Infratemporal fossa infection with inferior alveolar nerve involvement.
ABSTRACT: Abscess of the infratemporal fossa is a rare complication which can be difficult to diagnose. It occurs mostly due to dental infection, tooth extraction, fractures and/or infections involving the maxillary sinus. This condition can be life threatening if not dealt with immediately. The maxillofacial surgeon must be aware of the symptoms and clinical findings of the infection of the infratemporal fossa in order to initiate the treatment as soon as possible. In this case report, a patient with an infratemporal fossa infection presenting with an unusual symptom of inferior alveolar nerve involvement is presented.
Project description:Background Paragangliomas are rare neural crest tumors that can manifest in the head and neck as either functional or more commonly as nonfunctional lesions. Paragangliomas of the infratemporal fossa are exceedingly rare, with no more than a handful of documented cases. Like other tumors of this space, surgical management is challenging on account of complex anatomy and nearby critical structures. Methods A 44-year-old man presented with a right infratemporal fossa functional paraganglioma. Following preemptive embolization and autonomic pharmacotherapy, his tumor was successfully resected via a transfacial maxillary swing approach. Results This case highlights the surgical management of a functional paraganglioma of the infratemporal fossa while demonstrating the effectiveness of a transfacial maxillary swing approach for both exposure and resection. Conclusion Although this report summarizes much of the literature on paragangliomas, there is still much to uncover regarding the fundamental features and genetic etiology of these lesions.
Project description:Background Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumors of congenital origin. We report a case of a large dermoid tumor arising in the infratemporal fossa (ITF) with erosion into the middle cranial fossa. After reviewing the literature, we believe this represents the first reported dermoid tumor of the ITF with extension into the middle cranial fossa. Results A 21-year-old women presented with a large cystic mass involving the left infratemporal fossa and middle cranial fossa that was discovered following a motor vehicle collision. Neurologic examination was normal. The mass was resected through a frontotemporal extradural approach with endoscopic assistance. Imaging studies, gross findings, and histopathology were consistent with a dermoid tumor. Conclusion This is the first report of a dermoid cyst arising in the ITF with extension into the middle cranial fossa. We suggest including dermoid tumor in the differential diagnosis of cystic abnormalities in this region. Complete resection of the cyst remains the preferred treatment with surgical approach guided by preoperative imaging.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The endoscopic transnasal approach has been proven to have advantages on the removal of the tumors in pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) and infratemporal fossa (ITF). Herein, this study aimed to describe a modified approach for resection of the tumors in these areas, both in cadaveric specimen and clinical patients. METHODS:The 20 adult cadaveric specimens and five patients with tumors in PPF and ITF were enrolled in this study. For the cadaveric specimens, ten were simulated anterior transmaxillary approach and ten were performed modified endoscopic transnasal transmaxillary approach. The exposure areas were compared between two groups and main anatomic structure were measured. Surgery was operated in the five patients with tumors of PPF and ITF to verify the experience from the anatomy. Perioperative management, intraoperative findings and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS:The modified endoscopic transnasal transmaxillary approach provided as enough surgical exposure and high operability to the PPF and ITF as the anterior transmaxillary approach did. The diameter of maxillary artery in the PPF was 3.77 ± 0.78 mm (range: 2.06-4.82 mm), the diameter of middle meningeal artery in the ITF was 2.79 ± 0.61 mm (range: 1.54-3.78 mm). Four patients who suffered schwannoma got total removal and one of adenocystic carcinoma got subtotal removal. The main complications were facial numbness and pericoronitis of the wisdom tooth. No permanent complication was found. CONCLUSIONS:With the widespread use of neuroendoscopy, the modified endoscopic transnasal transmaxillary approach is feasible and effective for the resection of tumors located in PPF and ITF, which has significant advantages on less trauma and complications to the patients.
Project description:Dermoid cysts are rare in the skull base. There have been 10 reported cases of dermoid cysts in the cavernous sinus, two in the petrous apex, and one in the extradural Meckel cave. This is the first case report of a dermoid cyst in the anterior infratemporal fossa attached to the anterior dura of the foramen ovale. The clinical presentation, radiologic findings, histologic features, tumor origin, and operative technique are described along with a review of the literature.
Project description:Introduction Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign but aggressive lesion arising from sinovia. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is hardly ever involved. Methods We describe a case of PVNS arising in the left TMJ involving infratemporal fossa soft tissue and the skull base; we also present the reconstruction. Results A 37-year-old woman had progressive mandibular swelling for 6 months. Computed tomography of the skull revealed an osteolytic lesion in the left TMJ, involving the upper mandible, condyle, and glenoid fossa and extending to the infratemporal fossa and fossa media through a defect in temporal bone. Surgical management included a left pterional craniotomy to reach the temporal skull base and resect the intracranial tumor and a facial approach with partial left mandibulectomy and resection of left condyle, glenoid fossa, and tumor removal in infratemporal fossa. Mandible function was restored with prosthetic reconstruction of the condyle. She progressively started to eat solid foods after 3 months, becoming increasingly functional and asymptomatic. At 30 months' follow-up, she had no sign of tumoral recurrence and showed asymptomatic and normal TMJ function. Conclusion PVNS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone neoplasms affecting young patients. In such cases, radical excision is mandatory and TMJ prosthesis for local reconstruction may be used to preserve functionality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The appropriate management of postoperative complication of wisdom teeth removal is of utmost importance as it can result in legal procedures. The accidental displacement of a maxillary third molar in the infratemporal fossa (ITF), is a rare complication that can occur even with experienced surgeons. The numerous retrieval techniques reported are invasive and provide an unpredictable access. Our aim was to achieve the safe and swift retrieval of the tooth displaced to an area of such complex anatomy. CASE PRESENTATION:We describe the case of a 17-year-old female patient whose right upper third molar was accidentally pushed upward to the ITF and became unreachable. Retrieval based on interventional radiology using the CT-guided placement of a bone trocar above the displaced tooth was successfully performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS:CT scan assisted interventional radiology provides both, real-time assessment of the tooth position through image refreshment, and steady stabilization of the displaced tooth. Therefore, it allows a safe and non-traumatic retrieval with a time-efficient procedure achieved through a minimally-invasive approach with inconspicuous scaring. We believe that such a procedure is an interesting treatment option for optimal outpatient care. To our knowledge, no such case has been previously described.
