Coordinated Role of Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I in the Innate Response of Bovine Endometrial Cells to Virus.
ABSTRACT: Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12?h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN) regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C)-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.
Project description:Bovine postpartum uterine disease, metritis, affects about 40% of animals and is widely considered to have a bacterial aetiology. Although the gamma-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from several outbreaks of metritis or abortion, the role of viruses in endometrial pathology and the mechanisms of viral infection of uterine cells are often ignored. The objectives of the present study were to explore the interaction, tropism and outcomes of BoHV-4 challenge of endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. Endometrial stromal and epithelial cells were purified and infected with a recombinant BoHV-4 carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette to monitor the establishment of infection. BoHV-4 efficiently infected both stromal and epithelial cells, causing a strong non-apoptotic cytopathic effect, associated with robust viral replication. The crucial step for the BoHV-4 endometriotropism appeared to be after viral entry as there was enhanced transactivation of the BoHV-4 immediate early 2 gene promoter following transient transfection into the endometrial cells. Infection with BoHV-4 increased cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression and prostaglandin estradiol secretion in endometrial stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. Bovine macrophages are persistently infected with BoHV-4, and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells reactivated BoHV-4 replication in the persistently infected macrophages, suggesting a symbiotic relationship between the cells and virus. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of cellular and molecular mechanisms, supporting the concept that BoHV-4 is a pathogen associated with uterine disease.
Project description:The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) remains a major problem for both beef and dairy cattle industries worldwide. BRDC frequently involves an initial viral respiratory infection resulting in immunosuppression, which creates a favorable condition for fatal secondary bacterial infection. Current polyvalent modified live vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1(BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have limitations concerning their safety and efficacy. To address these shortcomings and safety issues, we have constructed a quadruple gene mutated BoHV-1 vaccine vector (BoHV-1 QMV), which expresses BVDV type 2, chimeric E2 and Flag-tagged Erns-fused with bovine granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) designated here as QMV-BVD2*. Here we compared the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of QMV-BVD2* vaccination in calves against BVDV-2 with Zoetis Bovi-shield Gold 3 trivalent (BoHV-1, BVDV types 1 and 2) vaccine. The QMV-BVD2* prototype subunit vaccine induced the BoHV-1 and BVDV-2 neutralizing antibody responses along with BVDV-1 and -2 cross-reactive cellular immune responses. Moreover, after a virulent BVDV-2 challenge, the QMV-BVD2* prototype subunit vaccine conferred a more rapid recall BVDV-2-specific neutralizing antibody response and considerably better recall BVDV types 1 and 2-cross protective cellular immune responses than that of the Zoetis Bovi-shield Gold 3.
Project description:The endometrium is commonly infected with bacteria leading to severe disease of the uterus in cattle and humans. The endometrial epithelium is the first line of defence for this mucosal surface against bacteria and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the innate immune system for detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Antimicrobial peptides, acute phase proteins and Mucin-1 (MUC-1) also provide non-specific defences against microbes on mucosal surfaces. The present study examined the expression of innate immune defences in the bovine endometrium and tested the hypothesis that endometrial epithelial cells express functional receptors of the TLR family and the non-specific effector molecules for defence against bacteria.Bovine endometrial tissue and purified populations of primary epithelial and stromal cells were examined using RT-PCR for gene expression of TLRs, antimicrobial peptides and MUC-1. Functional responses were tested by evaluating the secretion of prostaglandin E(2) and acute phase proteins when cells were treated with bacterial PAMPs such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins.The endometrium expressed TLRs 1 to 10, whilst purified populations of epithelial cells expressed TLRs 1 to 7 and 9, and stromal cells expressed TLRs 1 to 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10. The TLRs appear to be functional as epithelial cells secreted prostaglandin E(2) in response to bacterial PAMPs. In addition, the epithelial cells expressed antimicrobial peptides, such as Tracheal and Lingual Antimicrobial Peptides (TAP and LAP) and MUC-1, which were upregulated when the cells were treated with LPS. However, the epithelial cells did not express appreciable amounts of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin or serum amyloid A.Epithelial cells have an essential role in the orchestration of innate immune defence of the bovine endometrium and are likely to be the key to prevention of endometrial infection with bacteria.
