PiR-823 contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis by enhancing the transcriptional activity of HSF1.
ABSTRACT: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a novel class of small non-coding RNAs, were first discovered in germline cells and are thought to silence transposons in spermatogenesis. Recently, piRNAs have also been identified in somatic tissues, and aberrant expression of piRNAs in tumor tissues may be implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the function of piR-823 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Here, we first found that piR-823 was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues compared with its expression in the adjacent tissues. Inhibition of piR-823 suppressed cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase and induced cell apoptosis in CRC cell lines HCT116 and DLD-1, whereas overexpression of piR-823 promoted cell proliferation in normal colonic epithelial cell line FHC. Interestingly, Inhibition of piR-823 repressed the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 27, 60, 70. Furthermore, elevated HSPs expression partially abolished the effect of piR-823 on cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, we further demonstrated that piR-823 increased the transcriptional activity of HSF1, the common transcription factor of HSPs, by binding to HSF1 and promoting its phosphorylation at Ser326. Our study reveals that piR-823 plays a tumor-promoting role by upregulating phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of HSF1 and suggests piR-823 as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) may be important epigenetic regulators of gene expression in human cancers; however, their functional and clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown.We performed piRNA expression profiling in paired cancer and normal tissues through small RNA-sequencing. The clinical significance of candidate piRNAs was investigated, and independently validated in 771 CRC patients from three independent cohorts. The biological function of piRNAs was characterized in cell lines, followed by identification and validation of downstream target genes in CRC tissues.We identified piR-1245 as a novel and frequently overexpressed noncoding RNA in CRC, and its expression significantly correlated with advanced and metastatic disease. Patients with high piR-1245 expression experienced significantly shorter overall survival, and multivariate analysis identified its expression to serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in CRC. Functionally, piR-1245 acts as an oncogene and promotes tumor progression, and gene expression profiling results identified a panel of downstream target-genes involved in regulating cell survival pathway. Based upon piRNA:mRNA sequence complementarity, we identified a panel of tumor suppressor genes (ATF3, BTG1, DUSP1, FAS,NFKBIA, UPP1, SESN2, TP53INP1 and MDX1) as direct targets of piR-1245, and successfully validated an inverse correlation between their expression and piR-1245 in CRC.We for the first time have identified the role for a PIWI-interacting noncoding RNA, piR-1245, as a novel oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.
Project description:Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) represent a novel class of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that have been shown to have a deregulated expression in several cancers, although their clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. With an aim of delineating the piRNA distribution in CRC, we conducted a systematic discovery and validation of piRNAs within two clinical cohorts. In the discovery phase, we profiled tumor and adjacent normal tissues from 18 CRC patients by deep sequencing and identified a global piRNA downregulation in CRC. Moreover, we identified piR-24000 as an unexplored piRNA that was significantly overexpressed in CRC. Using qPCR, we validated the overexpression of piR-24000 in 87 CRC patients. Additionally, we identified a significant association between a high expression of piR-24000 and an aggressive CRC phenotype including poor differentiation, presence of distant metastases, and a higher stage. Lastly, ROC analysis demonstrated a strong diagnostic power of piR-24000 in discriminating CRC patients from normal subjects. Taken together, this study provides one of the earliest large-scale reports of the global distribution of piRNAs in CRC. In addition, piR-24000 was identified as a likely oncogene in CRC that can serve as a biomarker or a therapeutic target.
Project description:PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a member of non-coding RNA, originate from intergenic repetitive regions of the genome. piRNA expressions increase in various cancers and it is thought that this increase could be caused by hormones. We aimed to determine the effects of hormones on piRNA expression in breast and prostate cancer. High viability and a decrease in adhesion were observed at the concentrations of the highest proliferation. Furthermore, an increase in adhesion was also observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. After hormone treatment, while piR-651 expression had increased both breast and prostate cancer cell lines, piR-823 expressions increased in prostate cancer cell lines and only in the breast cancer cell line which was malignant. Thus, it was determined that piR-823 might show different expressions in different type of cancers.
