Distribution of hybrid entanglement and hyperentanglement with time-bin for secure quantum channel under noise via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity.
ABSTRACT: We design schemes to generate and distribute hybrid entanglement and hyperentanglement correlated with degrees of freedom (polarization and time-bin) via weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs) and linear optical devices (including time-bin encoders). In our scheme, the multi-photon gates (which consist of XKNLs, quantum bus [qubus] beams, and photon-number-resolving [PNR] measurement) with time-bin encoders can generate hyperentanglement or hybrid entanglement. And we can also purify the entangled state (polarization) of two photons using only linear optical devices and time-bin encoders under a noisy (bit-flip) channel. Subsequently, through local operations (using a multi-photon gate via XKNLs) and classical communications, it is possible to generate a four-qubit hybrid entangled state (polarization and time-bin). Finally, we discuss how the multi-photon gate using XKNLs, qubus beams, and PNR measurement can be reliably performed under the decoherence effect.
Project description:Hyperentanglement is an effective quantum source for quantum communication network due to its high capacity, low loss rate, and its unusual character in teleportation of quantum particle fully. Here we present a deterministic error-correction scheme for nonlocal spatial-polarization hyperentangled photon pairs over collective-noise channels. In our scheme, the spatial-polarization hyperentanglement is first encoded into a spatial-defined time-bin entanglement with identical polarization before it is transmitted over collective-noise channels, which leads to the error rejection of the spatial entanglement during the transmission. The polarization noise affecting the polarization entanglement can be corrected with a proper one-step decoding procedure. The two parties in quantum communication can, in principle, obtain a nonlocal maximally entangled spatial-polarization hyperentanglement in a deterministic way, which makes our protocol more convenient than others in long-distance quantum communication.
Project description:Characterizing a high-dimensional entanglement is fundamental in quantum information applications. Here, we propose a theoretical scheme to analyze and characterize the angular momentum hyperentanglement that two photons are entangled simultaneously in spin and orbital angular momentum. Based on the electro-optic sampling with a proposed hyper-entanglement analyzer and the simple matrix operation using Cramer rule, our simulations show that it is possible to retrieve effectively both the information about the degree of polarization entanglement and the spiral spectrum of high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement.
Project description:The global quantum network requires the distribution of entangled states over long distances, with substantial advances already demonstrated using polarization. While Hilbert spaces with higher dimensionality, e.g., spatial modes of light, allow higher information capacity per photon, such spatial mode entanglement transport requires custom multimode fiber and is limited by decoherence-induced mode coupling. Here, we circumvent this by transporting multidimensional entangled states down conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). By entangling the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a biphoton pair, passing the polarization (spin) photon down the SMF while accessing multiple orbital angular momentum (orbital) subspaces with the other, we realize multidimensional entanglement transport. We show high-fidelity hybrid entanglement preservation down 250 m SMF across multiple 2 × 2 dimensions, confirmed by quantum state tomography, Bell violation measures, and a quantum eraser scheme. This work offers an alternative approach to spatial mode entanglement transport that facilitates deployment in legacy networks across conventional fiber.
Project description:The prospect of using the quantum nature of light for secure communication keeps spurring the search and investigation of suitable sources of entangled photons. A single semiconductor quantum dot is one of the most attractive, as it can generate indistinguishable entangled photons deterministically and is compatible with current photonic-integration technologies. However, the lack of control over the energy of the entangled photons is hampering the exploitation of dissimilar quantum dots in protocols requiring the teleportation of quantum entanglement over remote locations. Here we introduce quantum dot-based sources of polarization-entangled photons whose energy can be tuned via three-directional strain engineering without degrading the degree of entanglement of the photon pairs. As a test-bench for quantum communication, we interface quantum dots with clouds of atomic vapours, and we demonstrate slow-entangled photons from a single quantum emitter. These results pave the way towards the implementation of hybrid quantum networks where entanglement is distributed among distant parties using optoelectronic devices.
