The G6PD flow-cytometric assay is a reliable tool for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency in women and anaemic subjects.
ABSTRACT: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is essential for redox equilibrium of red blood cells (RBCs) and, when compromised, the RBCs are more susceptible to haemolysis. 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine and tafenoquine) are used for the radical curative treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause haemolysis in G6PD deficient subjects. Haemolytic risk is dependent on treatment dose and patient G6PD status but ultimately it correlates with the number of G6PD deficient RBCs. The G6PD spectrophotometric assay reliably identifies deficient subjects but is less reliable in heterozygous females, especially when other blood conditions are present. In this work we analysed samples with a range of G6PD phenotypes and haematologic conditions from 243 healthy volunteers of Asian or African-American heritage using both the spectrophotomeric assay and the G6PD flow-cytometric assay. Overall 18.5% of subjects (29.3% of Asian females) presented with anaemia, associated with decreased RBCs volume (MCV) and reticulocytosis; the flow-cytometric assay showed good correlation with the spectrophotometric assay (Pearson's r 0.918-0.957) and was less influenced by haemoglobin concentration, number of RBCs and number of reticulocytes. This resulted in more precise quantification of the number of G6PD deficient RBCs and presumably higher predictive power of drug induced haemolytic risk.
Project description:Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria. In Brazil, few studies have reported the frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) present in malaria-endemic areas. This is particularly important, as G6PDd screening is not currently performed before primaquine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PDd in the region of Alto do Juruá, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, an area characterized by a high prevalence of P. vivax infection.Five-hundred and sixteen male volunteers were screened for G6PDd using the fluorescence spot test (Beutler test) and CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor system. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were acquired through an individual interview. To assess the genetic basis of G6PDd, 24 SNPs were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assay.Twenty-three (4.5%) individuals were G6PDd. No association was found between G6PDd and the number of malaria cases. An increased risk of reported haemolysis symptoms and blood transfusions was evident among the G6PDd individuals. Twenty-two individuals had the G6PDd A(-) variant and one the G6PD A(+) variant. The Mediterranean variant was not present. Apart from one polymorphism, almost all SNPs were monomorphic or with low frequencies (0-0.04%). No differences were detected among ethnic groups.The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine. G6PD A(-) is the most frequent deficiency allele in this population. These results concur with reported G6PDd in other regions in Brazil. Routine G6PDd screening to personalize primaquine administration should be considered, particularly as complete treatment of patients with vivax malaria using chloroquine and primaquine, is crucial for malaria elimination.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic disorder, affecting nearly 400 million individuals worldwide. Whilst it is known that a number of drugs, foods and chemicals can trigger haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals, the association between herbal and dietary supplements and haemolysis is less clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between herbal or dietary supplements and adverse events in G6PD deficient individuals.We searched 14 electronic databases from their inception until November 2015 for articles describing the use of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficient individuals. Additional publications were identified from manually searching textbooks, conference abstracts and the grey literature. All study designs were included as long as they contained clinical information. These gathered findings were summarized narratively.Thirty-two publications met inclusion criteria. These reported on 10 herbal and dietary supplements. Overall evidence linking haemolysis to a herbal/dietary supplement was only found for henna. No evidence of harm was observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, Gingko biloba and ?-lipoic acid.The review showed that there was insufficient evidence to contravene the use of most herbal or dietary products at therapeutic doses in G6PD deficient subjects.
