Centriole translocation and degeneration during ciliogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons.
ABSTRACT: Neuronal cilia that are formed at the dendritic endings of sensory neurons are essential for sensory perception. However, it remains unclear how the centriole-derived basal body is positioned to form a template for cilium formation. Using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we show that the centriole translocates from the cell body to the dendrite tip in the Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons. The centriolar protein SAS-5 interacts with the dynein light-chain LC8 and conditional mutations of cytoplasmic dynein-1 block centriole translocation and ciliogenesis. The components of the central tube are essential for the biogenesis of centrioles, which later drive ciliogenesis in the dendrite; however, the centriole loses these components at the late stage of centriole translocation and subsequently recruits transition zone and intraflagellar transport proteins. Together, our results provide a comprehensive model of ciliogenesis in sensory neurons and reveal the importance of the dynein-dependent centriole translocation in this process.
Project description:Centrioles play a key role in nucleating polarized microtubule networks. In actively dividing cells, centrioles establish the bipolar mitotic spindle and are essential for genomic stability. Drosophila anastral spindle-2 (Ana2) is a conserved centriole duplication factor. Although recent work has demonstrated that an Ana2-dynein light chain (LC8) centriolar complex is critical for proper spindle positioning in neuroblasts, how Ana2 and LC8 interact is yet to be established. Here we examine the Ana2-LC8 interaction and map two LC8-binding sites within the central region of Ana2, Ana2M (residues 156-251). Ana2 LC8-binding site 1 contains a signature TQT motif and robustly binds LC8 (KD of 1.1 ?m), whereas site 2 contains a TQC motif and binds LC8 with lower affinity (KD of 13 ?m). Both LC8-binding sites flank a predicted ~34-residue ?-helix. We present two independent atomic structures of LC8 dimers in complex with Ana2 LC8-binding site 1 and site 2 peptides. The Ana2 peptides form ?-strands that extend a central composite LC8 ?-sandwich. LC8 recognizes the signature TQT motif in the first LC8 binding site of Ana2, forming extensive van der Waals contacts and hydrogen bonding with the peptide, whereas the Ana2 site 2 TQC motif forms a uniquely extended ?-strand, not observed in other dynein light chain-target complexes. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle static light scattering demonstrates that LC8 dimers bind Ana2M sites and induce Ana2 tetramerization, yielding an Ana2M4-LC88 complex. LC8-mediated Ana2 oligomerization probably enhances Ana2 avidity for centriole-binding factors and may bridge multiple factors as required during spindle positioning and centriole biogenesis.
Project description:Centrioles are subcellular organelles composed of a ninefold symmetric microtubule array that perform two important functions: (1) They build centrosomes that organize the microtubule cytoskeleton, and (2) they template cilia, microtubule-based projections with sensory and motile functions. We identified HYLS-1, a widely conserved protein, based on its direct interaction with the core centriolar protein SAS-4. HYLS-1 localization to centrioles requires SAS-4 and, like SAS-4, HYLS-1 is stably incorporated into the outer centriole wall. Unlike SAS-4, HYLS-1 is dispensable for centriole assembly and centrosome function in cell division. Instead, HYLS-1 plays an essential role in cilia formation that is conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and vertebrates. A single amino acid change in human HYLS1 leads to a perinatal lethal disorder termed hydrolethalus syndrome, and we show that this mutation impairs HYLS-1 function in ciliogenesis. HYLS-1 is required for the apical targeting/anchoring of centrioles at the plasma membrane but not for the intraflagellar transport-dependent extension of the ciliary axoneme. These findings classify hydrolethalus syndrome as a severe human ciliopathy and shed light on the dual functionality of centrioles, defining the first stably incorporated centriolar protein that is not required for centriole assembly but instead confers on centrioles the capacity to initiate ciliogenesis.
Project description:CP110 is a conserved centriole protein implicated in the regulation of cell division, centriole duplication, and centriole length and in the suppression of ciliogenesis. Surprisingly, we report that mutant flies lacking CP110 (CP110?) were viable and fertile and had no obvious defects in cell division, centriole duplication, or cilia formation. We show that CP110 has at least three functions in flies. First, it subtly influences centriole length by counteracting the centriole-elongating activity of several centriole duplication proteins. Specifically, we report that centrioles are ~10% longer than normal in CP110? mutants and ~20% shorter when CP110 is overexpressed. Second, CP110 ensures that the centriolar microtubules do not extend beyond the distal end of the centriole, as some centriolar microtubules can be more than 50 times longer than the centriole in the absence of CP110. Finally, and unexpectedly, CP110 suppresses centriole overduplication induced by the overexpression of centriole duplication proteins. These studies identify novel and surprising functions for CP110 in vivo in flies.
Project description:Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole markers CEP170 and ninein but not kizuna or cenexin. Loss of centriole cohesion through siRNA depletion of C-NAP1 or rootletin increased radiation-induced centriole splitting, with C-NAP1-depleted isolated centrioles losing mother markers. As the mother centriole forms the basal body in primary cilia, we tested whether centriole splitting affected ciliogenesis. While irradiated cells formed apparently normal primary cilia, most cilia arose from centriolar clusters, not from isolated centrioles. Furthermore, C-NAP1 or rootletin knockdown reduced primary cilium formation. Therefore, the centriole cohesion apparatus at the proximal end of centrioles may provide a target that can affect primary cilium formation as part of the DNA damage response.
