Systematic Review of the Effect of Taping Techniques on Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Taping is commonly used in the management of several musculoskeletal conditions, including patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Specific guidelines for taping are unknown.To investigate the efficacy of knee taping in the management of PFPS. Our hypothesis was that tension taping and exercise would be superior to placebo taping and exercise as well as to exercise or taping alone.The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source, and CINAHL databases were reviewed for English-language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of various taping techniques that were published between 1995 and April 2015. Keywords utilized included taping, McConnell, kinesio-taping, kinesiotaping, patellofemoral pain, and knee.Studies included consisted of RCTs (level 1 or 2) with participants of all ages who had anterior knee or patellofemoral pain symptoms and had received nonsurgical management using any taping technique.Systematic review.Level 2.A checklist method was used to determine selection, performance, detection, and attrition bias for each article. A quality of evidence grading was then referenced using the validated PEDro database for RCTs. Three difference comparison groups were compared: tension taping and exercise versus placebo taping and exercise (group 1), placebo taping and exercise versus exercise alone (group 2), and tension taping and exercise versus taping alone (group 3).Five RCTs with 235 total patients with multiple intervention arms were included. Taping strategies included McConnell and Kinesiotaping. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores indicated improvement in all 3 comparison groups (group 1: 91 patients, 39% of total, mean VAS improvement 44.9 [tension taping + exercise] vs 66 [placebo taping + exercise]; group 2: 56 patients, 24% of total, mean VAS improvement 66 [placebo taping + exercise] vs 47.6 [exercise alone]; and group 3: 112 patients, 48% of total, mean VAS improvement 44.9 [tension taping + exercise] vs 14.1 [taping alone]).This systematic review supports knee taping only as an adjunct to traditional exercise therapy for PFPS; however, it does not support taping in isolation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Arthroscopy is often used to treat patients with chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). As there is a lack of evidence, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of arthroscopy in patients with chronic PFPS. METHODS: A total of 56 patients with chronic PFPS were randomized into two treatment groups: an arthroscopy group (N = 28), treated with knee arthroscopy and an 8-week home exercise program, and a control group (N = 28), treated with the 8-week home exercise program only. The arthroscopy included finding-specific surgical procedures according to current recommendations. The primary outcome was the Kujala score on patellofemoral pain and function at 9 months following randomization. Secondary outcomes were visual analog scales (VASs) to assess activity-related symptoms. We also estimated the direct healthcare costs. RESULTS: Both groups showed marked improvement during the follow-up. The mean improvement in the Kujala score was 12.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.2-17.6) in the arthroscopy group and 11.4 (95% CI 6.9-15.8) in the control group. However, there was no difference between the groups in mean improvement in the Kujala score (group difference 1.1 (95% CI -7.4 - 5.2)) or in any of the VAS scores. Total direct healthcare costs in the arthroscopy group were estimated to exceed on average those of the control group by euro901 per patient (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this controlled trial involving patients with chronic PFPS, the outcome when arthroscopy was used in addition to a home exercise program was no better than when the home exercise program was used alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 41800323.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), also known as Anterior Knee Pain, is a common cause of recurrent or chronic knee pain. The etiology is considered to be multifactorial but is not completely understood. At the current time the leading theory is that pathomechanics in the patellofemoral joint leads to PFPS. Traditionally, conservative treatment has focused on improving strength and timing in the quadriceps muscles. In recent years, evidence has been accumulating to support the importance of hip control and strengthening in PFPS. Two recent studies have shown promising results for hip strengthening as an isolated treatment for PFPS. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to compare isolated hip strengthening to traditional quadriceps-based training and a control group with free physical activity.An observer-blinded RCT will be performed. We intend to include 150 patients aged 16-40 years, referred from primary care practitioners to the department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Kristiansand, Norway for PFPS with more than three months duration. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria will be randomised using opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes to one of three groups: isolated hip strengthening, quadriceps based training, or a control group (free physical activity). All groups will receive standardized information about PFPS formulated with the intention to minimize fear avoidance and encourage self-mastery of symptoms. Standardized exercises will be performed under supervision of a study physiotherapist once per week in addition to home training two times per week for a total of six weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the Anterior Knee Pain Score (AKPS) at three and 12 months. Secondary outcome measures will include Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, hip abductor and quadriceps strength, the generic EuroQol (EQ-5D), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), Knee self-efficacy score and Tampa score for Kinesiophobia.This trial will help to elucidate the role of hip and quadriceps strengthening in the treatment of PFPS. Information as to the role of anxiety and depression, kinesiophobia and self-efficacy will be collected, also as regards prognosis and response to exercise therapy.ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT02114294.