Project description:Haemolysis risk with single dose or short course primaquine was evaluated in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient people.Major electronic databases (to August 2016) were searched for single or short course 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQ) in (1) randomized comparisons against placebo in G6PD deficient people; and (2) observational comparisons in G6PD deficient compared to replete people. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk-of-bias, and extracted data.Five randomized controlled trials and four controlled observational cohorts were included. In G6PD deficient individuals, high-dose (0.75 mg/kg) PQ resulted in lower average haemoglobin levels at 7 days (mean difference [MD] -1.45 g/dl, 95% CI -2.17 to -0.74, 2 trials) and larger percentage fall from baseline to day 7 (MD -10.31%, 95% CI -17.69 to -2.92, 3 trials) compared to placebo. In G6PD deficient compared to replete people, average haemoglobin was lower at 7 days (MD -1.19 g/dl, 95% CI -1.94 to -0.44, 2 trials) and haemoglobin change from baseline to day 7 was greater (MD -9.10%, 95% CI -12.55 to -5.65, 5 trials). One small trial evaluated mid-range PQ dose (0.4-0.5 mg/kg) in G6PD deficient people, with no difference detected in average haemoglobin at day 7 compared to placebo. In one cohort comparing G6PD deficient and replete people there was a greater fall with G6PD deficiency (MD -4.99%, 95% CI -9.96 to -0.02). For low-dose PQ (0.1-0.25 mg/kg) in G6PD deficient people, haemoglobin change from baseline was similar to the placebo group (MD 1.72%, 95% CI -1.89 to 5.34, 2 trials). Comparing low dose PQ in G6PD deficient with replete people, the average haemoglobin was lower in the G6PD deficient group at 7 days (-0.57 g (95% CI -0.97 to -0.17, 1 trial)); although change from baseline was similar (MD -1.45%, 95% CI -5.69 to 2.78, 3 trials).Falls in average haemoglobin are less marked with the 0.1 to 0.25 mg/kg PQ than with the 0.75 mg/kg dose, and severe haemolytic events are not common. However, data were limited and the evidence GRADE was low or very low certainty.
Project description:Primaquine and other 8-amnoquinoline based anti-malarials can cause haemolysis in subjects with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Correct diagnosis of G6PD status in patients is crucial for safe treatment of both relapsing stages of Plasmodium vivax and transmitting forms of Plasmodium falciparum. Lack of suitable point-of-care tests has hampered a much needed wide use of primaquine for malaria elimination. In this study we have assessed the performances of two qualitative tests, the fluorescent spot test (FST) and the G6PD CareStart test (CST), against the gold standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay in a population of 1000 random adult healthy volunteers living in Yangon, Myanmar. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Bamar, Karen and in the whole sample set was 6.6% (10.1% in males), 9.2% (21.0% in males) and 6.8% (11.1% in males) respectively. The FST and CST showed comparable performances with sensitivity over 95% and specificity over 90%, however for cases with severe G6PD activity the FTS had improved performance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the CareStart test has the potential to be used in the field and, by allowing a wider use of primaquine, to help malaria elimination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:G6PD enzyme deficiency is a common enzymatic X-linked disorder. Deficiency of the G6PD enzyme can cause free radical-mediated oxidative damage to red blood cells, leading to premature haemolysis. Treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with primaquine poses a potential risk of mild to severe acute haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient people. In this study, the prevalence and distribution of G6PD mutations were investigated across broad areas of Ethiopia, and tested the association between G6PD genotype and phenotype with the goal to provide additional information relevant to the use of primaquine in malaria treatment. METHODS:This study examined G6PD mutations in exons 3-11 for 344 febrile patient samples collected from seven sites across Ethiopia. In addition, the G6PD enzyme level of 400 febrile patient samples from Southwestern Ethiopia was determined by the CareStart™ biosensor. The association between G6PD phenotype and genotype was examined by Fisher exact test on a subset of 184 samples. RESULTS:Mutations were observed at three positions of the G6PD gene. The most common G6PD mutation across all sites was A376G, which was detected in 21 of 344 (6.1%) febrile patients. Thirteen of them were homozygous and eight were heterozygous for this mutation. The G267+119C/T mutation was found in 4 (1.2%) individuals in South Ethiopia, but absent in other sites. The G1116A mutation was also found in 4 (1.2%) individuals from East and South Ethiopia. For the 400 samples in the south, 17 (4.25%) were shown to be G6PD-deficient. G6PD enzyme level was not significantly different by age or gender. Among a subset of 202 febrile patients who were diagnosed with malaria, 11 (5.45%) were G6PD-deficient. These 11 infected samples were diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax by microscopy. Parasitaemia was not significantly different between the G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal infections. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of G6PD deficiency is modest among febrile patients in Ethiopia. G6PD deficiency testing is thus recommended before administrating primaquine for radical cure of P. vivax infected patients. The present study did not indicate a significant association between G6PD gene mutations and enzyme levels.
