Rapid removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using branched polyethylenimine enhanced magnetic carboxymethyl chitosan optimized with response surface methodology.
ABSTRACT: In this study, branched polyethylenimine (PEI) enhanced magnetic carboxymethyl chitosan (MCMC-PEI) was synthesized and applied as adsorbent for the rapid removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The successful synthesis of the adsorbent was proved by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Simultaneously, the effect of the parameters such as initial concentration, adsorbent mass and pH of the solution on the removal of Pb(II) was studied by using response surface methodology (RSM). And central composite design (CCD), which is a widely used form of RSM, was employed in the experimental design procedure. The adsorption results revealed that the adsorption process could reach equilibrium rapidly within 10?min. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetic data could be well described by pseudo-second order model. The maximum adsorption capacity was 124.0?mg/g according to the Langmuir-Freundlich model, which fitted the adsorption isotherm of Pb(II) better than Langmuir model and Freundlich model, respectively. Thermodynamic studies (?G??0) implied a spontaneous and exothermic process in nature. Meanwhile, the fabricated adsorbent exhibited excellent reusability. Therefore, the excellent adsorption property of MCMC-PEI made it a promising application in water treatment.
Project description:Corn stalk was used as the initial material to prepare a corn stalk matrix-g-polyacrylonitrile-based adsorbent. At first, the corn stalk was treated with potassium hydroxide and nitric acid to obtain the corn stalk-based cellulose (CS), and then the CS was modified by 2-bromoisobutyrylbromide (2-BiBBr) to prepare a macroinitiator. After that, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was grafted onto the macroinitiator by single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP). A novel adsorbent AO CS-g-PAN was, therefore, obtained by introducing amidoxime groups onto the CS-g-PAN with hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH · HCl). FTIR, SEM and XPS were applied to characterize the structure of AO CS-g-PAN. The adsorbent was then employed to remove Pb(II) and Cu(II), and it exhibited a predominant adsorption performance on Pb(II) and Cu(II). The effect of parameters, such as temperature, adsorption time, pH and the initial concentration of metal ions on adsorption capacity, were examined in detail during its application. Results suggest that the maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) and Cu(II) was 231.84 mg g-1 and 94.72 mg g-1, and the corresponding removal efficiency was 72.03% and 63%, respectively. The pseudo-second order model was more suitable to depict the adsorption process. And the adsorption isotherm of Cu(II) accorded with the Langmuir model, while the Pb(II) conformed better to the Freundlich isotherm model.
Project description:In this study, porous methacrylate-modified FDU-12/poly(methyl methacrylate) and amine-modified FDU-12/Nylon 6 nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile solution casting protocol. The physicochemical properties of the prepared materials were studied using various characterization techniques including Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption. After characterization of the materials, the prepared nanocomposites were applied as novel adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous media. In this regard, the effect of various parameters including solution pH, adsorbent amount, contact time, and initial concentration of Pb(II) on the adsorption process was investigated. To study the mechanism of adsorption, kinetic studies were conducted. The kinetic models of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion were employed. The results revealed that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto methacrylate-modified FDU-12/poly(methyl methacrylate) and amine-modified FDU-12/Nylon 6 adsorbents followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Also, different isotherms including Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich were applied to evaluate the equilibrium adsorption data. Langmuir isotherm provided the best fit with the equilibrium data of both adsorbents with maximum adsorption capacities of 99.0 and 94.3 mg g-1 for methacrylate-modified FDU-12/poly(methyl methacrylate) and amine-modified FDU-12/Nylon 6, respectively, for the removal of Pb(II).
Project description:In this study, a hydrogel impregnated with powder activated carbon (PAC), MAA-PAC, was synthesized through the polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and PB was immobilized using the carboxyl group of AA. In this process, an adsorbent with an enhancement of PB content and stability of immobilization was developed through the additional supply of Fe3+ ions by the layer by layer (LBL) assembly. XRD, FT-IR, SEM (EDS), TEM (EDS, mapping), and TG analyzes of the LBL and non-LBL groups were performed to confirm the change of PB content in the adsorbent as the LBL assembly was applied. The stability of PB immobilization was confirmed during the washing process after the synthesis of the adsorbent. When the LBL assembly process was applied as a PB immobilization strategy, the PB content in the adsorbent was improved and PB leakage was not observed during the washing process. The maximum adsorption (qm) for cesium in the MAA-PAC-PB LBL group that showed high PB content was 40.03?mg/g, and the adsorption isotherm was more suitable for the Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The LBL group showed a high removal efficiency of 99.81% and a high DF value (525.88) for radioactive cesium (120?Bq/g). These results demonstrate the potential efficiency of the MAA-PAC-PB LBL group for the decontamination of radioactive cesium-contaminated water systems. Furthermore, it was verified that the LBL group of MAA-PAC-PB could be used as an adsorbent without an additional design of the existing water treatment facility. This can an economical decontamination method for removing radioactive cesium.