Project description:Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of the PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as nonself by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and strongly induced type I interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The interaction between the two stem-loops inside the pseudoknot structure was sufficient for IFN induction, since disruption of the pseudoknot interaction powerfully dampened the IFN induction. Furthermore, transfection of the 3' UTR pseudoknot transcripts in PAMs inhibited PRRSV replication in vitro Importantly, the predicted similar structures of other arterivirus members, including equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), also displayed strong IFN induction activities. Together, in this work we identified an innate recognition mechanism by which the PRRSV 3' UTR pseudoknot region served as PAMPs of arteriviruses and activated innate immune signaling to produce IFNs that inhibit virus replication. All of these results provide novel insights into innate immune recognition during virus infection.IMPORTANCE PRRS is the most common viral disease in the pork industry. It is caused by PRRSV, a positive single-stranded RNA virus, whose infection often leads to persistent infection. To date, it is not yet clear how PRRSV is recognized by the host and what is the exact mechanism of IFN induction. Here, we investigated the nature of PAMPs on PRRSV and the associated PRRs. We found that the 3' UTR pseudoknot region of PRRSV, which has been proposed to regulate viral RNA synthesis, could act as PAMPs recognized by RIG-I and TLR3 to induce type I IFN production to suppress PRRSV infection. This report is the first detailed description of pattern recognition for PRRSV, which is important in understanding the antiviral response of arteriviruses, especially PRRSV, and extends our knowledge on virus recognition.
Project description:Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a gammaherpesvirus with a Worldwide distribution in cattle and is often isolated from the uterus of animals with postpartum metritis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Virus strain adaptation to an organ, tissue or cell type is an important issue for the pathogenesis of disease. To explore the mechanistic role of viral strain variation for uterine disease, the present study aimed to develop a tool enabling precise genetic discrimination between strains of BoHV-4 and to easily manipulate the viral genome.A strain of BoHV-4 was isolated from the uterus of a persistently infected cow and designated BoHV-4-U. The authenticity of the isolate was confirmed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing using the TK and IE2 loci as genetic marker regions for the BoHV-4 genome. The isolated genome was cloned as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) and manipulated through recombineering technologyThe BoHV-4-U genome was successfully cloned as a BAC, and the stability of the pBAC-BoHV-4-U clone was confirmed over twenty passages, with viral growth similar to the wild type virus. The feasibility of using BoHV-4-U for mutagenesis was demonstrated using the BAC recombineering system.The analysis of genome strain variation is a key method for investigating genes associated with disease. A resource for dissection of the interactions between BoHV-4 and host endometrial cells was generated by cloning the genome of BoHV-4 as a BAC.
Project description:Intracellular detection of virus infections is a critical component of innate immunity carried out by molecules known as pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Activation of PRRs by their respective pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) leads to production of proinflamatory cytokines, including type I IFN, and the establishment of an antiviral state in the host. Out of all PRRs found to date, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) has been shown to play a key role in recognition of RNA viruses. On the basis of in vitro and transfection studies, 5'ppp RNA produced during virus replication is thought to bind and activate this important sensor. However, the nature of RNA molecules that interact with endogenous RIG-I during the course of viral infection has not been determined. In this work we use next-generation RNA sequencing to show that RIG-I preferentially associates with shorter, 5'ppp containing viral RNA molecules in infected cells. We found that during Sendai infection RIG-I specifically bound the genome of the defective interfering (DI) particle and did not bind the full-length virus genome or any other viral RNAs. In influenza-infected cells RIG-I preferentially associated with shorter genomic segments as well as subgenomic DI particles. Our analysis for the first time identifies RIG-I PAMPs under natural infection conditions and implies that full-length genomes of single segmented RNA virus families are not bound by RIG-I during infection.