Project description:RASSF1C up-regulates important genes involved in lung cancer cell growth, including a stem cell self-renewal gene, piwil1. In this article, we report the identification of small noncoding PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in lung cancer cells over-expressing RASSF1C. A piRNA microarray screen was performed using RNA isolated from the lung cancer cell line H1299 stably over-expressing RASSF1C and corresponding control. The piRNA microarray screen identified several piRNAs that are regulated by RASSF1C and we have validated the expression of two up-regulated piRNAs (piR-34871 and piR-52200) and two down-regulated piRNAs (piR-35127 and piR-46545) in lung cancer cells with silenced and over-expressed RASSF1C using RT-PCR. We also assessed the expression of these four piRNAs in lung tumor and matched normal tissues (n = 12). We found that piR-34871 and piR-52200 were up-regulated in 58% and 50%, respectively; while piR-35127 and piR-46545 were down-regulated in 50% in lung tumor tissues tested. The expression of piR-35127 was inversely correlated with RASSF1C expression in 10/12 tumor tissues. Over-expression of piR-35127 and piR-46545 and knock-down of piR-34871 and piR-52200 significantly reduced normal lung and breast epithelial cell proliferation and cell colony formation as well as proliferation of lung cancer cell lines (A549 and H1299) and breast cancer cell lines (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231). This suggests that these novel piRNAs may potentially be involved in regulating lung cell transformation and tumorigenesis. RASSF1C may potentially modulate the expression of its piRNA target genes through attenuation of the AMPK pathway, as over-expression of RASSF1C resulted in reduction of p-AMPK, p21, and p27 protein levels.
Project description:PURPOSE:PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) is a sub-group of small RNAs about 30 nucleotides length which specifically expressed in mammalian germ cells. Although piRNAs play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis regulation, little is known in the testicular tissues of infertile men. To explore whether piRNA profile could serve as a biomarker for male infertility diagnosis in a clinic, in this study, we systematically investigated the expression profile of piRNAs in testicular tissues from the patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) between successful and unsuccessful sperm retrieval before micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE). METHODS:The differential expression levels of piRNAs were evaluated using small RNA-Seq method. Ontologic analyses were performed to determine the presence of enriched biological processes. RESULTS:A total of 18,324 Homo sapiens piRNAs were identified by small RNA-Seq from NOA patient testicular tissues; among them, 959 piRNAs were significantly altered between successful and unsuccessful sperm retrieval groups, of which 951 testicular piRNAs were significantly downregulated and 8 piRNAs were upregulated in NOA patients with unsuccessful sperm retrieval (USR) groups compared to those with successful sperm retrieval (SSR) groups, respectively. Unexpectedly, 553 testicular piRNAs were found completely absent in USR but showing abundant in SSR, which suggests that those piRNAs might serve as a biomarker for micro-TESE application. A total of 20 significantly differential piRNAs (hsa-piR-20830, hsa-piR-4731, hsa-piR-6254, hsa-piR-419, hsa-piR-7152, hsa-piR-7548, hsa-piR-14195, hsa-piR-5026, hsa-piR-11482, hsa-piR-17765, hsa-piR-17102, hsa-piR-4484, hsa-piR-17260, hsa-piR-17098, hsa-piR-20511, hsa-piR-5802, hsa-piR-19121, hsa-piR-2510, hsa-piR-4745, hsa-piR-11873) were selected to further validate the RNA-Seq data by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, bioinformatic analyses revealed that those altered piRNAs were involved in many important biological pathways, including apoptosis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that testicular tissues from NOA patients with successful and unsuccessful spermatozoa retrieval exhibit differential piRNA profiles. This study provides a useful resource to further elucidate the regulatory role of piRNAs in spermatogenesis and provides a profound clue to identify useful biomarkers for predicting residual spermatogenic loci in NOA patients during assisted reproductive treatment.
