Highly wear-resistant and low-friction Si3N4 composites by addition of graphene nanoplatelets approaching the 2D limit.
ABSTRACT: Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have emerged as one of the most promising filler materials for improving the tribological performance of ceramic composites due to their outstanding solid lubricant properties as well as mechanical and thermal stability. Yet, the addition of GNPs has so far enabled only a very limited improvement in the tribological properties of ceramics, particularly concerning the reduction of their friction coefficient. This is most likely due to the challenges of achieving a continuous lubricating and protecting tribo-film through a high GNP coverage of the exposed surfaces. Here we demonstrate that this can be achieved by efficiently increasing the exfoliation degree of GNPs down to the few-layer (FL) range. By employing FL-GNPs as filler material, the wear resistance of Si3N4 composites can be increased by more than twenty times, the friction coefficient reduced to nearly its half, while the other mechanical properties are also preserved or improved. Confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that at the origin of the spectacular improvement of the tribological properties is the formation of a continuous FL- GNP tribo-film, already at 5?wt% FL-GNP content.
Project description:Tribological performance of the hot-pressed pure Al2O3 and its composites containing various hybrid contents of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated under different loading conditions using the ball-on-disc method. Benchmarked against the pure Al2O3, the composite reinforced with a 0.5 wt% GNP exhibited a 23% reduction in the friction coefficient along with a promising 70% wear rate reduction, and a hybrid reinforcement consisting of 0.3 wt.% GNPs + 1 wt.% CNTs resulted in even better performance, with a 86% reduction in the wear rate. The extent of damage to the reinforcement phases caused during wear was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The wear mechanisms for the composites were analysed based on the mechanical properties, brittleness index and microstructural characterizations. The excellent coordination between GNPs and CNTs contributed to the excellent wear resistance property in the hybrid GNT-reinforced composites. GNPs played the important role in the formation of a tribofilm on the worn surface by exfoliation; whereas CNTs contributed to the improvement in fracture toughness and prevented the grains from being pulled out during the tribological test.
Project description:We studied the tribological properties of amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) thin-film coatings during sliding friction in an oxidizing environment at a low temperature (-100 °C). To obtain films with different sulfur contents (x ~ 2, 3, and 4), we used reactive pulsed laser deposition, where laser ablation of the Mo target was performed in H2S at various pressures. The lowest coefficient of friction (0.08) was observed during tribo-testing of the MoS3 coating. This coating had good ductility and low wear; the wear of a steel counterbody was minimal. The MoS2 coating had the best wear resistance, due to the tribo-film adhering well to the coating in the wear track. Tribo-modification of the MoS2 coating, however, caused a higher coefficient of friction (0.16) and the most intensive wear of the counterbody. The MoS4 coating had inferior tribological properties. This study explored the mechanisms of possible tribo-chemical changes and structural rearrangements in MoSx coatings upon contact with a counterbody when exposed to oxygen and water. The properties of the tribo-film and the efficiency of its transfer onto the coating and/or the counterbody largely depended on local atomic packing of the nanoclusters that formed the structure of the amorphous MoSx films.
Project description:The coefficient of friction (COF) between two materials is usually believed to be an intrinsic property of the materials themselves. In this study, metals of stainless steel (304) and brass (H62), and polymers of polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were tested on a standard ball-on-three-plates test machine. Significantly different tribological behaviors were observed when fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs (metal/polymer) were switched. As an example, under the same applied load and rotating speed, the COF (0.49) between a rotating PP ball and three fixed H62 plates was approximately 2.3 times higher than that between switched materials of tribo-pairs. Meanwhile, the COF between H62 and PTFE was relatively stable. The unexpected tribological behaviors were ascribed to the thermal and mechanical properties of tribo-pairs. Theoretical analysis revealed that the differences in the maximum local temperature between switching the fixed and moving materials of tribo-pairs were consistent with the differences in the tested COF. This result indicated the precise prediction of the COF of two materials is complexcity, and that thermal and mechanical properties should be properly considered in designing tribo-pairs, because these properties may significantly affect tribological performance.