Project description:Epidermoid cysts (ECs) are benign congenital cysts that typically develop from misplaced stratified squamous epithelium during neural tube closure. They are most commonly encountered in the cerebellopontine angle, the fourth ventricle, and the region of the sella turcica. Recurrence of an EC or regrowth of residual components following surgery is known to occur, but the exact incidence is not defined. Repeat surgical removal is generally considered but may be complicated by significant morbidity. We present a novel endoscopic method by which to manage a recurrent EC of the infratemporal fossa using a silastic stent through a transpterygoid approach that permits periodic drainage of recurrent cyst material in the outpatient setting with minimal morbidity.
Project description:Background:En bloc resection of malignancies in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) poses critical challenges. Using the modified maxillary-swing (MMS) approach, we achieved monobloc removal of primary malignancies in this region. This study provides a detailed account of the surgical techniques and indications used. Methods:We enrolled seven patients with primary malignancies in the PPF during a period from January 2012 to January 2019 in this retrospective study. After malignancies were confirmed by biopsy as well as evaluation with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, all of the patients underwent MMS surgery under general anesthesia to extirpate these tumors. We performed regular postoperative follow-up using CT and MRI scans. Results:En bloc resection was successfully performed in all cases. We observed negative margins in six cases and positive margins in one patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma, who received postoperative radiotherapy. The most common complication was facial numbness. During the follow-up period (range, 6-69 months), one patient suffered from recurrence, while the others did not. Conclusion:The advantages of the MMS include a wide surgical field, full exposure, and easy manipulation. We expect this approach to become an alternative to the monobloc resection of malignancies in the PPF that involve the infratemporal fossa, maxillary sinus, nasal cavity, orbit, or oral cavity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Actinomycetes can rarely cause intracranial infection and may cause a variety of complications. We describe a fatal case of intracranial and intra-orbital actinomycosis of odontogenic origin with a unique presentation and route of dissemination. Also, we provide a review of the current literature. CASE PRESENTATION:A 58-year-old man presented with diplopia and progressive pain behind his left eye. Six weeks earlier he had undergone a dental extraction, followed by clindamycin treatment for a presumed maxillary infection. The diplopia responded to steroids but recurred after cessation. The diplopia was thought to result from myositis of the left medial rectus muscle, possibly related to a defect in the lamina papyracea. During exploration there was no abnormal tissue for biopsy. The medial wall was reconstructed and the myositis responded again to steroids. Within weeks a myositis on the right side occurred, with CT evidence of muscle swelling. Several months later he presented with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. Despite treatment the patient deteriorated, developed extensive intracranial hemorrhage, and died. Autopsy showed bacterial aggregates suggestive of actinomycotic meningoencephalitis with septic thromboembolism. Retrospectively, imaging studies showed abnormalities in the left infratemporal fossa and skull base and bilateral cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, intracranial actinomycosis is difficult to diagnose, with potentially fatal outcome. An accurate diagnosis can often only be established by means of histology and biopsy should be performed whenever feasible. This is the first report of actinomycotic orbital involvement of odontogenic origin, presenting initially as bilateral orbital myositis rather than as orbital abscess. Infection from the upper left jaw extended to the left infratemporal fossa, skull base and meninges and subsequently to the cavernous sinus and the orbits.
Project description:Tumors arising from the posterior hard palate or posterolateral maxilla may extend to involve the infratemporal fossa (ITF). Resection of these tumors results in infrastructural maxillectomy with ITF defects. In this study, we describe the use of an adipofascial anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) specifically for such defects. This case series includes four patients who underwent an infrastructure maxillectomy with ITF clearance and the resultant defects were reconstructed using adipofascial anterolateral thigh flaps. The complications as well as the functional outcomes were assessed. This study included patients with lesions involving the hard palate, posterolateral part of maxilla with extension into the ITF. The mean flap dimension was 150 cm(2) (range, 120-180 cm(2)). All flaps were harvested based on a single perforator. The flap was used to obliterate the ITF defect and also to achieve oroantral separation. All flaps mucosalized well within 6 weeks. All patients were on oral diet and had adequate mouth opening. There were no donor-site complications. Adipofascial ALT is an excellent choice for infrastructural maxillectomy defects with ITF extension. The intraoral part got mucosalized well and provided a smooth and taut surface. A large adipofascial tissue flap helps obliterate the ITF, thus minimizing complications.