), a rare variant within the NCAN gene co-segregating with DD in the pedigree. This variant prompted us to consider this gene as a putative candidate for DD. The RNA expression pattern of the NCAN gene in human tissues was highly correlated (R?>?0.8) with that of the previously suggested DD susceptibility genes KIAA0319, CTNND2, CNTNAP2 and GRIN2B. We investigated the association of common variation in NCAN to brain structures in two data sets: young adults (Brainchild study, Sweden) and infants (FinnBrain study, Finland). In young adults, we found associations between a common genetic variant in NCAN, rs1064395, and white matter volume in the left and right temporoparietal as well as the left inferior frontal brain regions. In infants, this same variant was found to be associated with cingulate and prefrontal grey matter volumes. Our results suggest NCAN as a new candidate gene for DD and indicate that NCAN variants affect brain structure.
Project description:Cognitive dysfunction has been recognized as a cardinal feature of schizophrenia. Elucidating the neurobiological substrates of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia would help identify the underlying mechanism of this disorder. The rs1064395 single nucleotide polymorphism, within the gene encoding neurocan (NCAN), is reported to be associated with schizophrenia in European populations and may influence brain structure in patients with schizophrenia.In this study, we aimed to explore whether NCAN rs1064395 confers some risk for schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunction in Han Chinese. We recruited 681 patients with schizophrenia and 699 healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty-four patients were evaluated according to Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS).There were no significant differences in genotype or allele distributions of the rs1064395 polymorphism between the schizophrenia and control groups. Patients showed significantly poorer performance than controls on immediate memory, visuospatial skill, language, attention, delayed memory, and total RBANS score. Patients with the A/A or A/G genotype of rs1064395 had lower scores of immediate memory, visuospatial skill, attention, and total RBANS score than those with the G/G genotype. We performed an expression quantitative trait loci analysis and observed a significant association between rs1064395 and NCAN expression in the frontal (P=0.0022, P=0.022 after Bonferroni correction) and cerebellar cortex (P=0.0032, P=0.032 after Bonferroni correction).Our findings indicate that this single nucleotide polymorphism may be a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. Further investigations are warranted for validation purposes and to identify the precise mechanism by which rs1064395 influences cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have reported an association between NCAN rs1064395 genotype and bipolar disorder. This association was later extended to schizophrenia and major depression. However, the neurobiological underpinnings of these associations are poorly understood. NCAN is implicated in neuronal plasticity and expressed in subcortical brain areas, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are critically involved in dysfunctional emotion processing and regulation across diagnostic boundaries. We hypothesized that the NCAN risk variant is associated with reduced gray matter volumes in these areas. Gray matter structure was assessed by voxel-based morphometry on structural MRI data in two independent German samples (healthy subjects, n=512; depressed inpatients, n=171). All participants were genotyped for NCAN rs1064395. Hippocampal and amygdala region-of-interest analyses were performed within each sample. In addition, whole-brain data from the combined sample were analyzed. Risk (A)-allele carriers showed reduced amygdala and hippocampal gray matter volumes in both cohorts with a remarkable spatial overlap. In the combined sample, genotype effects observed for the amygdala and hippocampus survived correction for entire brain volume. Further effects were also observed in the left orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum/fusiform gyrus. We conclude that NCAN genotype is associated with limbic gray matter alterations in healthy and depressed subjects in brain areas implicated in emotion perception and regulation. The present data suggest that NCAN forms susceptibility to neurostructural deficits in the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal areas independent of disease, which might lead to disorder onset in the presence of other genetic or environmental risk factors.
Project description:The A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1064395 in the NCAN gene has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. NCAN encodes neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is thought to influence neuronal adhesion and migration. Several lines of research suggest an impact of NCAN on neurocognitive functioning. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rs1064395 genotype on neural processing and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an overt semantic verbal fluency task in 110 healthy subjects who were genotyped for the NCAN SNP rs1064395. Participants additionally underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Whole brain analyses revealed that NCAN risk status, defined as AA or AG genotype, was associated with a lack of task-related deactivation in a large left lateral temporal cluster extending from the middle temporal gyrus to the temporal pole. Regarding neuropsychological measures, risk allele carriers demonstrated poorer immediate and delayed verbal memory performance when compared to subjects with GG genotype. Better verbal memory performance was significantly associated with greater deactivation of the left temporal cluster during the fMRI task in subjects with GG genotype. The current data demonstrate that common genetic variation in NCAN influences both neural processing and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Our study provides new evidence for a specific genetic influence on human brain function.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies suggest that rs1064395 in the neurocan gene (NCAN) is a potential risk factor for bipolar disorder (BPD), and further replication analyses in larger independent samples are needed. We herein analyzed rs1064395 in a Han Chinese sample of 1,146 BPD cases and 2,031 controls, followed by a meta-analysis of BPD samples from worldwide populations including a total of 15,318 cases and 91,990 controls. The meta-analysis found that rs1064395 showed a genome-wide significant association with BPD (p = 4.92 × 10-9, OR = 1.126 for the A allele), although it did not reach the significance level in the Han Chinese sample (p = 0.415, OR = 1.070 for the A allele). We also examined the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms and major depressive disorder (MDD) given the presumed genetic overlap between BPD and MDD, and rs1064395 was also associated with MDD (p = 0.0068, OR = 1.067 for the A allele) in a meta-analysis of 14,543 cases and 14,856 controls. Our data provide further evidence for the involvement of NCAN in the genetic susceptibility to BPD and also implicate its broader role in major mood disorders.
