Reversible Product Release and Recapture by a Fungal Polyketide Synthase Using a Carnitine Acyltransferase Domain.
ABSTRACT: Fungal polyketides have significant biological activities, yet the biosynthesis by highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) remains enigmatic. An uncharacterized group of HRPKSs was found to contain a C-terminal domain with significant homology to carnitine O-acyltransferase (cAT). Characterization of one such HRPKS (Tv6-931) from Trichoderma virens showed that the cAT domain is capable of esterifying the polyketide product with polyalcohol nucleophiles. This process is readily reversible, as confirmed through the holo ACP-dependent transesterification of the released product. The methyltransferase (MT) domain of Tv6-931 can perform two consecutive ?-methylation steps on the last ?-keto intermediate to yield an ?,?-gem-dimethyl product, a new programing feature among HRPKSs. Recapturing of the released product by cAT domain is suggested to facilitate complete gem-dimethylation by the MT.
Project description:Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) biosynthesize polyketides using a single set of domains iteratively. Product release is a critical step in HRPKS function to ensure timely termination and enzyme turnover. Nearly all of the HRPKSs characterized to date employ a separate thioesterase (TE) or acyltransferase enzyme for product release. In this study, we characterized two fungal HRPKSs that have fused C-terminal TE domains, a new domain architecture for fungal HRPKSs. We showed that both HRPKS-TEs synthesize aminoacylated polyketides in an ATP-independent fashion. The KU42 TE domain selects cysteine and homocysteine and catalyzes transthioesterification using the side-chain thiol group as the nucleophile. In contrast, the KU43 TE domain selects leucine methyl ester and performs a direct amidation of the polyketide, a reaction typically catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) domains. The characterization of these HRPKS-TE enzymes showcases the functional diversity of HRPKS enzymes and provides potential TE domains as biocatalytic tools to diversify HRPKS structures.
Project description:Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are highly programmed multidomain enzymes that synthesize reduced polyketide structures. Recent reports indicated salicylaldehydes are synthesized by HRPKS biosynthetic gene clusters, which are unexpected based on known enzymology of HRPKSs. Using genome mining of a Trichoderma virens HRPKS gene cluster that encodes a number of redox enzymes, we uncover the strategy used by HRPKS pathways in the biosynthesis of aromatic products such as salicylaldehyde 4, which can be oxidatively modified to the epoxycyclohexanol natural product trichoxide 1. We show selective ?-hydroxyl groups in the linear HRPKS product are individually reoxidized to ?-ketones by short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes, which enabled intramolecular aldol condensation and aromatization. Our work expands the chemical space of natural products accessible through HRPKS pathways.
Project description:Zaragozic acid A (1) is a potent cholesterol lowering, polyketide natural product made by various filamentous fungi. The reconstitution of enzymes responsible for the initial steps of the biosynthetic pathway of 1 is accomplished using an engineered fungal heterologous host. These initial steps feature the priming of a benzoic acid starter unit onto a highly reducing polyketide synthase (HRPKS), followed by oxaloacetate extension and product release to generate a tricarboxylic acid containing product 2. The reconstitution studies demonstrated that only three enzymes, HRPKS, citrate synthase, and hydrolase, are needed in A. nidulans to produce the structurally complex product.
Project description:Fungal polyketide synthases (PKSs) can function collaboratively to synthesize natural products of significant structural diversity. Here we present a new mode of collaboration between a highly reducing PKS (HRPKS) and a PKS-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) in the synthesis of oxaleimides from the Penicillium species. The HRPKS is recruited in the synthesis of an olefin-containing free amino acid, which is activated and incorporated by the adenylation domain of the PKS-NRPS. The precisely positioned olefin from the unnatural amino acid is proposed to facilitate a scaffold rearrangement of the PKS-NRPS product to forge the maleimide and succinimide cores of oxaleimides.
Project description:The methyl substituents in products of trans-acyltransferase assembly lines are usually incorporated by S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase (MT) domains. The gem-dimethyl moieties within the polyketide disorazol are installed through the iterative action of an MT in the third module of its assembly line. The 1.75-Å-resolution crystal structure of this MT helps elucidate how it catalyzes the addition of two methyl groups. Activity assays of point mutants on ?-ketoacyl chains linked to an acyl carrier protein and N-acetylcysteamine provide additional insights into the roles of active site residues. The replacement of an alanine with a phenylalanine at an apparent gatekeeping position resulted in more monomethylation than dimethylation. MTs may form an interface with ketoreductases (KRs) and even mediate the docking of trans-acyltransferase assembly line polypeptides through this association.
Project description:Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are an enigmatic group of multidomain enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally diverse compounds. This variety stems from their intrinsic programming rules, which permutate the use of tailoring domains and determine the overall number of iterative cycles. From genome sequencing and mining of the producing strain Eupenicillium brefeldianum ATCC 58665, we identified an HRPKS involved in the biosynthesis of an important protein transport-inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), followed by reconstitution of its activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in vitro. Bref-PKS demonstrated an NADPH-dependent reductive tailoring specificity that led to the synthesis of four different octaketide products with varying degrees of reduction. Furthermore, contrary to what is expected from the structure of BFA, Bref-PKS is found to be a nonaketide synthase in the absence of an associated thiohydrolase Bref-TH. Such chain-length control by the partner thiohydrolase was found to be present in other HRPKS systems and highlights the importance of including tailoring enzyme activities in predicting fungal HRPKS functions and their products.
