Tandem Palladium and Isothiourea Relay Catalysis: Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Amino Acid Derivatives via Allylic Amination and [2,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement.
ABSTRACT: A tandem relay catalytic protocol using both Pd and isothiourea catalysis has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of α-amino acid derivatives containing two stereogenic centers from readily accessible N,N-disubstituted glycine aryl esters and allylic phosphates. The optimized process uses a bench-stable succinimide-based Pd precatalyst (FurCat) to promote Pd-catalyzed allylic ammonium salt generation from the allylic phosphate and the glycine aryl ester. Subsequent in situ enantioselective [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement catalyzed by the isothiourea benzotetramisole forms syn-α-amino acid derivatives with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. This methodology is most effective using 4-nitrophenylglycine esters and tolerates a variety of substituted cinnamic and styrenyl allylic ethyl phosphates. The use of challenging unsymmetrical N-allyl-N-methylglycine esters is also tolerated under the catalytic relay conditions without compromising stereoselectivity.
Project description:The scope and limitations of a tandem N-allylation/[2,3]-rearrangement protocol are investigated through the incorporation of a variety of functional groups within an allylic phosphate precursor. This method uses readily accessible N,N-dimethylglycine aryl esters and functionalized allylic phosphates, forming quaternary ammonium salts in situ in the presence of a palladium catalyst. Subsequent enantioselective [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, promoted by the chiral isothiourea tetramisole, generates ?-amino acid derivatives with two contiguous stereocenters. The incorporation of electron-withdrawing ester and amide groups gave the best results, furnishing the desired products in moderate to good yields (29-70%), with low diastereocontrol (typically 60:40 dr) but high enantioselectivity (up to 90:10 er). These results indicate that substrate-catalyst interactions in the proposed transition state are sensitive to the substitution pattern of the substrates.
Project description:The preparation of all possible stereoisomers of a given chiral molecule bearing multiple stereocenters by a simple and unified method is a significant challenge in asymmetric catalysis. We report stereodivergent allylic substitutions with aryl acetic acid esters catalyzed synergistically by a metallacyclic iridium complex and benzotetramisole. Through permutations of the enantiomers of the two chiral catalysts, all four stereoisomers of the products bearing two adjacent stereocenters are accessible with high diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. The resulting chiral activated ester products can be converted readily to enantioenriched amides, unactivated esters, and carboxylic acids in a one-pot manner.
Project description:Cooperation between a Lewis base and Pd catalyst enables the direct enantioselective ?-functionalization of aryl and vinyl acetic acid esters using a bifunctional B(pin)-substituted electrophile. Critical to the success of this method was the recognition that both catalysts could control the necessary stereochemical aspects; the Lewis base catalyst controls the enantioselectivity of the reaction, whereas the Pd catalyst regulates alkenyl-B(pin) configuration. This is the first example of using cooperative catalysis to control both stereochemical features during Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation.
Project description:We report a new method for the preparation of chiral 2-aryl-2-fluoropropanoic acids, including 2-fluoroibuprofen, a fluorinated analogue of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), by the kinetic resolution of racemic 2-aryl-2-fluoropropanoic acids using enantioselective esterification. By applying pivalic anhydride (Piv2O) as a coupling agent, bis(?-naphthyl)methanol [(?-Np)2CHOH] as an achiral alcohol, and (+)-benzotetramisole (BTM) as a chiral acyl-transfer catalyst, a series of racemic 2-aryl-2-fluoropropanoic acids were kinetically separated to afford the optically active carboxylic acids and the corresponding esters with good to high enantiomeric excesses. This technology can provide a convenient approach to furnish the chiral ?-fluorinated drugs containing quaternary carbons at the ?-positions in the 2-aryl-2-fluoropropanoic acid structure.