Project description:Recently genome-wide association studies identified that NCAN rs2228603 polymorphism was associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mainly in subjects of European ancestry. While no research have been conducted to demonstrate the relationship between NCAN rs2228603 and NAFLD in Chinese Han adults. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NCAN rs2228603 is associated with NAFLD in Chinese population.Gene NCAN rs2228603 was genotyped in 182 patients with NAFLD and 195 healthy controls. The expression of NCAN was tested according to polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) and serum lipids were performed by biology techniques.No significant difference was found in genotype and allele frequencies of NCAN rs2228603 between the NAFLD group and the controls (P?>?0.05). Subjects with the NCAN rs2228603 CT genotype showed a higher level of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) (P?=?0.017) and a higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P?<?0.05).Our study for the first time identified that the gene NCAN rs2228603 is not a risk factor for the incidence of NAFLD in Chinese population. Also we found the dual and opposite role of T variant in protecting liver with a higher level of HDL and conferring risk for liver damage with a higher level of AKP.Chinese Clinical Trial Register.gov Identifier: ChiCTR-ROC-15006447 .
Project description:KIAA0319 at the DYX2 locus is one of the most extensively studied candidate genes for developmental dyslexia (DD) owing to its important role in neuronal migration. Previous research on associations between KIAA0319 genetic variations and DD has yielded inconsistent results. It is important to establish a more precise estimate of the DD risk associated with these genetic variations. We carried out a meta-analysis of association studies involving KIAA0319 polymorphisms and DD risk. The results of pooled analysis indicated that none of the six investigated markers in or near the KIAA0319 gene are associated with DD. However, a stratified analysis by the study population revealed opposite associations involving KIAA0319 rs4504469 in European and Asian subgroups. The stratified analysis also showed that the KIAA0319 rs9461045 minor allele (T allele) has a protective effect in Asians. This meta-analysis has allowed us to establish the effects of specific KIAA0319 polymorphisms on DD risk with greater precision, as they vary across populations; analyzing one single nucleotide polymorphism at a time could not fully explain the genetic association for DD.
Project description:Linkage between developmental dyslexia (DD) and chromosome 6p has been replicated in a number of independent samples. Recent attempts to identify the gene responsible for the linkage have produced inconsistent evidence for association of DD with a number of genes in a 575-kb region of chromosome 6p22.2, including VMP, DCDC2, KIAA0319, TTRAP, and THEM2. We aimed to identify the specific gene or genes involved by performing a systematic, high-density (approximately 2-3-kb intervals) linkage disequilibrium screen of these genes in an independent sample, incorporating family-based and case-control designs in which dyslexia was defined as an extreme representation of reading disability. Using DNA pooling, we first observed evidence for association with 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 13 of which were located in the KIAA0319 gene (P<.01-.003). After redundant SNPs were excluded, 10 SNPs were individually genotyped in 223 subjects with DD and 273 controls. Those SNPs that were significant at P</=.05 were next genotyped in a semi-independent sample of 143 trios of probands with DD and their parents, to control for possible population stratification. Six SNPs showed significant evidence of association in both samples (P</=.04-.002), including a SNP (rs4504469) in exon 4 of the KIAA0319 gene that changes an amino acid (P=.002; odds ratio 1.5). Logistic regression analysis showed that two SNPs (rs4504469 and rs6935076) in the KIAA0319 gene best explained DD status. The haplotype composed of these two markers was significantly associated with DD (global P=.00001 in the case-control sample; P=.02 in trios). This finding was largely driven by underrepresentation of the most common haplotype in cases (P=.00003 in the case-control sample; P=.006 in trios; 1-degree-of-freedom tests). Our data strongly implicate KIAA0319 as a susceptibility gene for dyslexia. The gene product is expressed in brain, but its specific function is currently unknown.
