Strepchazolins A and B: Two New Alkaloids from a Marine Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069.
ABSTRACT: Two new alkaloids, strepchazolins A (1) and B (2), together with a previously reported compound, streptazolin (3), were isolated from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces chartreusis NA02069, collected in the Coast of Hainan Island, China. The structures of new compounds were determined by extensive NMR, mass spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as modified Mosher's method. Compound 1 showed weak anti-Bacillus subtilis activity with the MIC value of 64.0 ?M, and weak inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in vitro with IC50 value of 50.6 ?M, while its diastereoisomer, Compound 2, is almost inactive.
Project description:Actinomycetes are known for producing diverse secondary metabolites. Combining genomics with untargeted data-dependent tandem MS and molecular networking, we characterized the secreted metabolome of the tunicamycin producer Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882. The genome harbors 128 predicted biosynthetic gene clusters. We detected >1,000 distinct secreted metabolites in culture supernatants, only 22 of which were identified based on standards and public spectral libraries. S. chartreusis adapts the secreted metabolome to cultivation conditions. A number of metabolites are produced iron dependently, among them 17 desferrioxamine siderophores aiding in iron acquisition. Eight previously unknown members of this long-known compound class are described. A single desferrioxamine synthesis gene cluster was detected in the genome, yet different sets of desferrioxamines are produced in different media. Additionally, a polyether ionophore, differentially produced by the calcimycin biosynthesis cluster, was discovered. This illustrates that metabolite output of a single biosynthetic machine can be exquisitely regulated not only with regard to product quantity but also with regard to product range. Compared with chemically defined medium, in complex medium, total metabolite abundance was higher, structural diversity greater, and the average molecular weight almost doubled. Tunicamycins, for example, were only produced in complex medium. Extrapolating from this study, we anticipate that the larger part of bacterial chemistry, including chemical structures, ecological functions, and pharmacological potential, is yet to be uncovered.
Project description:We announce the sequencing of Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 12338 and NRRL 3882 and Streptomyces lysosuperificus ATCC 31396. These are producers of tunicamycins, chartreusins, cephalosporins, holomycins, and calcimycin. The announced genomes, together with the published Streptomyces clavuligerus genome, will facilitate data mining of these secondary metabolites.
Project description:Type II thioesterases typically function as editing enzymes, removing acyl groups that have been misconjugated to acyl carrier proteins during polyketide secondary metabolite biosynthesis as a consequence of biosynthetic errors. Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 produces the pyrrole polyether ionophoric antibiotic, and we have identified the presence of a putative type II thioesterase-like sequence, calG, within the biosynthetic gene cluster involved in the antibiotic's synthesis. However, targeted gene mutagenesis experiments in which calG was inactivated in the organism did not lead to a decrease in calcimycin production but rather reduced the strain's production of its biosynthetic precursor, cezomycin. Results from in vitro activity assays of purified, recombinant CalG protein indicated that it was involved in the hydrolysis of cezomycin coenzyme A (cezomycin-CoA), as well as other acyl CoAs, but was not active toward 3-S-N-acetylcysteamine (SNAC; the mimic of the polyketide chain-releasing precursor). Further investigation of the enzyme's activity showed that it possessed a cezomycin-CoA hydrolysis Km of 0.67 mM and a kcat of 17.77 min-1 and was significantly inhibited by the presence of Mn2+ and Fe2+ divalent cations. Interestingly, when S. chartreusis NRRL 3882 was cultured in the presence of inorganic nitrite, NaNO2, it was observed that the production of calcimycin rather than cezomycin was promoted. Also, supplementation of S. chartreusis NRRL 3882 growth medium with the divalent cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+ had a similar effect. Taken together, these observations suggest that CalG is not responsible for megasynthase polyketide precursor chain release during the synthesis of calcimycin or for retaining the catalytic efficiency of the megasynthase enzyme complex as is supposed to be the function for type II thioesterases. Rather, our results suggest that CalG is a dedicated thioesterase that prevents the accumulation of cezomycin-CoA when intracellular nitrogen is limited, an apparently new and previously unreported function of type II thioesterases.IMPORTANCE Type II thioesterases (TEIIs) are generally regarded as being responsible for removing aberrant acyl groups that block polyketide production, thereby maintaining the efficiency of the megasynthase involved in this class of secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Specifically, this class of enzyme is believed to be involved in editing misprimed precursors, controlling initial units, providing key intermediates, and releasing final synthetic products in the biosynthesis of this class of secondary metabolites. Our results indicate that the putative TEII CalG present in the calcimycin (A23187)-producing organism Streptomyces chartreusis NRRL 3882 is not important either for the retention of catalytic efficiency of, or for the release of the product compound from, the megasynthase involved in calcimycin biosynthesis. Rather, the enzyme is involved in regulating/controlling the pool size of the calcimycin biosynthetic precursor, cezomycin, by hydrolysis of its CoA derivative. This novel function of CalG suggests a possible additional activity for enzymes belonging to the TEII protein family and promotes better understanding of the overall biosynthetic mechanisms involved in the production of this class of secondary metabolites.
Project description:Two unidentified chlorinated volatiles X and Y were detected in headspace extracts of the fungus Geniculosporium. Their mass spectra pointed to the structures of a chlorodimethoxybenzene for X and a dichlorodimethoxybenzene for Y. The mass spectra of some constitutional isomers for X and Y were included in our databases and proved to be very similar, thus preventing a full structural assignment. For unambiguous structure elucidation all possible constitutional isomers for X and Y were obtained by synthesis or from commercial suppliers. Comparison of mass spectra and GC retention times rigorously established the structures of the two chlorinated volatiles. Chlorinated volatiles are not very widespread, but brominated or even iodinated volatiles are even more rare. Surprisingly, headspace extracts from Streptomyces chartreusis contained methyl 2-iodobenzoate, a new natural product that adds to the small family of iodinated natural products.
