Short Chain Fatty Acids Enhance Aryl Hydrocarbon (Ah) Responsiveness in Mouse Colonocytes and Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands are important for gastrointestinal health and play a role in gut inflammation and the induction of T regulatory cells, and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, propionate and acetate also induce similar protective responses. Initial studies with butyrate demonstrated that this compound significantly increased expression of Ah-responsive genes such as Cyp1a1/CYP1A1 in YAMC mouse colonocytes and Caco-2 human colon cancer cell lines. Butyrate synergistically enhanced AhR ligand-induced Cyp1a1/CYP1A1 in these cells with comparable enhancement being observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and also microbiota-derived AhR ligands tryptamine, indole and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA). The effects of butyrate on enhancing induction of Cyp1b1/CYP1B1, AhR repressor (Ahrr/AhRR) and TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (Tiparp/TiPARP) by AhR ligands were gene- and cell context-dependent with the Caco-2 cells being the most responsive cell line. Like butyrate and propionate, the prototypical hydroxyamic acid-derived histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors Panobinostat and Vorinostat also enhanced AhR ligand-mediated induction and this was accompanied by enhanced histone acetylation. Acetate also enhanced basal and ligand-inducible Ah responsiveness and histone acetylation, demonstrating that acetate was an HDAC inhibitor. These results demonstrate SCFA-AhR ligand interactions in YAMC and Caco-2 cells where SCFAs synergistically enhance basal and ligand-induced expression of AhR-responsive genes.
Project description:The tryptophan microbiota metabolites indole-3-acetate, indole-3-aldehyde, indole, and tryptamine are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, and in this study we investigated their AhR agonist and antagonist activities in nontransformed young adult mouse colonocyte (YAMC) cells. Using Cyp1a1 mRNA as an Ah-responsive end point, we observed that the tryptophan metabolites were weak AhR agonists and partial antagonists in YAMC cells, and the pattern of activity was different from that previously observed in CaCo2 colon cancer cells. However, expansion of the end points to other Ah-responsive genes including the Cyp1b1, the AhR repressor (Ahrr), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiParp) revealed a highly complex pattern of AhR agonist/antagonist activities that were both ligand- and gene-dependent. For example, the magnitude of induction of Cyp1b1 mRNA was similar for TCDD, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate, whereas lower induction was observed for indole and indole-3-aldehyde was inactive. These results suggest that the tryptophan metabolites identified in microbiota are selective AhR modulators.
Project description:Hydroxylated chalcones are phytochemicals which are biosynthetic precursors of flavonoids and their 1,3-diaryl-prop-2-en-1-one structure is used as a scaffold for drug development. In this study, the structure-dependent activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-responsive CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 genes was investigated in Caco2 colon cancer cells and in non-transformed young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC) cells. The effects of a series of di- and trihydroxychalcones as AhR agonists was structure dependent with maximal induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 in Caco2 cells observed for compounds containing 2,2'-dihydroxy substituents and this included 2,2'-dihydroxy-, 2,2',4'-trihydroxy-, and 2,2',5'-trihydroxychalcones. In contrast, 2',4,5'-, 2'3',4'-, 2',4,4'-trihydroxy, and 2',3-, 2',4-, 2',4'-, and 2',5-dihydroxychalcones exhibited low to non-detectable AhR activity in Caco2 cells. In addition, all of the hydroxychalcones exhibited minimal to non-detectable activity in YAMC cells, whereas 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and UGT1A1 in Caco2 and YAMC cells. The activity of AhR-active chalcones was confirmed by determining their effects in AhR-deficient Caco2 cells. In addition, 2,2'-dihydroxychalcone induced CYP1A1 protein and formation of an AhR-DNA complex in an in vitro assay. Simulation and modeling studies of hydroxylated chalcones confirmed their interactions with the AhR ligand-binding domain and were consistent with their structure-dependent activity as AhR ligands. Thus, this study identifies hydroxylated chalcones as AhR agonists with potential for these phytochemicals to impact AhR-mediated colonic pathways.
