Identification of Arsenic Resistance Genes from Marine Sediment Metagenome.
ABSTRACT: A metagenomic library of sea sediment metagenome containing 245,000 recombinant clones representing ~ 2.45 Gb of sea sediment microbial DNA was constructed. Two unique arsenic resistance clones, A7 and A12, were identified by selection on sodium arsenite containing medium. Clone A7 showed a six-fold higher resistance to arsenate [As(V)], a three-fold higher resistance to arsenite [As(III)] and significantly increased resistance to antimony [Sb(III)], while clone A12 showed increased resistance only to sodium arsenite and not to the other two metalloids. The clones harbored inserts of 8.848 Kb and 6.771 Kb, respectively. Both the clones possess A + T rich nucleotide sequence with similarity to sequences from marine psychrophilic bacteria. Sequence and transposon-mutagenesis based analysis revealed the presence of a putative arsenate reductase (ArsC), a putative arsenite efflux pump (ArsB/ACR) and a putative NADPH-dependent FMN reductase (ArsH) in both the clones and also a putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ArsR) in pA7. The increased resistance of clone A7 to As(V), As(III) and Sb(III) indicates functional expression of ArsC and ArsB proteins from pA7. The absence of increased As(V) resistance in clone A12 may be due to the expression of a possible inactive ArsC, as conserved Arg60 residue in this protein was replaced by Glu60, while the absence of Sb(III) resistance may be due to the presence of an ACR3p-type arsenite pump, which is known to lack antimony transport ability.
Project description:The arsenic resistance operon from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 was cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence contains three genes in the order arsR, arsB, and arsC. The predicted amino acid sequences of the gene products are homologous with those of the products of the ars operons of plasmids pSX267 from Staphylococcus xylosus and R773 from Escherichia coli. The cloned staphylococcal ars operon confers resistances to arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite in S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The same operon was also expressed in E. coli and conferred resistance to arsenite but less resistance to arsenate and antimonite. Regulation of the pI258 ars operon was studied by using a translational arsB-blaZ fusion in S. aureus and a transcriptional arsB-luxAB fusion in E. coli. The ars operon was induced by arsenate [As(V)], arsenite [As(III)], and antimonite [Sb(III)], to which the strains were resistant, plus Bi(III) in S. aureus. Only arsenate and arsenite induced the operon in E. coli. Northern (RNA) blot DNA-RNA hybridization analysis showed inducible synthesis of a full-length ars mRNA, about 2.1 kb in size, both in S. aureus and in E. coli. S. aureus ars proteins were expressed in E. coli from the T7 phage promoter under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase. Primer extension (reverse transcriptase) analysis showed that the ars mRNA started at the same position (nucleotides 17 and 18 upstream from the arsR ATG) both in S. aureus and in E. coli. An internal deletion mutation in arsB resulted in decreased resistance to arsenate and total loss of arsenite and antimonite resistances. Partial deletion of 56 bp from the 3' end of the arsC gene resulted in loss of resistance to arsenate; the determinant retained arsenite and antimonite resistances.
Project description:We report a novel pathway for arsenic detoxification in the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. Although a majority of ars operons consist of three genes, arsR (transcriptional regulator), arsB [As(OH)3/H+ antiporter], and arsC (arsenate reductase), the S. meliloti ars operon includes an aquaglyceroporin (aqpS) in place of arsB. The presence of AqpS in an arsenic resistance operon is interesting, since aquaglyceroporin channels have previously been shown to adventitiously facilitate uptake of arsenite into cells, rendering them sensitive to arsenite. To understand the role of aqpS in arsenic resistance, S. meliloti aqpS and arsC were disrupted individually. Disruption of aqpS resulted in increased tolerance to arsenite but not arsenate, while cells with an arsC disruption showed selective sensitivity to arsenate. The results of transport experiments in intact cells suggest that AqpS is the only protein of the S. meliloti ars operon that facilitates transport of arsenite. Coexpression of S. meliloti aqpS and arsC in a strain of E. coli lacking the ars operon complemented arsenate but not arsenite sensitivity. These results imply that, when S. meliloti is exposed to environmental arsenate, arsenate enters the cell through phosphate transport systems and is reduced to arsenite by ArsC. Internally generated arsenite flows out of the cell by downhill movement through AqpS. Thus, AqpS confers arsenate resistance together with ArsC-catalyzed reduction. This is the first report of an aquaglyceroporin with a physiological function in arsenic resistance.
