Reorganization and expansion of the nidoviral family Arteriviridae.
ABSTRACT: The family Arteriviridae presently includes a single genus Arterivirus. This genus includes four species as the taxonomic homes for equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), respectively. A revision of this classification is urgently needed to accommodate the recent description of eleven highly divergent simian arteriviruses in diverse African nonhuman primates, one novel arterivirus in an African forest giant pouched rat, and a novel arterivirus in common brushtails in New Zealand. In addition, the current arterivirus nomenclature is not in accordance with the most recent version of the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature. Here we outline an updated, amended, and improved arterivirus taxonomy based on current data. Taxon-specific sequence cut-offs are established relying on a newly established open reading frame 1b phylogeny and pairwise sequence comparison (PASC) of coding-complete arterivirus genomes. As a result, the current genus Arterivirus is replaced by five genera: Equartevirus (for EAV), Rodartevirus (LDV + PRRSV), Simartevirus (SHFV + simian arteriviruses), Nesartevirus (for the arterivirus from forest giant pouched rats), and Dipartevirus (common brushtail arterivirus). The current species Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is divided into two species to accommodate the clear divergence of the European and American "types" of PRRSV, both of which now receive virus status. The current species Simian hemorrhagic fever virus is divided into nine species to accommodate the twelve known simian arteriviruses. Non-Latinized binomial species names are introduced to replace all current species names to clearly differentiate them from virus names, which remain largely unchanged.
Project description:Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) is an arterivirus that causes severe disease in captive macaques. We describe two new SHFV variants subclinically infecting wild African red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius). Both variants are highly divergent from the prototype virus and variants infecting sympatric red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus). All known SHFV variants are monophyletic and share three open reading frames not present in other arteriviruses. Our data suggest a need to modify the current arterivirus classification.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is a highly lethal disease in captive macaques. Three distinct arteriviruses are known etiological agents of past SHF epizootics, but only one, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), has been isolated in cell culture. The natural reservoir(s) of the three viruses have yet to be identified, but African nonhuman primates are suspected. Eleven additional divergent simian arteriviruses have been detected recently in diverse and apparently healthy African cercopithecid monkeys. Here, we report the successful isolation in MARC-145 cell culture of one of these viruses, Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1), from serum of a naturally infected red colobus (Procolobus [Piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) sampled in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Intramuscular (i.m.) injection of KRCV-1 into four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) resulted in a self-limiting nonlethal disease characterized by depressive behavioral changes, disturbance in coagulation parameters, and liver enzyme elevations. In contrast, i.m. injection of SHFV resulted in typical lethal SHF characterized by mild fever, lethargy, lymphoid depletion, lymphoid and hepatocellular necrosis, low platelet counts, increased liver enzyme concentrations, coagulation abnormalities, and increasing viral loads. As hypothesized based on the genetic and presumed antigenic distance between KRCV-1 and SHFV, all four macaques that had survived KRCV-1 injection died of SHF after subsequent SHFV injection, indicating a lack of protective heterotypic immunity. Our data indicate that SHF is a disease of macaques that in all likelihood can be caused by a number of distinct simian arteriviruses, although with different severity depending on the specific arterivirus involved. Consequently, we recommend that current screening procedures for SHFV in primate-holding facilities be modified to detect all known simian arteriviruses. IMPORTANCE:Outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) have devastated captive Asian macaque colonies in the past. SHF is caused by at least three viruses of the family Arteriviridae: simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), simian hemorrhagic encephalitis virus (SHEV), and Pebjah virus (PBJV). Nine additional distant relatives of these three viruses were recently discovered in apparently healthy African nonhuman primates. We hypothesized that all simian arteriviruses are potential causes of SHF. To test this hypothesis, we inoculated cynomolgus macaques with a highly divergent simian arterivirus (Kibale red colobus virus 1 [KRCV-1]) from a wild Ugandan red colobus. Despite being only distantly related to red colobuses, all of the macaques developed disease. In contrast to SHFV-infected animals, KRCV-1-infected animals survived after a mild disease presentation. Our study advances the understanding of an important primate disease. Furthermore, our data indicate a need to include the full diversity of simian arteriviruses in nonhuman primate SHF screening assays.