Project description:Self-reported knee pain is highly prevalent among adolescents. As much as 50% of the non-specific knee pain may be attributed to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS). In the short term, exercise therapy appears to have a better effect than patient education consisting of written information and general advice on exercise or compared with placebo treatment. But the long-term effect of exercise therapy compared with patient education is conflicting. The purpose of this study is to examine the short- and long-term effectiveness of patient education compared with patient education and multimodal physiotherapy applied at a very early stage of the condition among adolescents.This study is a single blind pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Four upper secondary schools have been invited to participate in the study (approximately 2500 students, aged 15-19 years). Students are asked to answer an online questionnaire regarding musculoskeletal pain. The students who report knee pain are contacted by telephone and offered a clinical examination by a rheumatologist. Subjects who fit the inclusion criteria and are diagnosed with PFPS are invited to participate in the study. A minimum of 102 students with PFPS are then cluster-randomised into two intervention groups based on which school they attend. Both intervention groups receive written information and education. In addition to patient education, one group receives multimodal physiotherapy consisting primarily of neuromuscular training of the muscles around the foot, knee and hip and home exercises. The students with PFPS fill out self-reported questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion in the study. The primary outcome measure is perception of recovery measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from "completely recovered" to "worse than ever" at 12 months.This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of patient education compared with patient education combined with multimodal physiotherapy. If patient education and multimodal physiotherapy applied at an early stage of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome proves effective, it may serve as a basis for optimising the clinical pathway for those suffering from the condition, where specific emphasis can be placed on early diagnosis and early treatment.clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT01438762.
Project description:Kinesio taping (KT) is widely applied for pain control and rehabilitation in clinical settings. Tape tension is a key factor in the taping method. However, limited evidence exists regarding the reinforced tension effects of KT on functional performance and pain in healthy individuals. This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of double-taped Kinesio taping (DTKT) on functional performance and pain caused by muscle fatigue after exercise. A total of 44 healthy male students (mean age, 23.3 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned to the following three groups: DTKT, normal-tape Kinesio taping (NTKT), and placebo. The single-hopping (SH) distance, vertical jump height (VJH), and power (VJP) were assessed at baseline. The muscle fatigue protocol was then applied to induce muscle soreness. Outcome measures including subjective pain, SH distance, VJH and VJP were evaluated immediately after the muscle fatigue protocol, and KT was then applied; the measures were then again evaluated immediately and 24 h after KT application. No significant interactions between pain and functional performance were observed (p > 0.05), and there were no significant differences in SH, VJH, and VJP among the groups (p > 0.05). Notably, the DTKT had an immediate effect on the alleviation of pain caused by muscle fatigue. The present findings indicate that DTKT is not superior to NTKT or placebo in terms of pain relief and enhancing functional performance after tape application in healthy male students.