Project description:A novel microporous three-dimensional pomegranate-like micro-scavenger cage (P-MSC) composite has been synthesized by immobilization of iron phyllosilicates clay onto a Prussian blue (PB)/alginate matrix and tested for the removal of radioactive cesium from aqueous solution. Experimental results show that the adsorption capacity increases with increasing the inactive cesium concentration from 1?ppm to 30?ppm, which may be attributed to greater number of adsorption sites and further increase in the inactive cesium concentration has no effect. The P-MSC composite exhibit maximum adsorption capacity of 108.06 mg of inactive cesium per gram of adsorbent. The adsorption isotherm is better fitted to the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model. In addition, kinetics studies show that the adsorption process is consistent with a pseudo second-order model. Furthermore, at equilibrium, the composite has an outstanding adsorption capacity of 99.24% for the radioactive cesium from aqueous solution. This may be ascribed to the fact that the AIP clay played a substantial role in protecting PB release from the P-MSC composite by cross-linking with alginate to improve the mechanical stability. Excellent adsorption capacity, easy separation, and good selectivity make the adsorbent suitable for the removal of radioactive cesium from seawater around nuclear plants and/or after nuclear accidents.
Project description:Rosin derived from conifer trees is used as the basis for a novel environmentally-friendly adsorbent prepared from a sustainable resource. After treatment with ethylenediamine, ethylenediamine rosin-based resin (EDAR) is produced, which possesses cation exchange capacity that is comparable to that of the best commercial synthetic resins. This is demonstrated by its application to the removal of Pb, Cd, and Cu from water, in single and multicomponent systems. Maximum uptake was obtained at pH 5 and in the order Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II). The maximum adsorption of Pb was ~1.8 mmol/g, but the adsorption process resembled the Freundlich isotherm, whereas the adsorption of Cd(II) and Cu(II) followed the Langmuir isotherm. In the multicomponent systems, there was direct competition between Pb and Cd for sorption sites, whereas the results with Cu indicated it had a preference for different types of sites compared to Pb and Cd. The EDAR resin could be efficiently regenerated and used repeatedly with only a small decrease in performance. Characterization of EDAR, and investigations of its adsorption mechanisms using physical, spectroscopic, and theoretical techniques, including fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), <sup>13</sup>C nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>13</sup>C NMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) method, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and molecular dynamics calculations, showed that amino groups have a critical role in determining the cation adsorption properties. We conclude that this new adsorbent derived from an abundant natural material has the potential to make valuable contributions to the routine removal of heavy metal ions (HMs) from drinking water and wastewater.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Contamination of drinking water with heavy metals poses a human health threat, particularly in low-income countries where point-of-use water purification systems are beyond the reach of a majority of households.<h4>Objectives</h4>The study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Acacia galpinii (monkey thorn tree) biomass in removing lead (Pb (ll)), cadmium (Cd (ll)), calcium (Ca (ll)), and magnesium (Mg (ll)) ions from drinking water.<h4>Methods</h4>A. Galpinii biomass from seed and seed pods was processed by pulverizing, Soxhlet oil extraction and particle size grading. The material was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. Influence of the physiochemical parameters (contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH) on the effectiveness of the biomass in removing Pb (ll), Cd (ll), Ca (ll) and Mg (ll) ions was evaluated and the best fit adsorption isotherm model (Langmuir vs. Freundlich) was also determined.<h4>Results</h4>Particle size, dose, contact time and pH all played significant roles in the effectiveness of metal removal for both seed and seed pod biomass. At biomass particle size <90 microns, 98% removal rates of Pb (II) ions were achieved for powdered seed pods compared with 65% for powdered seeds. The same trend was observed for Cd, Ca and Mg. Contact time for effective removal of metal ions by pod powder and seed powder was 90 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively. Maximum adsorption was achieved at solution pH 6-8 for all metals. Lead adsorption followed a Langmuir isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacities of 10.8932 for pod powder and 3.4412 for seed powder. Adsorption of Ca and Mg followed a Freundlich model, with adsorption capacity of 1.1789 for Ca and 1.4521 for Mg.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Acacia galpinii seeds and seed pods are inexpensive, readily available and may serve as a cost effective means for treatment of drinking water for domestic users in low and middle income countries.