Project description:The N-terminal region of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) nonstructural polyprotein 1a is predicted to encode three papain-like proteases (PLP1?, PLP1?, and PLP1?). Catalytic residues and cleavage sites for each of the SHFV PLP1s were predicted by alignment of the SHFV PLP1 region sequences with each other as well as with those of other arteriviruses, and the predicted catalytic residues were shown to be proximal by homology modeling of the SHFV nsp1s on porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) nsp1 crystal structures. The functionality of the predicted catalytic Cys residues and cleavage sites was tested by analysis of the autoproteolytic products generated in in vitro transcription/translation reactions done with wild-type or mutant SHFV nsp1 constructs. Cleavage sites were also analyzed by mass spectroscopy analysis of selected immunoprecipitated cleavage products. The data showed that each of the three SHFV PLP1s is an active protease. Cys63 was identified as the catalytic Cys of SHFV PLP1? and is adjacent to an Ala instead of the canonical Tyr observed in other arterivirus PLP1s. SHFV PLP1? is able to cleave at both downstream and upstream nsp1 junction sites. Although intermediate precursor polyproteins as well as alternative products generated by each of the SHFV PLP1s cleaving at sites within the N-terminal region of nsp1? were produced in the in vitro reactions, Western blotting of SHFV-infected, MA104 cell lysates with SHFV nsp1 protein-specific antibodies detected only the three mature nsp1 proteins.SHFV is unique among arteriviruses in having three N-terminal papain-like protease 1 (PLP1) domains. Other arteriviruses encode one or two active PLP1s. This is the first functional study of the SHFV PLP1s. Analysis of the products of in vitro autoprocessing of an N-terminal SHFV nonstructural 1a polypeptide fragment showed that each of the three SHFV PLP1s is active, and the predicted catalytic Cys residues and cleavage sites for each PLP1 were confirmed by testing mutant constructs. Several unique features of the SHFV PLP1s were discovered. The SHFV PLP1? catalytic Cys63 is unique among arterivirus PLP1s in being adjacent to an Ala instead of a Trp. Other arterivirus PLP1s cleave only in cis at a single downstream site, but SHFV PLP1? can cleave at both the downstream nsp1?-nsp2 and upstream nsp1?-nsp1? junctions. The three mature nsp1 proteins were produced both in the in vitro reactions and in infected cells.
Project description:Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) has caused lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic disease in captive primates, but its distribution in wild primates has remained obscure. Here, we describe the discovery and genetic characterization by direct pyrosequencing of two novel, divergent SHFV variants co-infecting a single male red colobus monkey from Kibale National Park, Uganda.The viruses were detected directly from blood plasma using pyrosequencing, without prior virus isolation and with minimal PCR amplification. The two new SHFV variants, SHFV-krc1 and SHFV-krc2 are highly divergent from each other (51.9% nucleotide sequence identity) and from the SHFV type strain LVR 42-0/M6941 (52.0% and 51.8% nucleotide sequence identity, respectively) and demonstrate greater phylogenetic diversity within SHFV than has been documented within any other arterivirus. Both new variants nevertheless have the same 3' genomic architecture as the type strain, containing three open reading frames not present in the other arteriviruses.These results represent the first documentation of SHFV in a wild primate and confirm the unusual 3' genetic architecture of SHFV relative to the other arteriviruses. They also demonstrate a degree of evolutionary divergence within SHFV that is roughly equivalent to the degree of divergence between other arterivirus species. The presence of two such highly divergent SHFV variants co-infecting a single individual represents a degree of within-host viral diversity that exceeds what has previously been reported for any arterivirus. These results expand our knowledge of the natural history and diversity of the arteriviruses and underscore the importance of wild primates as reservoirs for novel pathogens.