Project description:Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for maintenance of nicotinamide dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate (NADPH) levels and redox homeostasis. A number of drugs, such as antimalarial drugs, act to induce reactive oxygen species and hemolytic crisis in G6PD-deficient patients. We used diamide (DIA) to mimic drug-induced oxidative stress and studied how these drugs affect cellular metabolism using a metabolomic approach.There are a few differences in metabolome between red blood cells (RBCs) from normal and G6PD-deficient individuals. DIA causes modest changes in normal RBC metabolism. In contrast, there are significant changes in various biochemical pathways, namely glutathione (GSH) metabolism, purine metabolism, and glycolysis, in G6PD-deficient cells. GSH depletion is concomitant with a shift in energy metabolism. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) accumulation activates AMP protein kinase (AMPK) and increases entry of glucose into glycolysis. However, inhibition of pyruvate kinase (PK) reduces the efficacy of energy production. Metabolic changes and protein oxidation occurs to a greater extent in G6PD-deficient RBCs than in normal cells, leading to severe irreversible loss of deformability of the former.Normal and G6PD-deficient RBCs differ in their responses to oxidants. Normal cells have adequate NADPH regeneration for maintenance of GSH pool. In contrast, G6PD-deficient cells are unable to regenerate enough NADPH under a stressful situation, and switch to biosynthetic pathway for GSH supply. Rapid GSH exhaustion causes energy crisis and futile AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that drug-induced oxidative stress differentially affects metabolism and metabolite signaling in normal and G6PD-deficient cells. It also provides an insight into the pathophysiology of acute hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient hemizygous males and homozygous females, heterozygous females could also manifest hemolytic crisis, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or kernicterus upon exposure to oxidative stress induced by certain foods such as fava beans, drugs or infections. Although hemizygous males and homozygous females are easily detected by conventional G6PD enzyme assay method, the heterozygous state could be missed by the conventional methods as the mosaic population of both normal and deficient RBCs circulates in the blood. Thus the present study aimed to apply high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis approach to see whether HRM could be used as a supplemental approach to increase the chance of detection of G6PD heterozygosity. RESULTS:Sixty-three clinically suspected females were evaluated for G6PD status using both enzyme assay and HRM analysis. Four out of sixty-three participants came out as G6PD deficient by the enzyme assay method, whereas HRM approach could identify nine participants with G6PD variants, one homozygous and eight heterozygous. Although only three out of eight heterozygous samples had G6PD enzyme deficiency, the HRM-based heterozygous G6PD variants detection for the rest of the samples with normal G6PD enzyme activities could have significance because their newborns might fall victim to serious consequences under certain oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to the G6PD enzyme assay, HRM curve analysis could be useful as a supplemental approach for detection of G6PD heterozygosity.