Project description:The primary cilium is nucleated by the mother centriole-derived basal body (BB) via as yet poorly characterized mechanisms. BBs have been reported to degenerate following ciliogenesis in the C. elegans embryo, although neither BB architecture nor early ciliogenesis steps have been described in this organism. In a previous study (Doroquez et al., 2014), we described the three-dimensional morphologies of sensory neuron cilia in adult C. elegans hermaphrodites at high resolution. Here, we use serial section electron microscopy and tomography of staged C. elegans embryos to demonstrate that BBs remodel to support ciliogenesis in a subset of sensory neurons. We show that centriolar singlet microtubules are converted into BB doublets which subsequently grow asynchronously to template the ciliary axoneme, visualize degeneration of the centriole core, and define the developmental stage at which the transition zone is established. Our work provides a framework for future investigations into the mechanisms underlying BB remodeling.
Project description:Centrioles are assembled during S phase and segregated into 2 daughter cells at the end of mitosis. The initiation of centriole assembly is regulated by polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), the major serine/threonine kinase in centrioles. Despite its importance in centriole duplication, only a few substrates have been identified, and the detailed mechanism of PLK4 has not been fully elucidated. CP110 is a coiled-coil protein that plays roles in centriolar length control and ciliogenesis in mammals. Here, we revealed that PLK4 specifically phosphorylates CP110 at the S98 position. The phospho-resistant CP110 mutant inhibited centriole assembly, whereas the phospho-mimetic CP110 mutant induced centriole assembly, even in PLK4-limited conditions. This finding implies that PLK4 phosphorylation of CP110 is an essential step for centriole assembly. The phospho-mimetic form of CP110 augmented the centrosomal SAS6 level. Based on these results, we propose that the phosphorylated CP110 may be involved in the stabilization of cartwheel SAS6 during centriole assembly.
Project description:Cilia formation is a multi-step process that starts with the docking of a vesicle at the distal part of the mother centriole. This step marks the conversion of the mother centriole into the basal body, from which axonemal microtubules extend to form the ciliary compartment. How vesicles are stably attached to the mother centriole to initiate ciliary membrane biogenesis is unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular role of the mother centriolar component Cep164 in ciliogenesis. We show that Cep164 was indispensable for the docking of vesicles at the mother centriole. Using biochemical and functional assays, we identified the components of the vesicular transport machinery, the GEF Rabin8 and the GTPase Rab8, as interacting partners of Cep164. We propose that Cep164 is targeted to the apical domain of the mother centriole to provide the molecular link between the mother centriole and the membrane biogenesis machinery that initiates cilia formation.
Project description:Ciliated epithelial cells have the unique ability to generate hundreds of centrioles during differentiation. We used centrosomal proteins as molecular markers in cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells to understand this process. Most centrosomal proteins were up-regulated early in ciliogenesis, initially appearing in cytoplasmic foci and then incorporated into centrioles. Three candidate proteins were further characterized. The centrosomal component SAS-6 localized to basal bodies and the proximal region of the ciliary axoneme, and depletion of SAS-6 prevented centriole assembly. The intraflagellar transport component polaris localized to nascent centrioles before incorporation into cilia, and depletion of polaris blocked axoneme formation. The centriolar satellite component PCM-1 colocalized with centrosomal components in cytoplasmic granules surrounding nascent centrioles. Interfering with PCM-1 reduced the amount of centrosomal proteins at basal bodies but did not prevent centriole assembly. This system will help determine the mechanism of centriole formation in mammalian cells and how the limitation on centriole duplication is overcome in ciliated epithelial cells.
Project description:Centriole duplication is the process by which two new daughter centrioles are generated from the proximal end of preexisting mother centrioles. Accurate centriole duplication is important for many cellular and physiological events, including cell division and ciliogenesis. Centrosomal protein 4.1-associated protein (CPAP), centrosomal protein of 152 kDa (CEP152), and centrobin are known to be essential for centriole duplication. However, the precise mechanism by which they contribute to centriole duplication is not known. In this study, we show that centrobin interacts with CEP152 and CPAP, and the centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for centriole duplication. Although depletion of centrobin from cells did not have an effect on the centriolar levels of CEP152, it caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly formed centrioles. Moreover, exogenous expression of the CPAP-binding fragment of centrobin also caused the disappearance of CPAP from both the preexisting and newly synthesized centrioles, possibly in a dominant negative manner, thereby inhibiting centriole duplication and the PLK4 overexpression-mediated centrosome amplification. Interestingly, exogenous overexpression of CPAP in the centrobin-depleted cells did not restore CPAP localization to the centrioles. However, restoration of centrobin expression in the centrobin-depleted cells led to the reappearance of centriolar CPAP. Hence, we conclude that centrobin-CPAP interaction is critical for the recruitment of CPAP to procentrioles to promote the elongation of daughter centrioles and for the persistence of CPAP on preexisting mother centrioles. Our study indicates that regulation of CPAP levels on the centrioles by centrobin is critical for preserving the normal size, shape, and number of centrioles in the cell.
Project description:Centriole-to-centrosome conversion (CCC) safeguards centriole homeostasis by coupling centriole duplication with segregation, and is essential for stabilization of mature vertebrate centrioles naturally devoid of the geometric scaffold or the cartwheel. Here we identified PPP1R35, a putative regulator of the protein phosphatase PP1, as a novel centriolar protein required for CCC. We found that PPP1R35 is enriched at newborn daughter centrioles in S or G2 phase. In the absence of PPP1R35, centriole assembly initiates normally in S phase, but none of the nascent centrioles can form active centrosomes or recruit CEP295, an essential factor for CCC. Instead, all PPP1R35-null centrioles, although stable during their birth in interphase, become disintegrated after mitosis upon cartwheel removal. Surprisingly, we found that neither the centriolar localization nor the function of PPP1R35 in CCC requires the putative PP1-interacting motif. PPP1R35 is thus acting upstream of CEP295 to induce CCC for proper centriole maintenance.