Project description:Hybrid entangled states, having entanglement between different degrees-of-freedom (DoF) of a particle pair, are of great interest for quantum information science and communication protocols. Among different DoFs, the hybrid entangled states encoded with polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) allow the generation of qubit-qudit entangled states, macroscopic entanglement with very high quanta of OAM and improvement in angular resolution in remote sensing. Till date, such hybrid entangled states are generated by using a high-fidelity polarization entangled states and subsequent imprinting of chosen amount of OAM using suitable mode converters such as spatial light modulator in complicated experimental schemes. Given that the entangled sources have feeble number of photons, loss of photons during imprinting of OAM using diffractive optical elements limits the use of such hybrid states for practical applications. Here we report, on a simple generic experimental scheme to generate hybrid entangled states in polarization and OAM through direct transfer of classical non-separable states of the pump beam in parametric down conversion process. As a proof of principle, using local non-separable pump states of OAM mode l = 3, we have produced quantum hybrid entangled states with entanglement witness parameter of ~1.25 ± 0.03 violating by 8 standard deviation.
Project description:We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation.
Project description:In this paper, a generation scheme for telecom band hyper-entanglement is proposed and demonstrated based on the vector spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) processes in optical fibers. Two kinds of two-photon states are generated, one is hyper-entangled in the degree of freedoms (DOFs) of energy-time and polarization, the other is hyper-entangled in DOFs of energy-time and discrete-frequency. Experiments of Franson-type interference, two-photon interference under non-orthogonal polarization bases and spatial quantum beating are realized to demonstrate the entanglement in energy-time, polarization and frequency, respectively. This scheme provides a simple way to realize telecom band hyper-entanglement, which has potential for large geographic-scale applications of quantum communication and quantum information over optical fibers.
Project description:It is well known that the entanglement of a quantum state is invariant under local unitary transformations. This rule dictates, for example, that the entanglement of internal degrees of freedom of a photon remains invariant during free-space propagation. Here, we outline a scenario in which this paradigm does not hold. Using local Bell states engineered from classical vector vortex beams with non-separable degrees of freedom, the so-called classically entangled states, we demonstrate that the entanglement evolves during propagation, oscillating between maximally entangled (purely vector) and product states (purely scalar). We outline the spin-orbit interaction behind these novel propagation dynamics and confirm the results experimentally, demonstrating spin-orbit coupling in paraxial beams. This demonstration highlights a hitherto unnoticed property of classical entanglement and simultaneously offers a device for the on-demand delivery of vector states to targets, for example, for dynamic laser materials processing, switchable resolution within stimulated emission depletion (STED) systems, and a tractor beam for entanglement.
Project description:An inexpensive and compact frequency multi-mode diode laser enables a compact two-photon polarization entanglement source via the continuous wave broadband pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) process. Entanglement degradation caused by polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is one of the critical issues in optical fiber-based polarization entanglement distribution. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the initial entanglement is degraded when the two-photon polarization entangled state undergoes PMD. We report an effect of PMD unique to broadband pumped SPDC, equally applicable to pulsed pumping as well as cw broadband pumping, which is that the amount of the entanglement degradation is asymmetrical to the PMD introduced to each quantum channel. We believe that our results have important applications in long-distance distribution of polarization entanglement via optical fiber channels.
Project description:Long-distance quantum communication is one of the prime goals in the field of quantum information science. With information encoded in the quantum state of photons, existing telecommunication fibre networks can be effectively used as a transport medium. To achieve this goal, a source of robust entangled single-photon pairs is required. Here we report the realization of a source of time-bin entangled photon pairs utilizing the biexciton-exciton cascade in a III/V self-assembled quantum dot. We analyse the generated photon pairs by an inherently phase-stable interferometry technique, facilitating uninterrupted long integration times. We confirm the entanglement by performing quantum state tomography of the emitted photons, which yields a fidelity of 0.69(3) and a concurrence of 0.41(6) for our realization of time-energy entanglement from a single quantum emitter.