Project description:Calcimycin, N-demethyl calcimycin, and cezomycin are polyether divalent cation ionophore secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces chartreusis A thorough understanding of the organization of their encoding genes, biosynthetic pathway(s), and cation specificities is vitally important for their efficient future production and therapeutic use. So far, this has been lacking, as has information concerning any biosynthetic relationships that may exist between calcimycin and cezomycin. In this study, we observed that when a Cal- (calB1 mutant) derivative of a calcimycin-producing strain of S. chartreusis (NRRL 3882) was grown on cezomycin, calcimycin production was restored. This suggested that calcimycin synthesis may have resulted from postsynthetic modification of cezomycin rather than from a de novo process through a novel and independent biosynthetic mechanism. Systematic screening of a number of Cal-S. chartreusis mutants lacking the ability to convert cezomycin to calcimycin allowed the identification of a gene, provisionally named calC, which was involved in the conversion step. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of the CalC protein along with its purification to homogeneity and negative-staining electron microscopy allowed the determination of its apparent molecular weight, oligomeric forms in solution, and activity. These experiments allowed us to confirm that the protein possessed ATP pyrophosphatase activity and was capable of ligating coenzyme A (CoA) with cezomycin but not 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. The CalC protein's apparent Km and kcat for cezomycin were observed to be 190 ?M and 3.98 min-1, respectively, and it possessed the oligomeric form in solution. Our results unequivocally show that cezomycin is postsynthetically modified to calcimycin by the CalC protein through its activation of cezomycin to a CoA ester form.IMPORTANCE Calcimycin is a secondary metabolite divalent cation-ionophore that has been studied in the context of human health. However, detail is lacking with respect to both calcimycin's biosynthesis and its biochemical/biophysical properties as well as information regarding its, and its analogues', divalent cation binding specificities and other activities. Such knowledge would be useful in understanding how calcimycin and related compounds may be effective in modifying the calcium channel ion flux and might be useful in influencing the homeostasis of magnesium and manganese ions for the cure or control of human and bacterial infectious diseases. The results presented here unequivocally show that CalC protein is essential for the production of calcimycin, which is essentially a derivative of cezomycin, and allow us to propose a biosynthetic mechanism for calcimycin's production.
Project description:The title compound, C(20)H(23)Cl(2)NO, was prepared by condensation of (R)-1-(2-chloro-phen-yl)-1-cyclo-pentyl-methanamine with 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxy-phen-yl)ethanone, resulting in the formation of a new chiral center. The structural analysis confirms the absolute configuration of the title compound and the formation of the (R,R) diastereoisomer. There is an intra-molecular O-H?N hydrogen bond which stabilizes the conformation of the mol-ecule. The mol-ecules are linked to each other through weak C-H?? inter-actions.
Project description:X-ray crystallographic analysis of a phosin (PptA) from Steptomyces chartreusis reveals a metal-associated, lozenge-shaped fold featuring a 5-10 Å wide, positively charged tunnel that traverses the protein core. Two distinct metal-binding sites were identified in which the predominant metal ion was Cu2+ . In solution, PptA forms stable homodimers that bind with nanomolar affinity to polyphosphate, a stress-related biopolymer acting as a phosphate and energy reserve in conditions of nutrient depletion. A single protein dimer interacts with 14-15 consecutive phosphate moieties within the polymer. Our observations suggest that PptA plays a role in polyphosphate metabolism, mobilisation or sensing, possibly by acting in concert with polyphosphate kinase (Ppk). Like Ppk, phosins may influence antibiotic synthesis by streptomycetes.
Project description:Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (1), (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (2), (3Z,6Z)-3- (4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3), (3Z,6Z)-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl)-methylene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4), and (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (5), were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 1-5 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Mosher's, Marfey's and the C3 Marfey's methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 ± 4.5 ?M. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 ± 2.2 and 6.8 ± 1.5 ?M, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6) were also reported here for the first time.
Project description:Cytotoxicity-directed purification of a Symploca cf. hydnoides sample from Cetti Bay, Guam, afforded seven new cyclic depsipeptides, veraguamides A-G (1-7), together with the known compound dolastatin 16. The planar structures of 1-7 were elucidated using NMR and MS experiments, while enantioselective HPLC and Mosher's analysis of acid and base hydrolysates, respectively, were utilized to assign the absolute configurations of the stereocenters. Veraguamides A-G (1-7) are characterized by the presence of an invariant proline residue, multiple N-methylated amino acids, an ?-hydroxy acid, and a C8-polyketide-derived ?-hydroxy acid moiety with a characteristic terminus as either an alkynyl bromide, alkyne, or vinyl group. These compounds and a semisynthetic analogue (8) showed moderate to weak cytotoxic activity against HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma and HeLa cervical carcinoma cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis identified several sensitive positions in the veraguamide scaffold that affect the cytotoxic activity of this compound class. Dolastatin 16 showed only weak cytotoxic activity on both cell lines tested. The complete stereostructure of dolastatin 16 was proposed for the first time through degradation followed by a combination of advanced Marfey's analysis and modified Mosher's analysis using phenylglycine methyl ester as a chiral anisotropic reagent.