Project description:1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1,4-DHNA) is a bacterial-derived metabolite that binds the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in the gut. The structure-dependent AhR activity of hydroxyl/carboxy-substituted naphthoic acids (NAs) was determined in young adult mouse colonic (YAMC) cells and human Caco2 colon cancer cells using CYP1A1/CYP1B1 mRNAs as Ah-responsive genes. Compounds used in this study include 1,4-, 3,5-, and 3,7-DHNA, 1,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthoic acid (1,4-DMNA), 1- and 4-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (1-HNA, 4-HNA), 1- and 2-naphthoic acid (1-NA, 2-NA), and 1- and 2-naphthol (1-NOH, 2-NOH). 1,4-DHNA was the most potent compound among hydroxyl/carboxy naphthalene derivatives, and the fold induction response for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was similar to that observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in YAMC and Caco2 cells. 1- and 4-HNA were less potent than 1,4-DHNA but induced maximal (TCDD-like) response for CYP1B1 (both cell lines) and CYP1A1 (Caco2 cells). With the exception of 1- and 2-NA, all compounds significantly induced Cyp1b1 in YAMC cells and these responses were not observed in AhR-deficient YAMC cells generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. In addition, we also observed that 1- and 2-NOH (and 1,4-DHNA) were weak AhR agonists, and 1- and 2-NOH also exhibited partial AhR antagonist activity. Structure-activity relationship studies for CYP1A1 but not CYP1B1 were similar in both cell lines, and CYP1A1 induction required one or both 1,4-dihydroxy substituents and activity was significantly enhanced by the 2-carboxyl group. We also used computational analysis to show that 1,4-DHNA and TCDD share similar interactions within the AhR binding pocket and differ primarily due to the negatively charged group of 1,4-DHNA.
Project description:2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiPARP/ARTD14) is a member of the PARP family and is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR); however, little is known about TiPARP function. In this study, we examined the catalytic function of TiPARP and determined its role in AHR transactivation. We observed that TiPARP exhibited auto-mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and ribosylated core histones. RNAi-mediated knockdown of TiPARP in T-47D breast cancer and HuH-7 hepatoma cells increased TCDD-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels and recruitment of AHR to both genes. Overexpression of TiPARP reduced AHR-dependent increases in CYP1A1-reporter gene activity, which was restored by overexpression of AHR, but not aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. Deletion and mutagenesis studies showed that TiPARP-mediated inhibition of AHR required the zinc-finger and catalytic domains. TiPARP and AHR co-localized in the nucleus, directly interacted and both were recruited to CYP1A1 in response to TCDD. Overexpression of Tiparp enhanced, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of TiPARP reduced TCDD-dependent AHR proteolytic degradation. TCDD-dependent induction of AHR target genes was enhanced in Tiparp(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts compared with wildtype controls. Our findings show that TiPARP is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase and a transcriptional repressor of AHR, revealing a novel negative feedback loop in AHR signalling.
Project description:The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) acts as a receptor that responds to ligands, including dioxin. The AhR-ligand complex translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to induce gene expression. Because dioxin exposure impairs cognitive and neurobehavioral functions, AhR-expressing neurons need to be identified for elucidation of the dioxin neurotoxicity mechanism. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect AhR-expressing neurons in the mouse brain and confirm the specificity of the anti-AhR antibody using Ahr<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Intracellular distribution of AhR and expression level of AhR-target genes, Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, and Ahr repressor (Ahrr), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, using mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The mouse brains were shown to harbor AhR in neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) and island of Calleja major (ICjM) during developmental period in Ahr<sup>+/+</sup> mice but not in Ahr<sup>-/-</sup> mice. A significant increase in nuclear AhR of ICjM neurons but not LC neurons was found in 14-day-old mice compared to 5- and 7-day-old mice. AhR was significantly translocated into the nucleus in LC and ICjM neurons of TCDD-exposed adult mice. Additionally, the expression levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, and Ahrr genes in the brain, a surrogate of TCDD in the tissue, were significantly increased by dioxin exposure, suggesting that dioxin-activated AhR induces gene expression in LC and ICjM neurons. This histochemical study shows the ligand-induced nuclear translocation of AhR at the single-neuron level in vivo. Thus, the neurotoxicological significance of the dioxin-activated AhR in the LC and ICjM warrants further studies.