Project description:Porphyrins show great promise for future purification demands. This is largely due to their unique features as host binding molecules that can be modified at the synthetic level, and largely improved by their incorporation into inorganic based materials. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a hybrid material obtained from the immobilization of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin on silica surface to remove Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions from water. The new organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent was fully characterized by adequate techniques and the results show that the hybrid exhibits good chemical and thermal stability. From batch assays, it was evaluated how the efficacy of the hybrid was affected by the pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature. The adsorption kinetic and isotherms showed to fit the recent developed fractal-like pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir?Freundlich model respectively. The highest adsorption capacities for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions were 187.36, 125.17, 82.45, and 56.23 mg g-1, respectively, at pH 6.0 and 25 °C. This study also shows that metal cations from real river water samples can be efficient removed in the presence of the new adsorbent material.
Project description:In some part of the world, groundwater source can become unsafe for drinking due to the high concentration of fluoride ions . The low cost and facile-produced adsorbent like palm stone could effectively removed fluoride ions through adsorption process. In this dataset, the influence of fluoride ion concentration, solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time on fluoride ion adsorption by palm stones was tested by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The data stone carbonized adsorbent was prepared by a simple and facile method at relatively low temperature of 250 °C during 3 h. The adsorbent had the main functional groups of O-H, -OH, Si-H, C=O, N=O, C-C, C-OR, C-H, and C-Br on its surface. At the optimized conditions obtained by RSM, about 84.78% of fluoride ion was removed using the adsorbent. The Langmuir isotherm was suitable for correlation of equilibrium data (maximum adsorption capacity= 3.95 mg/g). Overall, the data offer a facile adsorbent to water and wastewater works which face to high level of fluoride water/ wastewater content.
Project description:Wastes are the sustainable sources of raw materials for the synthesis of new adsorbent materials. This study has as objectives the advanced capitalization of fly ash, by sulphuric acid activation methods, and testing of synthesized materials for heavy metals removal. Based on the previous studies, the synthesis parameters were 1/3 s/L ratio, 80 °C temperature and 10% diluted sulphuric acid, which permitted the synthesis of an eco-friendly adsorbent. The prepared adsorbent was characterized through SEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD and BET methods. Adsorption studies were carried out for the removal of Cd2+ ions, recognized as ions dangerous for the environment. The effects of adsorbent dose, contact time and metal ion concentrations were studied. The data were tested in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm and it was found that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity of 28.09 mg/g. Kinetic data were evaluated with the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model and the intraparticle diffusion model. The kinetics of cadmium adsorption into eco-friendly material was described with the pseudo-second-order model, which indicated the chemisorption mechanism.
Project description:For the first time, renewable and easy accessible pre-bleached spent coffee powder coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) and ferric ions (Coffee-PEI-Fe) was used for the successive adsorption of As(V), Cu(II) and P(V) ions from spiked water samples. Fully characterized coffee-PEI-Fe was employed for batch mode experiments. Kinetic regression analysis showed that the adsorption processes of As(V) and P(V) anions follows a pseudo-second-order model, while the adsorption of Cu(II) ions fit with a pseudo-first-order model. The maximum adsorption capacities estimated by Langmuir model for As(V), Cu(II) and P(V) ions were 83.3, 200.1, and 50.2?mg/g, respectively. The simulated results revealed that the internal diffusion is the rate-determining step for the adsorptions of As(V) and Cu(II) ions, while film diffusion is the mass transfer resistance for the adsorption of P(V) ions on the surface of coffee-PEI-Fe. The successive adsorptions of adsorbates were achieved through electrostatic attraction between adsorbent surface and adsorbates. The dynamic column adsorption behavior of the adsorbent was described by Thomas model, which showed a good agreement with the experimental values (q<sub>exp</sub>). The results presented in this paper could be used for developing efficient adsorbent from renewable materials for water purification.