Project description:The etiology and pathologic findings of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in adult dairy cows (n = 35) from a commercial dairy herd in Southern Brazil were investigated. Pulmonary samples were examined for histopathologic patterns and specific features within these patterns, while immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were designed to detect the intralesional antigens of viral infectious disease agents and Mycoplasma bovis. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 91.4% (32/35) of these cases; neither pneumonia nor any of the infectious disease pathogens evaluated occurred in three cows. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 75% (24/32) of these cases indicated the complex origin of pneumonia in cattle. Interstitial pneumonia, necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia and suppurative bronchopneumonia were the principal patterns of pulmonary disease identified by histopathology. The most frequent pathogens identified by IHC were bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; n = 18), M. bovis (n = 16) and bovine alphaherpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1; n = 14), followed by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV; n = 11) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3; n = 5). Obliterative bronchiolitis and peribronchial lymphocytic cuffings were the characteristic histopathologic features associated with M. bovis. Necrohemorrhagic bronchitis with bronchial angiogenesis was associated with BoHV-1. Necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis were associated with BVDV, BoHV-1 and BRSV. Ballooning degeneration of the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia was associated with BRSV and BoHV-1. This is the first report from Brazil that correlated the histopathologic findings of BRD with the associated infectious disease agents by immunohistochemistry. M. bovis was frequently detected in the tissues of cows with fatal pulmonary disease during this study and may be a possible primary disease pathogen associated with the development of BRD in dairy cows. Additionally, the histopathologic features identified within patterns of pulmonary disease during this investigation may be an efficient diagnostic tool to associate histopathologic findings with specific agents of BRD in dairy cows.
Project description:We investigated the occurrence of infectious pathogens during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil that has a high risk of developing BRD. Nasopharyngeal swabs were randomly collected from steers ( n = 23) and assessed for the presence of infectious agents of BRD by PCR and/or RT-PCR assays. These included: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3). Pulmonary sections of one steer that died with clinical BRD were submitted for pathology and molecular testing. The frequencies of the pathogens identified from the nasopharyngeal swabs were: H. somni 39% (9 of 23), BRSV 35% (8 of 23), BCoV 22% (5 of 23), and M. haemolytica 13% (3 of 23). PCR or RT-PCR assays did not identify P. multocida, M. bovis, BoHV-1, BVDV, or BPIV-3 from the nasopharyngeal swabs. Single and concomitant associations of infectious agents of BRD were identified. Fibrinous bronchopneumonia was diagnosed in one steer that died; samples were positive for H. somni and M. haemolytica by PCR. H. somni, BRSV, and BCoV are important disease pathogens of BRD in feedlot cattle in Brazil, but H. somni and BCoV are probably under-reported.
Project description:Preventing postpartum uterine disease depends on the ability of endometrial cells to tolerate the presence of the bacteria that invade the uterus after parturition. Postpartum uterine disease and endometrial pathology in cattle are most associated with the pathogen Trueperella pyogenes. Trueperella pyogenes secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which causes cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of endometrial stromal cells. The aim of the present study was to identify cell-intrinsic pathways that increase bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin. Pyolysin caused dose-dependent cytolysis of bovine endometrial stromal cells and leakage of lactate dehydrogenase into supernatants. Cell tolerance to pyolysin was increased by inhibitors that target the mevalonate and cholesterol synthesis pathway, but not the mitogen-activated protein kinase, cell cycle, or metabolic pathways. Cellular cholesterol was reduced and cell tolerance to pyolysin was increased by supplying the mevalonate-derived isoprenoid farnesyl pyrophosphate, or by inhibiting farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 or geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 to increase the abundance of farnesyl pyrophosphate. Supplying the mevalonate-derived isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate also increased cell tolerance to pyolysin, but independent of changes in cellular cholesterol. However, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate inhibits nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H receptors (NR1H, also known as liver X receptors), and reducing the expression of the genes encoding NR1H3 or NR1H2 increased stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin. In conclusion, mevalonate-derived isoprenoids increased bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin, which was associated with reducing cellular cholesterol and inhibiting NR1H receptors.