Project description:The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of various endocrine disrupting chemicals. In female mice, global deletion of the Ahr (AhrKO) results in slow growth of ovarian antral follicles. No studies, however, have examined whether injection of the Ahr restores the phenotypes of cultured AhrKO ovarian antral follicles to wild-type levels.We developed a system to construct a recombinant adenovirus containing the Ahr to re-express the Ahr in AhrKO granulosa cells and whole antral follicles. We then compared follicle growth and levels of factors in the AHR signaling pathway (Ahr, Ahrr, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1) in wild-type, AhrKO, and Ahr re-expressed follicles. Further, we compared the response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in wild-type, AhrKO, and Ahr re-expressed follicles.Ahr injection into AhrKO follicles partially restored their growth pattern to wild-type levels. Further, Ahr re-expressed follicles had significantly higher levels of Ahr, Ahrr, Cyp1a1, and Cyp1b1 compared to wild-type follicles. Upon TCDD treatment, only Cyp1a1 levels were significantly higher in Ahr re-expressed follicles compared to the levels in wild-type follicles.Our system of re-expression of the Ahr partially restores follicle growth and transcript levels of factors in the AHR signaling pathway to wild-type levels.
Project description:The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a signal regulated transcription factor, which is canonically activated by the direct binding of xenobiotics. In addition, switching cells from adherent to suspension culture also activates the AhR, representing a non-xenobiotic, physiological activation of AhR signaling. Here, we show that the AhR is recruited to target gene enhancers in both ligand (YH439) treated and suspension cells, suggesting a common mechanism of target gene induction between these two routes of AhR activation. However, gene expression profiles critically differ between xenobiotic and suspension activated AhR signaling. Por, and Cldnd1 were regulated predominately by ligand treatments, while in contrast, ApoER2 and Ganc were regulated predominately by the suspension condition. Classic xenobiotic metabolizing AhR targets such as Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, and Nqo1 were regulated by both ligand and suspension conditions. Temporal expression patterns of AhR target genes were also found to vary, with examples of transient activation, transient repression, or sustained alterations in expression. Furthermore, sequence analysis coupled with ChIP assays and reporter gene analysis identified a functional XRE (xenobiotic response element) within the mouse Tiparp gene that features a concatemer of 4 XRE cores (GCGTG) residing in the first intron ~1.2kb downstream of the Tiparp transcription start site. Our data suggest that this XRE concatemer site concurrently regulates the expression of both Tiparp gene and its cis anti-sense non-coding RNA following ligand or suspension induced AhR activation. This work lends novel insights into how AhR signaling drives different transcriptional programs via the ligand versus suspension modes of activation. Reference: Murray IA et al. (2005) Evidence that ligand binding is a key determinant of Ah receptor-mediated transcriptional activity. Arch Biochem Biophys 442(1):59-71. Reference: Monk SA et al. (2001) Transient expression of CYP1A1 in rat epithelial cells cultured in suspension. Arch Biochem Biophys 393(1):154-162. Reference: Chua SW et atl. (2006) A novel normalization method for effective removal of systematic variation in microarray data. Nucleic acids research 34(5):e38. 18 microarray samples consisting of AhR null and reconstituted hepatocytes subjected to 10M-NM-<M YH439, 0.1% DMSO carrier control or grown in suspension culture for 8 hours in 3 biologial replicates.