Project description:We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a follow-up study of bipolar disorder (BD), a common neuropsychiatric disorder. In the GWAS, we investigated 499,494 autosomal and 12,484 X-chromosomal SNPs in 682 patients with BD and in 1300 controls. In the first follow-up step, we tested the most significant 48 SNPs in 1729 patients with BD and in 2313 controls. Eight SNPs showed nominally significant association with BD and were introduced to a meta-analysis of the GWAS and the first follow-up samples. Genetic variation in the neurocan gene (NCAN) showed genome-wide significant association with BD in 2411 patients and 3613 controls (rs1064395, p = 3.02 × 10(-8); odds ratio = 1.31). In a second follow-up step, we replicated this finding in independent samples of BD, totaling 6030 patients and 31,749 controls (p = 2.74 × 10(-4); odds ratio = 1.12). The combined analysis of all study samples yielded a p value of 2.14 × 10(-9) (odds ratio = 1.17). Our results provide evidence that rs1064395 is a common risk factor for BD. NCAN encodes neurocan, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, which is thought to be involved in cell adhesion and migration. We found that expression in mice is localized within cortical and hippocampal areas. These areas are involved in cognition and emotion regulation and have previously been implicated in BD by neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and postmortem studies.
Project description:The gene KIAA0319 has been reported to be associated with developmental dyslexia (DD) in previous studies, although the results have not always been consistent. However, few studies have been conducted in Uyghur populations. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association of KIAA0319 polymorphisms and DD in individuals of Uyghurian descent. We used a custom-by-design 48-Plex SNPscan Kit to genotype 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KIAA0319 in a group of 196 children with dyslexia and 196 controls of Uyghur descent aged 8-12 years. As a result, 7 SNPs (Pmin=0.001) of KIAA0319 had nominal significant differences between the cases and controls under specific genotypic models. The two SNPs rs6935076 (P=0.020 under dominant model; P=0.028 under additive model) and rs3756821 (P=0.021 under additive model) remained significantly associated with dyslexia after Bonferroni correction. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed three blocks within KIAA0319, and only a 10-SNP haplotype in block 3 was present at significantly different frequencies in the dyslexic children and controls. This study indicated that genetic polymorphisms of KIAA0319 are associated with an increased risk of DD in the Uyghur population.
Project description:This study investigated the association of the NCAN-TM6SF2-CILP2-PBX4-SUGP1-MAU2 SNPs and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions with serum lipid levels in the population of Southwest China. Genotyping of 12 SNPs (i.e., rs2238675, rs2228603, rs58542926, rs735273, rs16996148, rs968525, rs17216525, rs12610185, rs10401969, rs8102280, rs73001065 and rs150268548) was performed in 1248 hyperlipidemia patients and 1248 normal subjects. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the detected SNPs differed substantially between the normal and hyperlipidemia groups (P < 0.05-0.001), and the association of the 12 SNPs and hyperlipidemia was also observed (P < 0.004-0.0001). Four haplotypes (i.e., NCAN C-C, CILP2 G-T, PBX4-SUGP1 G-C, and MAU2 C-A-G-T) and 5 gene-gene interaction haplotypes (i.e., rs2238675C-rs2228603C, rs16996148G-rs17216525T, rs12610185G-rs10401969C, rs73001065G-rs8102280A-rs150268548G-rs968525C and rs73001065C-rs8102280A-rs150268548G-rs96852?showed a protective effect, whereas four other haplotypes (i.e., TM6SF2 T-A, TM6SF2 C-A, MAU2 G-G-G-C and MAU2 C-G-A-T), as well as 4 gene-gene interaction haplotypes (i.e., rs58542926C-rs735273A, rs58542926T-rs735273A, rs73001065G-rs8102280G-rs150268548G-rs968525C, and rs73001065C-rs8102280G-rs150268548A-rs968525T), exhibited an inverse effect on hyperlipidemia (P < 0.05-0.0001). There were notable three-locus models comprising SNP-SNP, SNP-environment, and haplotype-haplotype interactions (P < 0.05-0.0001). The individuals with some genotypes and haplotypes reduced the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, whereas the individuals with some other genotypes and haplotypes augmented the prevalence of hyperlipidemia. The NCAN-TM6SF2-CILP2-PBX4-SUGP1-MAU2 SNPs and gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on hyperlipidemia were observed in the population of Southwest China.