Project description:Artificially fabricated surface textures can significantly improve the friction and wear resistance of a tribological contact. Recently, this surface texturing technique has been applied to polymer materials to improve their tribological performance. However, the wear behavior of textured tribo-pairs made of steel and polymer materials has been less thoroughly investigated and is not well understood; thus, it needs further research. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear properties of tribological contacts made of textured stainless steel against polymer surfaces. Three polymer materials were selected in this study, namely, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and (polyetheretherketone) PEEK. Wear tests were operated through a ring-on-plane mode. The results revealed that the texture features and material properties affected the wear rates and friction coefficients of the textured tribo-pairs. In general, PEEK/textured steel achieved the lowest wear rate among the three types of tribo-pairs investigated. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the elements of C and O on the contacting counterfaces varied with texture features and indicated different wear behavior. Experimental and simulated results showed differences in the stress distribution around the dimple edge, which may influence wear performance. Wear debris with different surface morphologies were found for tribo-pairs with varying texture features. This study has increased the understanding of the wear behavior of tribo-pairs between textured stainless steel and polymer materials.
Project description:Improving the tribological properties of materials in ambient and high vacuum tribo-conditions is useful for inter-atmospheric applications. Highly-hydrogenated and less-hydrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films with distinct microstructural characteristics were deposited on Ti-6Al-4 V alloy, by optimizing the plasma conditions in the chemical vapor deposition. Both the UNCD films showed less friction coefficient in ambient atmospheric tribo-contact conditions due to the passivation. This provides chemical stability to UNCD films under the tribo-mechanical stressed conditions which limits the transferlayer formation and conversion of UNCD phase into graphitization/amorphization. However, in the high vacuum tribo-conditions, highly-hydrogenated UNCD films showed low friction value which gradually increased to the higher magnitude at longer sliding cycles. The low friction coefficient was indicative of passivation provided by the hydrogen network intrinsically present in the UNCD films. It gradually desorbs and the dangling bonds are progressively activated in the contact regime, leading to a gradual increase in the friction value. In contrast, less-hydrogenated UNCD films do not exhibit low friction regime in high vacuum conditions due to the lack of internal passivation. In this case, the conversion of UNCD to amorphized carbon structure in the wear tracks and amorphous carbon (a-C) tribofilm formation on ball scars were observed.
Project description:The correlation between the mechanical properties of Fillers/Epoxy composites and their tribological behavior was investigated. Tensile, hardness, wear, and friction tests were conducted for Neat Epoxy (NE), Graphite/Epoxy composites (GE), and Data Palm Fiber/Epoxy with or without Graphite composites (GFE and FE). The correlation was made between the tensile strength, the modulus of elasticity, elongation at the break, and the hardness, as an individual or a combined factor, with the specific wear rate (SWR) and coefficient of friction (COF) of composites. In general, graphite as an additive to polymeric composite has had an eclectic effect on mechanical properties, whereas it has led to a positive effect on tribological properties, whilst date palm fibers (DPFs), as reinforcement for polymeric composite, promoted a mechanical performance with a slight improvement to the tribological performance. Statistically, this study reveals that there is no strong confirmation of any marked correlation between the mechanical and the specific wear rate of filler/Epoxy composites. There is, however, a remarkable correlation between the mechanical properties and the friction coefficient of filler/Epoxy composites.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To effectively applied nanomaterials (NMs) in medicine, one of the top priorities is to address a better understanding of the possible sub-organ transfer, clearance routes, and potential toxicity of the NMs in the liver and kidney. RESULTS:Here we explored how the surface chemistry of polyethylene glycol (PEG), chitosan (CS), and polyethylenimine (PEI) capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) governs their sub-organ biodistribution, transfer, and clearance profiles in the liver and kidney after intravenous injection in mice. The PEG-GNPs maintained dispersion properties in vivo, facilitating passage through the liver sinusoidal endothelium and Disse space, and were captured by hepatocytes and eliminated via the hepatobiliary route. While, the agglomeration/aggregation of CS-GNPs and PEI-GNPs in hepatic Kupffer and endothelial cells led to their long-term accumulation, impeding their elimination. The gene microarray analysis shows that the accumulation of CS-GNPs and PEI-GNPs in the liver induced obvious down-regulation of Cyp4a or Cyp2b related genes, suggesting CS-GNP and PEI-GNP treatment impacted metabolic processes, while the PEI-GNP treatment is related with immune responses. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that manipulation of nanoparticle surface chemistry can help NPs selectively access distinct cell types and elimination pathways, which help to clinical potential of non-biodegradable NPs.