Project description:piRNA-823 as a member of the piRNA family is reported to promote tumour cell proliferation in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular cancer. However, few studies on the function of piRNA-823 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our present study data showed that piRNA-823 plays an oncogene role in CRC cells. Inhibition of piRNA-823 can significantly inhibit the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis resistance of CRC cells. Mechanism studies have shown that piRNA-823 inhibits the ubiquitination of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) by up-regulating the expression of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and ultimately up-regulates the glucose consumption of carcinoma cells and inhibits the content of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we speculate piRNA-823 promotes the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis resistance of CRC cells by regulating G6PD/HIF-1? pathway. In this study, we set up the cancer-promoting function recovery experiment of piRNA-823 by silencing G6PD gene to confirm the dominance of the above-mentioned pathways. Using clinical samples, we found that overexpression of piRNA-823 correlated with poor overall survival and predicted a poor response to adjuvant chemotherapy of patients with CRC. In a word, our research has further enriched the theory of piRNA-823 promoting the progression of CRC, and laid a solid foundation for the development of piRNA-823-based gene therapy for CRC and its use as a promising prognostic biomarker in CRC patients.
Project description:PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that partner with PIWI proteins to protect germline tissues from destabilizing transposon activity. While the aberrant expression of PIWI proteins has been linked with poor outcomes for many cancers, less is known about the expression or function of piRNAs in cancer. We performed array-based piRNA expression profiling in seven pairs of normal brain and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissue specimens, and identified expression of ~350 piRNAs in both tissues and a subset with dysregulated expression in GBM. Over-expression of the most down-regulated piRNA in GBM tissue, piR-8041, was found to reduce glioma cell line proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibit cell survival pathways. Furthermore, pre-treatment with piR-8041 significantly reduced the volume of intracranial mouse xenograft tumors. Taken together, our study reveals reduced expression in GBM of piR-8041 and other piRNAs with tumor suppressive properties, and suggests that restoration of such piRNAs may be a potential strategy for GBM therapy.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) represents a notable amount of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the molecular basis of CG will offer insight into its pathogenesis in an attempt to identify new molecular biomarkers to early diagnose this disease. Therefore, studies involving small non-coding RNAs have been widely explored. Among these, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are an emergent class that can play important roles in carcinogenesis. In this study, small-RNA sequencing was used to identify the global piRNAs expression profile (piRNome) of gastric cancer patients. We found 698 piRNAs in gastric tissues, 14 of which were differentially expressed (DE) between gastric cancer (GC), adjacent to gastric cancer (ADJ), and non-cancer tissues (NC). Moreover, three of these DE piRNAs (piR-48966*, piR-49145, piR-31335*) were differently expressed in both GC and ADJ samples in comparison to NC samples, indicating that the tumor-adjacent tissue was molecularly altered and should not be considered as a normal control. These three piRNAs are potential risk biomarkers for GC, especially piR-48966* and piR-31335*. Furthermore, an in-silico search for mRNAs targeted by the differentially expressed piRNAs revealed that these piRNAs may regulate genes that participate in cancer-related pathways, suggesting that these small non-coding RNAs may be directly and indirectly involved in gastric carcinogenesis.
Project description:Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a distinct group of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) that silence transposable genetic elements to protect genome integrity. Because of their limited expression in gonads and sequence diversity, piRNAs remain the most mysterious class of small RNAs. Studies have shown piRNAs are present in somatic cells and dysregulated in gastric, breast and liver cancers. By deep sequencing 24 frozen benign kidney and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) specimens and using the publically available piRNA database, we found 26,991 piRNAs present in human kidney tissue. Among 920 piRNAs that had at least two copies in one specimen, 19 were differentially expressed in benign kidney and ccRCC tissues, and 46 were associated with metastasis. Among the metastasis-related piRNAs, we found three piRNAs (piR-32051, piR-39894 and piR-43607) to be derived from the same piRNA cluster at chromosome 17. We confirmed the three selected piRNAs not to be miRNAs or miRNA-like sncRNAs. We further validated the aberrant expression of the three piRNAs in a 68-case formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ccRCC tissue cohort and showed the up-regulation of the three piRNAs to be highly associated with ccRCC metastasis, late clinical stage and poor cancer-specific survival.
Project description:Metastasis associated 1 family, member 2 (MTA2) gene is classified to metastasis associated gene family. We have previously reported that MTA2 gene was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues, correlating with tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage. MTA2 knockdown significantly inhibited gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Yet, its molecular mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of MTA2 in regulating malignant behaviors of gastric cancer. This experiment captures the expression data between BGC-823/NC and BGC-823/MTA2, SGC-7901/NC and SGC-7901/shMTA2 cells using Whole human genome microarray 4×44K (Design ID: 014850, Agilent technologies).