Project description:Medial patellar instability, though infrequently recognized, can be a disabling complication of a lateral retinacular release. Patients with persistent anterior knee pain and instability after lateral release should be evaluated closely. If evidence of increased medial patellar translation is identified on physical examination, a trial of reverse McConnell taping should be prescribed. If there is noted improvement in symptoms after this taping trial, reconstruction of the lateral patellotibial ligament should be considered. This article details our technique for lateral patellotibial ligament reconstruction using iliotibial band and patellar tendon autografts.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to compare the short-term effects of Mobilization with movement (MWM) and Kinesiotaping (KT) on patients with patellofemoral pain (PFP) respect to pain, function and balance. METHODS:Thirty-five female patients diagnosed with unilateral PFP were assigned into 2 groups. The first group (n = 18) received two techniques of MWM intervention (Straight Leg-Raise with Traction and Tibial Gliding) while KT was applied to the other group (n = 17). Both groups received 4 sessions of treatment twice a week for a period of 2 weeks with a 6-week-home exercise program. Pain severity, knee range of motion, hamstring flexibility, and physical performance (10-step stair climbing test, timed up and go test), Kujala Patellofemoral Pain Scoring and Y-Balance test were assessed. These outcomes were evaluated before the treatment, 45 min after the initial treatment, at the end of the 4-session-treatment during 2-week period and 6 weeks later in both groups. RESULTS:Both treatment groups had statistically significant improvements on pain, function and balance (p < 0.05). Pain at rest (p = 0.008) and the hamstring muscle flexibility (p = 0.027) were demonstrated significant improvements in favor of MWM group. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrated similar results for both treatment techniques in terms of pain, function and balance. The MWM technique with exercise had a short-term favorable effect on pain at rest and hamstring muscle flexibility than the KT technique with exercise in patients with PFP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level I, therapeutic study.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS), a common cause of anterior knee pain, is successfully treated in over 2/3 of patients through rehabilitation protocols designed to reduce pain and return function to the individual. Applying preventive medicine strategies, the majority of cases of PFPS may be avoided if a pre-diagnosis can be made by clinician or certified athletic trainer testing the current researched potential risk factors during a Preparticipation Screening Evaluation (PPSE). We provide a detailed and comprehensive review of the soft tissue, arterial system, and innervation to the patellofemoral joint in order to supply the clinician with the knowledge required to assess the anatomy and make recommendations to patients identified as potentially at risk. The purpose of this article is to review knee anatomy and the literature regarding potential risk factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome and prehabilitation strategies. A comprehensive review of knee anatomy will present the relationships of arterial collateralization, innervations, and soft tissue alignment to the possible multifactoral mechanism involved in PFPS, while attempting to advocate future use of different treatments aimed at non-soft tissue causes of PFPS. METHODS: A systematic database search of English language PubMed, SportDiscus, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, LexisNexis, and EBM reviews, plus hand searching the reference lists of these retrieved articles was performed to determine possible risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome. RESULTS: Positive potential risk factors identified included: weakness in functional testing; gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps or iliotibial band tightness; generalized ligamentous laxity; deficient hamstring or quadriceps strength; hip musculature weakness; an excessive quadriceps (Q) angle; patellar compression or tilting; and an abnormal VMO/VL reflex timing. An evidence-based medicine model was utilized to report evaluation criteria to determine the at-risk individuals, then a defined prehabilitation program was proposed that begins with a dynamic warm-up followed by stretches, power and multi-joint exercises, and culminates with isolation exercises. The prehabilitation program is performed at lower intensity level ranges and can be conducted 3 days per week in conjunction with general strength training. Based on an objective one repetition maximum (1RM) test which determines the amount an individual can lift in good form through a full range of motion, prehabilitation exercises are performed at 50-60% intensity. CONCLUSION: To reduce the likelihood of developing PFPS, any individual, especially those with positive potential risk factors, can perform the proposed prehabilitation program.