Project description:An isothiourea-catalysed Michael addition-annulation process using ?-fluoroalkyl-substituted ?,?-unsaturated aryl esters and a range of 2-acylbenzazoles is reported for the enantioselective synthesis of dihydropyranone and dihydropyridinone products bearing polyfluorinated stereocenters (29 examples, up to 98% yield, >99?:?1 er). The choice of aryl group of the aryl ester proved essential in determining reaction enantioselectivity and dihydropyranone?:?dihydropyridinone product selectivity. The aryloxide leaving group is shown to play a number of essential additional roles, operating (i) as a Brønsted base, circumventing the need for an auxiliary base; and (ii) as a Lewis base to catalyse the isomerisation of dihydropyranone products into thermodynamically-favoured dihydropyridinones. After optimisation, this isomerisation process was exploited for the selective synthesis of dihydropyridinone products using acylbenzothiazoles, and either dihydropyranone or dihydropyridinone products using acylbenzoxazoles. Finally, the phenol derivative, produced following protonation of the aryloxide, is proposed to act as a Brønsted acid, which promotes an isothiourea-catalysed kinetic resolution of benzoxazole-derived dihydropyranones.
Project description:Versatile methods for iridium-catalyzed, kinetic asymmetric substitution of racemic, branched allylic esters are reported. These reactions occur with a variety of aliphatic, aryl, and heteroaryl allylic benzoates to form the corresponding allylic substitution products in high yields (74-96%) with good to excellent enantioselectivity (84-98% ee) with a scope that encompasses a range of anionic carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles. These kinetic asymmetric processes occur with distinct stereochemical courses for racemic aliphatic and aromatic allylic benzoates, and the high reactivity of branched allylic benzoates enables enantioselective allylic substitutions that are slow or poorly selective with linear allylic electrophiles.
Project description:Enantioselective acyl transfer catalyst benzotetramisole (BTM) has been found to promote dynamic kinetic resolution of azlactones providing di(1-naphthyl)methyl esters of alpha-amino acids with up to 96% ee.
Project description:A highly chemo-, diastereo- and enantioselective catalytic method that efficiently combines a silyl hydride, vinyl-B(pin) (pin=pinacolato) and (E)-1,2-disubstituted allylic phosphates is introduced. Reactions, best promoted by a Cu-based complex with a chiral sulfonate-containing N-heterocyclic carbene, are broadly applicable. Aryl-, heteroaryl-, alkenyl-, alkynyl- and alkyl-substituted allylic phosphates may thus be converted to the corresponding homoallylic boronates and then alcohols (after C-B bond oxidation) in 46-91?% yield and in up to >98?% SN 2':SN 2 ratio, 96:4 diastereomeric ratio and 98:2 enantiomeric ratio. The reasons why an NHC-Cu catalyst is uniquely effective (vs. the corresponding phosphine systems) and the basis for different trends in stereoselectivity are provided with the aid of DFT calculations.
Project description:The synthesis of α-aryl-β<sup>2</sup> -amino esters through enantioselective aminomethylation of an arylacetic acid ester in high yields and enantioselectivity via cooperative isothiourea and Brønsted acid catalysis is demonstrated. The scope and limitations of this process are explored (25 examples, up to 94 % yield and 96:4 er), with applications to the synthesis of (S)-Venlafaxine⋅HCl and (S)-Nakinadine B. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a C(1)-ammonium enolate pathway being followed rather than an alternative dynamic kinetic resolution process. Control studies indicate that (i) a linear effect between catalyst and product er is observed; (ii) an acyl ammonium ion can be used as a precatalyst; (iii) reversible isothiourea addition to an in situ generated iminium ion leads to an off-cycle intermediate that can be used as a productive precatalyst.
Project description:The catalytic enantioselective synthesis of a range of cis-pyrrolizine carboxylate derivatives with outstanding stereocontrol (14 examples, >95?:?5 dr, >98?:?2 er) through an isothiourea-catalyzed intramolecular Michael addition-lactonisation and ring-opening approach from the corresponding enone acid is reported. An optimised and straightforward three-step synthetic route to the enone acid starting materials from readily available pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes is delineated, with benzotetramisole (5 mol%) proving the optimal catalyst for the enantioselective process. Ring-opening of the pyrrolizine dihydropyranone products with either MeOH or a range of amines leads to the desired products in excellent yield and enantioselectivity. Computation has been used to probe the factors leading to high stereocontrol, with the formation of the observed cis-steroisomer predicted to be kinetically and thermodynamically favoured.