Project description:The chromosomal arsenic resistance genes of the acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, biomining bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were cloned and sequenced. Homologues of four arsenic resistance genes, arsB, arsC, arsH, and a putative arsR gene, were identified. The T. ferrooxidans arsB (arsenite export) and arsC (arsenate reductase) gene products were functional when they were cloned in an Escherichia coli ars deletion mutant and conferred increased resistance to arsenite, arsenate, and antimony. Therefore, despite the fact that the ars genes originated from an obligately acidophilic bacterium, they were functional in E. coli. Although T. ferrooxidans is gram negative, its ArsC was more closely related to the ArsC molecules of gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, a functional trxA (thioredoxin) gene was required for ArsC-mediated arsenate resistance in E. coli; this finding confirmed the gram-positive ArsC-like status of this resistance and indicated that the division of ArsC molecules based on Gram staining results is artificial. Although arsH was expressed in an E. coli-derived in vitro transcription-translation system, ArsH was not required for and did not enhance arsenic resistance in E. coli. The T. ferrooxidans ars genes were arranged in an unusual manner, and the putative arsR and arsC genes and the arsBH genes were translated in opposite directions. This divergent orientation was conserved in the four T. ferrooxidans strains investigated.
Project description:Steady exposure to environmental arsenic has led to the evolution of vital cellular detoxification mechanisms. Under aerobic conditions, a two-step process appears most common among microorganisms involving reduction of predominant, oxidized arsenate (H(2)As(V)O(4)(-)/HAs(V)O(4)(2-)) to arsenite (As(III)(OH)(3)) by a cytosolic enzyme (ArsC; Escherichia coli type arsenate reductase) and subsequent extrusion via ArsB (E. coli type arsenite transporter)/ACR3 (yeast type arsenite transporter). Here, we describe novel fusion proteins consisting of an aquaglyceroporin-derived arsenite channel with a C-terminal arsenate reductase domain of phosphotyrosine-phosphatase origin, providing transposable, single gene-encoded arsenate resistance. The fusion occurred in actinobacteria from soil, Frankia alni, and marine environments, Salinispora tropica; Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes an analogous ACR3-ArsC fusion. Mutations rendered the aquaglyceroporin channel more polar resulting in lower glycerol permeability and enhanced arsenite selectivity. The arsenate reductase domain couples to thioredoxin and can complement arsenate-sensitive yeast strains. A second isoform with a nonfunctional channel may use the mycothiol/mycoredoxin cofactor pool. These channel enzymes constitute prototypes of a novel concept in metabolism in which a substrate is generated and compartmentalized by the same molecule. Immediate diffusion maintains the dynamic equilibrium and prevents toxic accumulation of metabolites in an energy-saving fashion.
Project description:The arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite resistance region of the Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267 was subcloned in Staphylococcus carnosus. The sequenced DNA region revealed three consecutive open reading frames, named arsR, arsB, and arsC. Expression studies in Escherichia coli with the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system yielded three polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 8,000, 35,000, and 15,000, which very likely correspond to ArsR, ArsB, and ArsC, respectively. ArsB was distinguished by its overall hydrophobic character, suggesting a membrane association. The arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite resistance was shown to be inducible by all three heavy metal ions. Inactivation of the first gene, arsR, resulted in constitutive expression of resistance. Similar results were obtained with transcriptional fusions of various portions of the ars genes with a lipase reporter gene, indicating a function of ArsR as a negative regulator of a putative promoter in front of arsR. The inactivation of arsR also resulted in reduction of resistance to arsenite and antimonite, while arsenate resistance was unaffected. The three ars genes conferred arsenite resistance in E. coli and arsenite as well as arsenate resistance in Bacillus subtilis.