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Since the 1960s, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Nidovirales, Arteriviridae) has caused highly fatal outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in captive Asian macaque colonies. However, the source(s) of these outbreaks and the natural reservoir(s) of this virus remain obscure. Here we report the identification of two novel, highly divergent simian arteriviruses related to SHFV, Mikumi yellow baboon virus 1 (MYBV-1) and Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1), in wild and captive baboons, respectively, and demonstrate the recent transmission of SWBV-1 among captive baboons. These findings extend our knowledge of the genetic and geographic diversity of the simian arteriviruses, identify baboons as a natural host of these viruses, and provide further evidence that baboons may have played a role in previous outbreaks of simian hemorrhagic fever in macaques, as has long been suspected. This knowledge should aid in the prevention of disease outbreaks in captive macaques and supports the growing body of evidence that suggests that simian arterivirus infections are common in Old World monkeys of many different species throughout Africa. IMPORTANCE:Historically, the emergence of primate viruses both in humans and in other primate species has caused devastating outbreaks of disease. One strategy for preventing the emergence of novel primate pathogens is to identify microbes with the potential for cross-species transmission in their natural state within reservoir species from which they might emerge. Here, we detail the discovery and characterization of two related simian members of the Arteriviridae family that have a history of disease emergence and host switching. Our results expand the phylogenetic and geographic range of the simian arteriviruses and define baboons as a natural host for these viruses. Our findings also identify a potential threat to captive macaque colonies by showing that simian arteriviruses are actively circulating in captive baboons.
Project description:Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is an often lethal disease of Asian macaques. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) is one of at least three distinct simian arteriviruses that can cause SHF, but pathogenesis studies using modern methods have been scarce. Even seemingly straightforward studies, such as examining viral tissue and cell tropism in vivo, have been difficult to conduct due to the absence of standardized SHFV-specific reagents. Here we report the establishment of an in situ hybridization assay for the detection of SHFV and distantly related Kibale red colobus virus 1 (KRCV-1) RNA in cell culture. In addition, we detected SHFV RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an infected rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). The assay is easily performed and can clearly distinguish between SHFV and KRCV-1. Thus, if further developed, this assay may be useful during future studies evaluating the mechanisms by which a simian arterivirus with a restricted cell tropism can cause a lethal nonhuman primate disease similar in clinical presentation to human viral hemorrhagic fevers.
Project description:Arteriviruses infect immune cells and may cause persistence in infected hosts. Inefficient induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs are observed during infection of this group of viruses, suggesting that they may have evolved to escape the host immune surveillance for efficient survival. Recent studies have identified viral proteins regulating the innate immune signaling, and among these, nsp1 (nonstructural protein 1) is the most potent IFN antagonist. For porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), individual subunits (nsp1? and nsp1?) of nsp1 suppress type I IFN production. In particular, PRRSV-nsp1? degrades CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding)-binding protein (CBP), a key component of the IFN enhanceosome, whereas PRRSV-nsp1? degrades karyopherin-?1 which is known to mediate the nuclear import of ISGF3 (interferon-stimulated gene factor 3). All individual subunits of nsp1 of PRRSV, equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) appear to contain IFN suppressive activities. As with PRRSV-nsp1?, CBP degradation is evident by LDV-nsp1? and partly by SHFV-nsp1?. This review summarizes the biogenesis and the role of individual subunits of nsp1 of arteriviruses for innate immune modulation.