Project description:The distribution of the enzymopathy glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is linked to areas of high malaria endemicity due to its association with protection from disease. G6PD deficiency is also identified as the cause of severe haemolysis following administration of the anti-malarial drug primaquine and further use of this drug will likely require identification of G6PD deficiency on a population level. Current conventional methods for G6PD screening have various disadvantages for field use.The WST8/1-methoxy PMS method, recently adapted for field use, was validated using a gold standard enzymatic assay (R&D Diagnostics Ltd ®) in a study involving 235 children under five years of age, who were recruited by random selection from a cohort study in Tororo, Uganda. Blood spots were collected by finger-prick onto filter paper at routine visits, and G6PD activity was determined by both tests. Performance of the WST8/1-methoxy PMS test under various temperature, light, and storage conditions was evaluated.The WST8/1-methoxy PMS assay was found to have 72% sensitivity and 98% specificity when compared to the commercial enzymatic assay and the AUC was 0.904, suggesting good agreement. Misclassifications were at borderline values of G6PD activity between mild and normal levels, or related to outlier haemoglobin values (<8.0 gHb/dl or >14 gHb/dl) associated with ongoing anaemia or recent haemolytic crises. Although severe G6PD deficiency was not found in the area, the test enabled identification of low G6PD activity. The assay was found to be highly robust for field use; showing less light sensitivity, good performance over a wide temperature range, and good capacity for medium-to-long term storage.The WST8/1-methoxy PMS assay was comparable to the currently used standard enzymatic test, and offers advantages in terms of cost, storage, portability and use in resource-limited settings. Such features make this test a potential key tool for deployment in the field for point of care assessment prior to primaquine administration in malaria-endemic areas. As with other G6PD tests, outlier haemoglobin levels may confound G6PD level estimation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine or tafenoquine) is complicated by haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD heterozygous females, because of individual variation in the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (Lyonisation) in erythroid cells, may have low G6PD activity in the majority of their erythrocytes, yet are usually reported as G6PD "normal" by current phenotypic screening tests. Their haemolytic risk when treated with 8-aminoquinolines has not been well characterized.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>In a cohort study nested within a randomised clinical trial that compared different treatment regimens for P. vivax malaria, patients with a normal standard NADPH fluorescent spot test result (?30%-40% of normal G6PD activity) were randomised to receive 3 d of chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in combination with primaquine, either the standard high dose of 0.5 mg base/kg/day for 14 d or a higher dose of 1 mg base/kg/d for 7 d. Patterns of haemolysis were compared between G6PD wild-type and G6PD heterozygous female participants. Between 21 February 2012 and 04 July 2014, 241 female participants were enrolled, of whom 34 were heterozygous for the G6PD Mahidol variant. Haemolysis was substantially greater and a larger proportion of participants reached the threshold of clinically significant haemolysis (fractional haematocrit reduction >25%) in G6PD heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d) primaquine dose (9/17 [53%]) compared with G6PD heterozygotes taking the standard high (14 d) dose (2/16 [13%]; p = 0.022). In heterozygotes, the mean fractional haematocrit reductions were correspondingly greater with the higher primaquine dose (7-d regimen): -20.4% (95% CI -26.0% to -14.8%) (nadir on day 5) compared with the standard high (14 d) dose: -13.1% (95% CI -17.6% to -8.6%) (nadir day 6). Two heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d) primaquine dose required blood transfusion. In wild-type participants, mean haematocrit reductions were clinically insignificant and similar with both doses: -5.8 (95% CI -7.2% to -4.4%) (nadir day 3) compared with -5.5% (95% CI -7.4% to -3.7%) (nadir day 4), respectively. Limitations to this nested cohort study are that the primary objective of the trial was designed to measure efficacy and not haemolysis in relation to G6PD genotype and that the heterozygote groups were small.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Higher daily doses of primaquine have the potential to cause clinically significant haemolysis in G6PD heterozygous females who are reported as phenotypically normal with current point of care tests.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01640574.
Project description:Accurate diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is required to avoid the risk of acute hemolysis associated with 8-aminoquinoline treatment. The performance of the BinaxNOW G6PD test compared with the quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of G6PD activity was assessed in 356 Plasmodium vivax-infected subjects in Brazil, Peru, Thailand, and India. In the quantitative assay, the median G6PD activity was 8.81 U/g hemoglobin (range = 0.05-20.19), with 11 (3%) subjects identified as deficient. Sensitivity of the BinaxNOW G6PD to detect deficient subjects was 54.5% (6 of 11), and specificity was 100% (345 of 345). Room temperatures inadvertently falling outside the range required to perform the rapid test (18-25°C) together with subtlety of color change and insufficient training could partially explain the low sensitivity found. Ensuring safe use of 8-aminoquinolines depends on additional development of simple, highly sensitive G6PD deficiency diagnostic tests suitable for routine use in malaria-endemic areas.