Project description:Patellofemoral pain is one of the most frequent knee conditions among adolescents with a prevalence of 7 %. Evidence-based treatment consists of patient education combined with hip and quadriceps strengthening. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of adolescents does not follow their exercise prescription, performing too few repetitions or too fast below the prescribed time under tension. Live feedback, such as a metronome or exercise games, has previously shown promising results in improving the quality of exercises. The aim of this study is to investigate if live feedback from a sensor (BandCizer™) and an iPad will improve the ability of adolescents with PFP to perform exercises as prescribed.This study is a randomized, controlled, participant-blinded, superiority trial with a 2-group parallel design. Forty 15 to 19 year old adolescents with patellofemoral pain will be randomized to receive either live visual and auditory feedback on time under tension or no feedback on time under tension during a 6-week intervention period. Adolescents will be instructed to perform three elastic band exercises. Feedback will be provided by BandCizer™ and an iPad. The adolescents perform the exercises twice a week unsupervised and once a week during a supervised group training session. The primary outcome will be the mean deviation of the prescribed time under tension per repetition in seconds during the course of the intervention.Low compliance is a major problem among adolescents with patellofemoral pain. Providing the adolescents with real time feedback on time under tension from a sensor and an iPad could potentially help the adolescents perform the exercises as prescribed. This may increase the total exercise dosage they receive during treatment which may help improve patient outcomes.Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02674841 ) on February 4(th) 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) has been extensively studied in physical therapy literature. Patients with PFPS demonstrate quadriceps and hip musculature weakness, altered lower extremity (LE) kinematics, and decreased LE flexibility. Psychosocial factors have also been identified as an important factor in patients with PFPS. The authors hypothesize that an ordered approach addressing each of these impairments sequentially will result in greater improvement in PFPS symptoms. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of performing a randomized trial and to determine the sample size necessary to examine the validity of this hypothesis. METHODS:Patients received a sequential treatment approach using a PFPS treatment algorithm (PFPS Algorithm) designed by the authors. Patients were evaluated assessing psychosocial factors, flexibility, LE kinematics, and LE strength. Impairments that were found in the evaluation were addressed sequentially over the episode of care. Patients were prescribed therapy two times per week for six weeks. Pain, Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS), and Global Rating of Change (GROC) were measured at evaluation and discharge. RESULTS:Thirty consecutive patients with PFPS who were referred to physical therapy were enrolled in the pilot study. All phases of the feasibility study including recruitment, treatment protocols and data collection were effectively carried out. One hundred percent of patients treated with the PFPS algorithm who completed the prescribed treatment had a clinically significant improvement in the AKPS and GROC. A floor effect was noted with NPRS with 38% of patients unable to achieve clinically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS:With minor changes to the protocol and outcome measures used, a full randomized trial is feasible and merited. Steps must be taken to reduce the high drop-out rate among both groups. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:1b.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to assess the effects of kinesio taping (KT) on pain, paresthesia, functional status, and overall health status in patients with symptomatic thoracic outlet syndrome (sTOS). METHODS:A single-blind placebo-controlled design was employed in this study. The study duration was defined as 12 months. Analyses were performed on 60 patients with sTOS randomly assigned to KT (4 men and 26 women; mean age=33.5 years, range=20-46 years) and control groups (5 men and 25 women; mean age=26 years, range=20-43 years). KT was applied to the KT group three times. The control group received placebo taping. Pain and paresthesia were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain (10 cm) and VAS paresthesia (10 cm). The upper limb function was assessed using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire. The overall health status was evaluated based on the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Each assessment was carried out at baseline (t0), posttreatment (t1), and 8 weeks after baseline (t2). RESULTS:In the KT group, except the social isolation domain of the NHP, all outcome measures showed improvement from t0 to t1. At the second follow-up visit (t2), improvements remained visible compared with baseline. However, none of the variables improved from t1 to t2. Otherwise, all measures deteriorated slightly, and the deteriorations in VAS for pain, NHP pain, NHP sleep, and NHP physical abilities were statistically significant (p=0.041, p=0.048, p=0.013, and p=0.016, respectively). In the control group, only VAS for paresthesia and NHP emotional reaction showed improvement over time (p=0.002 and p=0.044, respectively). When changes in outcome measures between the two groups were compared, except NHP emotional reaction and NHP social isolation, median changes (from t0 to t1) were higher in the KT group than in the control group (p<0.05 for all variables). Regarding VAS pain, VAS paresthesia, DASH, and three NHP domains (energy level, pain, and physical abilities), changes from t0 to t2 were also higher in the KT group (p<0.05 for all variables). CONCLUSION:KT can provide benefits in terms of relieving pain and paresthesia, as well as improving the upper limb function and quality of life in patients with sTOS. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level II, Therapeutic study.