Project description:Background:Creating designer molecules using a combination of select domains from polyketide synthases and/or nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) continues to be a synthetic goal. However, an incomplete understanding of how protein-protein interactions and dynamics affect each of the domain functions stands as a major obstacle in the field. Of particular interest is understanding the basis for a class of methyltransferase domains (MT) that are found embedded within the adenylation domain (A) of fungal NRPS systems instead of in an end-to-end architecture. Results:The MT domain from bassianolide synthetase (BSLS) was removed and the truncated enzyme BSLS-?MT was recombinantly expressed. The biosynthesis of bassianolide was abolished and N-desmethylbassianolide was produced in low yields. Co-expression of BSLS-?MT with standalone MT did not recover bassianolide biosynthesis. In order to address the functional implications of the protein insertion, we characterized the N-methyltransferase activity of the MT domain as both the isolated domain (MTBSLS) and as part of the full NRPS megaenzyme. Surprisingly, the MTBSLS construct demonstrated a relaxed substrate specificity and preferentially methylated an amino acid (L-Phe-SNAC) that is rarely incorporated into the final product. By testing the preference of a series of MT constructs (BSLS, MTBSLS, cMT, XLcMT, and aMT) to L-Phe-SNAC and L-Leu-SNAC, we further showed that restricting and/or fixing the termini of the MTBSLS by crosslinking or embedding the MT within an A domain narrowed the substrate specificity of the methyltransferase toward L-Leu-SNAC, the preferred substrate for the BSLS megaenzyme. Conclusions:The embedding of MT into the A2 domain of BSLS is not required for the product assembly, but is critical for the overall yields of the final products. The substrate specificity of MT is significantly affected by the protein context within which it is present. While A domains are known to be responsible for selecting and activating the biosynthetic precursors for NRPS systems, our results suggest that embedding the MT acts as a secondary gatekeeper for the assembly line. This work thus provides new insights into the embedded MT domain in NRPSs, which will facilitate further engineering of this type of biosynthetic machinery to create structural diversity in natural products.
Project description:C-methyltransferases (MTs) from modular polyketide synthase assembly lines are relatively rare and unexplored domains that are responsible for installing ?-methyl groups into nascent polyketide backbones. The stage at which these synthase-embedded enzymes operate during polyketide biosynthesis has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. In this work we establish the activity and substrate preference for six MTs from the gephyronic acid polyketide synthase and demonstrate their ability to methylate both N-acetylcysteamine- and acyl carrier protein-linked ?-ketoacylthioester substrates but not malonyl thioester equivalents. These data strongly indicate that MT-catalyzed methylation occurs immediately downstream of ketosynthase-mediated condensation during polyketide assembly. This work represents the first successful report of MT-catalyzed mono- and dimethylation of simple thioester substrates and provides the groundwork for future mechanistic and engineering studies on this important but poorly understood enzymatic domain.
Project description:The phytotoxic fungal polyketides lasiodiplodin and resorcylide inhibit human blood coagulation factor XIIIa, mineralocorticoid receptors, and prostaglandin biosynthesis. These secondary metabolites belong to the 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone (RAL12) subclass of the benzenediol lactone (BDL) family. Identification of genomic loci for the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin from Lasiodiplodia theobromae and resorcylide from Acremonium zeae revealed collaborating iterative polyketide synthase (iPKS) pairs whose efficient heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a convenient access to the RAL12 scaffolds desmethyl-lasiodiplodin and trans-resorcylide, respectively. Lasiodiplodin production was reconstituted in the heterologous host by co-expressing an O-methyltransferase also encoded in the lasiodiplodin cluster, while a glutathione-S-transferase was found not to be necessary for heterologous production. Clarification of the biogenesis of known resorcylide congeners in the heterologous host helped to disentangle the roles that biosynthetic irregularities and chemical interconversions play in generating chemical diversity. Observation of 14-membered RAL homologues during in vivo heterologous biosynthesis of RAL12 metabolites revealed "stuttering" by fungal iPKSs. The close global and domain-level sequence similarities of the orthologous BDL synthases across different structural subclasses implicate repeated horizontal gene transfers and/or cluster losses in different fungal lineages. The absence of straightforward correlations between enzyme sequences and product structural features (the size of the macrocycle, the conformation of the exocyclic methyl group, or the extent of reduction by the hrPKS) suggest that BDL structural variety is the result of a select few mutations in key active site cavity positions.
Project description:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is one of the most lethal liver cancers. Late diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance contribute to the scarce outfit and poor survival. Resistance mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we established a Gemcitabine (GEM) resistant model, the MT-CHC01R1.5 cell line, obtained by a GEM gradual exposure (up to 1.5 µM) of the sensitive counterpart, MT-CHC01. GEM resistance was irreversible, even at high doses. The in vitro and in vivo growth was slower than MT-CHC01, and no differences were highlighted in terms of migration and invasion. Drug prediction analysis suggested that Paclitaxel and Doxycycline might overcome GEM resistance. Indeed, in vitro MT-CHC01R1.5 growth was reduced by Paclitaxel and Doxycycline. Importantly, Doxycycline pretreatment at very low doses restored GEM sensitivity. To assess molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of GEM resistance, a detailed analysis of the transcriptome in MT-CHC01R1.5 cells versus the corresponding parental counterpart was performed. Transcriptomic analysis showed that most up-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle regulation and in the DNA related process, while most down-regulated genes were involved in the response to stimuli, xenobiotic metabolism, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, additional panels of drug resistance and epithelial to mesenchymal transition genes (n = 168) were tested by qRT-PCR and the expression of 20 genes was affected. Next, based on a comparison between qRT-PCR and microarray data, a list of up-regulated genes in MT-CHC01R1.5 was selected and further confirmed in a primary cell culture obtained from an ICC patient resistant to GEM. In conclusion, we characterized a new GEM resistance ICC model that could be exploited either to study alternative mechanisms of resistance or to explore new therapies.