Project description:Once infected by viruses, cells can detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on viral nucleic acid by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the antiviral response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by reproductive failure in sows and respiratory diseases in pigs of different ages. To date, the sensing mechanism of PRRSV has not been elucidated. Here, we reported that the pseudoknot region residing in the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of the PRRSV genome, which has been proposed to regulate RNA synthesis and virus replication, was sensed as nonself by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and strongly induced type I interferons (IFNs) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The interaction between the two stem-loops inside the pseudoknot structure was sufficient for IFN induction, since disruption of the pseudoknot interaction powerfully dampened the IFN induction. Furthermore, transfection of the 3' UTR pseudoknot transcripts in PAMs inhibited PRRSV replication in vitro Importantly, the predicted similar structures of other arterivirus members, including equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), also displayed strong IFN induction activities. Together, in this work we identified an innate recognition mechanism by which the PRRSV 3' UTR pseudoknot region served as PAMPs of arteriviruses and activated innate immune signaling to produce IFNs that inhibit virus replication. All of these results provide novel insights into innate immune recognition during virus infection.IMPORTANCE PRRS is the most common viral disease in the pork industry. It is caused by PRRSV, a positive single-stranded RNA virus, whose infection often leads to persistent infection. To date, it is not yet clear how PRRSV is recognized by the host and what is the exact mechanism of IFN induction. Here, we investigated the nature of PAMPs on PRRSV and the associated PRRs. We found that the 3' UTR pseudoknot region of PRRSV, which has been proposed to regulate viral RNA synthesis, could act as PAMPs recognized by RIG-I and TLR3 to induce type I IFN production to suppress PRRSV infection. This report is the first detailed description of pattern recognition for PRRSV, which is important in understanding the antiviral response of arteriviruses, especially PRRSV, and extends our knowledge on virus recognition.
Project description:Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) is lethal for macaques. Based on clinical presentation and serological diagnosis, all reported SHF outbreaks were thought to be caused by different strains of the same virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; Arteriviridae). Here we show that the SHF outbreaks in Sukhumi in 1964 and in Alamogordo in 1989 were caused not by SHFV but by two novel divergent arteriviruses. Our results indicate that multiple divergent simian arteriviruses can cause SHF.
Project description:The -2/-1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (-2/-1 PRF) mechanism in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leads to the translation of two additional viral proteins, nonstructural protein 2TF (nsp2TF) and nsp2N. This -2/-1 PRF mechanism is transactivated by a viral protein, nsp1β, and cellular poly(rC) binding proteins (PCBPs). Critical elements for -2/-1 PRF, including a slippery sequence and a downstream C-rich motif, were also identified in 11 simarteriviruses. However, the slippery sequences (XXXUCUCU instead of XXXUUUUU) in seven simarteriviruses can only facilitate -2 PRF to generate nsp2TF. The nsp1β of simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) was identified as a key factor that transactivates both -2 and -1 PRF, and the universally conserved Tyr111 and Arg114 in nsp1β are essential for this activity. In vitro translation experiments demonstrated the involvement of PCBPs in simarterivirus -2/-1 PRF. Using SHFV reverse genetics, we confirmed critical roles of nsp1β, slippery sequence, and C-rich motif in -2/-1 PRF in SHFV-infected cells. Attenuated virus growth ability was observed in SHFV mutants with impaired expression of nsp2TF and nsp2N. Comparative genomic sequence analysis showed that key elements of -2/-1 PRF are highly conserved in all known arteriviruses except equine arteritis virus (EAV) and wobbly possum disease virus (WPDV). Furthermore, -2/-1 PRF with SHFV PRF signal RNA can be stimulated by heterotypic nsp1βs of all non-EAV arteriviruses tested. Taken together, these data suggest that -2/-1 PRF is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism employed in non-EAV/-WPDV arteriviruses for the expression of additional viral proteins that are important for viral replication.IMPORTANCE Simarteriviruses are a group of arteriviruses infecting nonhuman primates, and a number of new species have been established in recent years. Although these arteriviruses are widely distributed among African nonhuman primates of different species, and some of them cause lethal hemorrhagic fever disease, this group of viruses has been undercharacterized. Since wild nonhuman primates are historically important sources or reservoirs of human pathogens, there is concern that simarteriviruses may be preemergent zoonotic pathogens. Thus, molecular characterization of simarteriviruses is becoming a priority in arterivirology. In this study, we demonstrated that an evolutionarily conserved ribosomal frameshifting mechanism is used by simarteriviruses and other distantly related arteriviruses for the expression of additional viral proteins. This mechanism is unprecedented in eukaryotic systems. Given the crucial role of ribosome function in all living systems, the potential impact of the in-depth characterization of this novel mechanism reaches beyond the field of virology.