Project description:Recently, a consanguineous family was identified in Israel with three children affected by Infantile Nystagmus and Foveal Hypoplasia, following an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A homozygous stop mutation c.1861C > T; p.Q621? in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (AHR; MIM 600253) was identified that co-segregated with the disease in the larger family. AHR is the first gene to be identified causing an autosomal recessive Infantile Nystagmus-related disease in humans. The goal of this study is to delineate the molecular basis of this newly discovered human genetic disorder associated with a rare AHR gene mutation. The gene and protein expression levels of AHR and selected AHR targets from leukocyte cultures of healthy subjects and the patients were analyzed. We observed significant variation between mRNA and protein expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and TiPARP under rest and AHR-induced conditions. The CYP1A1 enzymatic activity in induced leukocytes also differs significantly between the patients and healthy volunteers. Intriguingly, the heterozygous subjects demonstrate CYP1A1 and TiPARP gene and protein expression similar to homozygous patients. In contrast, CYP1B1 inducibility and expression vary between hetero- and homozygous subjects. Similarity and differences in gene and protein expression between heterozygotes and homozygous patients can give us a hint as to which metabolic pathway/s might be involved in the Nystagmus etiology. Thus, we have a unique human model for AHR deficiency that will allow us the opportunity to study the biochemical basis of this rare human mutation, as well as the involvement of AHR in other physiological processes.
Project description:<i>L. johnsonii</i> N6.2 releases nano-sized vesicles (NVs) with distinct protein and lipid contents. We hypothesized that these NVs play a central role in the delivery of bioactive molecules that may act as mechanistic effectors in immune modulation. In this report, we observed that addition of NVs to the human pancreatic cell line βlox5 reduced cytokine-induced apoptosis. Through RNAseq analyses, increased expression of <i>CYP1A1, CYP1B1, AHRR</i>, and <i>TIPARP</i> genes in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways were found to be significantly induced in presence of NVs. AHR nuclear translocation was confirmed by confocal microscopy. The role of NVs on beta cell function was further evaluated using primary human pancreatic islets. It was found that NVs significantly increased insulin secretion in presence of high glucose concentrations. These increases positively correlated with increased <i>GLUT6</i> and <i>SREBF1 mRNA</i> and coincided with reduced oxidative stress markers. Furthermore, incubation of NVs with THP-1 macrophages promoted the M2 tolerogenic phenotype through STAT3 activation, expression of AHR-dependent genes and secretion of IL10. Altogether, our findings indicate that bacterial NVs have the potential to modulate glucose homeostasis in the host by directly affecting insulin secretion by islets and through the induction of a tolerogenic immune phenotype.
Project description:2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) target gene and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, acts as part of a negative feedback loop to repress AHR signaling. This process is prevented by a single H532A mutation in TIPARP that destroys its catalytic activity. We hypothesized that the loss of TIPARP catalytic activity would increase sensitivity to TCDD-induced toxicity in vivo. To test this, we created a catalytically deficient mouse line (TiparpH532A ) by introducing a single H532A mutation in TIPARP. Treatment of mouse embryonic fibroblasts or hepatocytes isolated from TiparpH532A mice confirmed the increased TCDD-induced expression of the AHR target genes Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Tiparp. TiparpH532A mice given a single injection of 10 µg/kg TCDD, a non-lethal dose in Tiparp+/+ mice, did not survive beyond day 10. All Tiparp+/+ mice survived the 30-day treatment. TCDD-treated TiparpH532A mice displayed increased expression of AHR target genes, increased steatohepatitis and hepatotoxicity. Hepatic RNA-sequencing revealed 7-fold more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in TiparpH532A mice than in Tiparp+/+ mice (4542 vs 647 genes) 6 days after TCDD treatment. DEGs included genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Taken together, these data further support TIPARP as a critical negative regulator of AHR activity and show that loss of its catalytic activity is sufficient to increase sensitivity to TCDD-induced steatohepatitis and lethality. Since TIPARP inhibition has recently emerged as a potential anti-cancer therapy, the impact on AHR signaling and aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity will need to be carefully considered under conditions of therapeutic TIPARP inhibition.