Project description:Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacteria can transform the toxic Sb(III) into the less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. Recently, the cytoplasmic Sb(III)-oxidase AnoA and the periplasmic arsenite [As(III)] oxidase AioAB were shown to responsible for bacterial Sb(III) oxidation, however, disruption of each gene only partially decreased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. This study showed that in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, Sb(III) induced cellular H2O2 content and H2O2 degradation gene katA. Gene knock-out/complementation of katA, anoA, aioA and anoA/aioA and Sb(III) oxidation and growth experiments showed that katA, anoA and aioA were essential for Sb(III) oxidation and resistance and katA was also essential for H2O2 resistance. Furthermore, linear correlations were observed between cellular H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vivo and chemical H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vitro (R2?=?0.93 and 0.94, respectively). These results indicate that besides the biotic factors, the cellular H2O2 induced by Sb(III) also catalyzes bacterial Sb(III) oxidation as an abiotic oxidant. The data reveal a novel mechanism that bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is associated with abiotic (cellular H2O2) and biotic (AnoA and AioAB) factors and Sb(III) oxidation process consumes cellular H2O2 which contributes to microbial detoxification of both Sb(III) and cellular H2O2.
Project description:Arsenic-resistant bacteria have evolved various efflux systems for arsenic resistance. Five arsenic efflux proteins, ArsB, Acr3, ArsP, ArsJ, and MSF1, have been reported. In this study, comprehensive analyses were performed to study the function of a putative major facilitator superfamily gene, arsK, and the regulation of arsK transcriptional expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4. We found that (i) arsK is located on an arsenic gene island in strain GW4. ArsK orthologs are widely distributed in arsenic-resistant bacteria and are phylogenetically divergent from the five reported arsenic efflux proteins, indicating that it may be a novel arsenic efflux transporter. (ii) Reporter gene assays showed that the expression of arsK was induced by arsenite [As(III)], antimonite [Sb(III)], trivalent roxarsone [Rox(III)], methylarsenite [MAs(III)], and arsenate [As(V)]. (iii) Heterologous expression of ArsK in an arsenic-hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain showed that ArsK was essential for resistance to As(III), Sb(III), Rox(III), and MAs(III) but not to As(V), dimethylarsenite [dimethyl-As(III)], or Cd(II). (iv) ArsK reduced the cellular accumulation of As(III), Sb(III), Rox(III), and MAs(III) but not to As(V) or dimethyl-As(III). (v) A putative arsenic regulator gene arsR2 was cotranscribed with arsK, and (vi) ArsR2 interacted with the arsR2-arsK promoter region without metalloids and was derepressed by As(III), Sb(III), Rox(III), and MAs(III), indicating the repression activity of ArsR2 for the transcription of arsK These results demonstrate that ArsK is a novel arsenic efflux protein for As(III), Sb(III), Rox(III), and MAs(III) and is regulated by ArsR2. Bacteria use the arsR2-arsK operon for resistance to several trivalent arsenicals or antimonials.IMPORTANCE The metalloid extrusion systems are very important bacterial resistance mechanisms. Each of the previously reported ArsB, Acr3, ArsP, ArsJ, and MSF1 transport proteins conferred only inorganic or organic arsenic/antimony resistance. In contrast, ArsK confers resistance to several inorganic and organic trivalent arsenicals and antimonials. The identification of the novel efflux transporter ArsK enriches our understanding of bacterial resistance to trivalent arsenite [As(III)], antimonite [Sb(III)], trivalent roxarsone [Rox(III)], and methylarsenite [MAs(III)].