Project description:The in-plane alignment of graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) in thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers suppresses the though-plane heat transport thus limiting the performance of GNPs in the geometry normally required for thermal management applications. Here we report a disruption of the GNP in-plane alignment by addition of spherical microparticles. The degree of GNP alignment was monitored by measurement of the anisotropy of electrical conductivity which is extremely sensitive to the orientation of high aspect ratio filler particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy images of TIM layer cross-sections confirmed the suppression of the in-plane alignment. The hybrid filler formulations reported herein resulted in a synergistic enhancement of the through-plane thermal conductivity of GNP/Al2O3 and GNP/Al filled TIM layers confirming that the control of GNP alignment is an important parameter in the development of highly efficient GNP and graphene-based TIMs.
Project description:Frictional vibration and noise caused by water-lubricated rubber stern tube bearings, which are generated under extreme conditions, severely threaten underwater vehicles' survivability and concealment performance. This study investigates the effect of flaky and spherical MoS2 nanoparticles on tribological properties and damping capacity of water-lubricated rubber materials, with the aim of decreasing frictional noise. A CBZ-1 tribo-tester was used to conduct the sliding tests between rubber ring-discs and ZCuSn10Zn2 ring-discs with water lubrication. These materials' typical mechanical properties were analysed and compared. Coefficients of friction (COFs), wear rates, and surface morphologies were evaluated. Frictional noise and critical velocities of generating friction vibration were examined to corroborate above analysis. Results showed that spherical MoS2 nanoparticles enhanced rubber material's mechanical and tribological properties and, in turn, reduced the friction noise and critical velocity. Flaky MoS2 nanoparticles reduced COF but did not enhance their mechanical properties, i.e., the damping capacity, wear resistance property; thus, these nanoparticles did not reduce the critical velocity obviously, even though increased the frictional noise at high load. The knowledge gained in the present work will be useful for optimizing friction pairs under extreme conditions to decrease frictional noise of water-lubricated rubber stern tube bearings.
Project description:Polypropylene (PP) is an attractive polymer for use in automotive parts due to its ease of processing, hydrophobic nature, chemical resistance and low density. The global shift towards eliminating non-renewable resource consumption has promoted research of sustainable biocarbon (BioC) filler in a PP matrix, but this material often leads to reduction in composite strength and requires additional fillers. Graphene nano-platelets (GnPs) have been the subject of considerable research as a nanofiller due to their strength, while maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP) is a commonly used compatibilizer for improvement of interfacial adhesion in composites. This study compared the thermo-mechanical properties of PP/BioC/MA-g-PP/GnP composites with varying wt.% of GnP. Morphological analysis revealed uniform dispersion of BioC, while significant agglomeration of GnPs limited their even dispersion throughout the PP matrix. In the optimal blend of 3 wt.% GnP and 17 wt.% BioC biocontent, tensile strength and modulus increased by ~19% and ~22% respectively, as compared to 20 wt.% BioC biocomposites. Thermal stability and performance enhancement occurred through incorporation of the fillers. Thus, hybridization of fillers in the compatibilized matrix presents a promising route to the enhancement of material properties, while reducing petroleum-based products through use of sustainable BioC filler in composite structures.