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacterium has great potential in the environmental bioremediation of Sb-polluted sites. Bacillus sp. S3 that was previously isolated from antimony-contaminated soil displayed high Sb(III) resistance and Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. However, the genomic information and evolutionary feature of Bacillus sp. S3 are very scarce. RESULTS:Here, we identified a 5,436,472?bp chromosome with 40.30% GC content and a 241,339?bp plasmid with 36.74% GC content in the complete genome of Bacillus sp. S3. Genomic annotation showed that Bacillus sp. S3 contained a key aioB gene potentially encoding As (III)/Sb(III) oxidase, which was not shared with other Bacillus strains. Furthermore, a wide variety of genes associated with Sb(III) and other heavy metal (loid) s were also ascertained in Bacillus sp. S3, reflecting its adaptive advantage for growth in the harsh eco-environment. Based on the analysis of phylogenetic relationship and the average nucleotide identities (ANI), Bacillus sp. S3 was proved to a novel species within the Bacillus genus. The majority of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) mainly distributed on chromosomes within the Bacillus genus. Pan-genome analysis showed that the 45 genomes contained 554 core genes and many unique genes were dissected in analyzed genomes. Whole genomic alignment showed that Bacillus genus underwent frequently large-scale evolutionary events. In addition, the origin and evolution analysis of Sb(III)-resistance genes revealed the evolutionary relationships and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events among the Bacillus genus. The assessment of functionality of heavy metal (loid) s resistance genes emphasized its indispensable role in the harsh eco-environment of Bacillus genus. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis indicated that Sb(III)-related genes were all induced under the Sb(III) stress, while arsC gene was down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS:The results in this study shed light on the molecular mechanisms of Bacillus sp. S3 coping with Sb(III), extended our understanding on the evolutionary relationships between Bacillus sp. S3 and other closely related species, and further enriched the Sb(III) resistance genetic data sources.
Project description:Resistance to arsenite (As(III)) by cells is generally accomplished by arsenite efflux permeases from Acr3 or ArsB unrelated families. We analyzed the function of three Acr3 proteins from Corynebacterium glutamicum, CgAcr3-1, CgAcr3-2, and CgAcr3-3. CgAcr3-1 conferred the highest level of As(III) resistance and accumulation in vivo. CgAcr3-1 was also the most active when everted membranes vesicles from Escherichia coli or C. glutamicum mutants were assayed for efflux with different energy sources. As(III) and antimonite (Sb(III)) resistance and accumulation studies using E. coli or C. glutamicum arsenite permease mutants clearly show that CgAcr3-1 is specific for As(III). In everted membrane vesicles expressing CgAcr3-1, dissipation of either the membrane potential or the pH gradient of the proton motive force did not prevent As(III) uptake, whereas dissipation of both components eliminated uptake. Further, a mutagenesis study of CgAcr3-1 suggested that a conserved cysteine and glutamate are involved in active transport. Therefore, we propose that CgAcr3-1 is an antiporter that catalyzes arsenite-proton exchange with residues Cys129 and Glu305 involved in efflux.
Project description:In the arsenic resistance gene cluster from the large linear plasmid pHZ227, two novel genes, arsO (for a putative flavin-binding monooxygenase) and arsT (for a putative thioredoxin reductase), were coactivated and cotranscribed with arsR1-arsB and arsC, respectively. Deletion of the ars gene cluster on pHZ227 in Streptomyces sp. strain FR-008 resulted in sensitivity to arsenic, and heterologous expression of the ars gene cluster in the arsenic-sensitive Streptomyces strains conferred resistance on the new hosts. The pHZ227 ArsB protein showed homology to the yeast arsenite transporter Acr3p. The pHZ227 ArsC appears to be a bacterial thioredoxin-dependent ArsC-type arsenate reductase with four conserved cysteine thioredoxin-requiring motifs.