Hulless barley as a promising source to improve the nutritional quality of wheat products.
ABSTRACT: In this study, efforts were made to utilize hulless barley (variety BHS352) to enhance the nutritive value of chapatti and biscuit made from wheat flour. Barley flour was added to wheat flour in different ratios (5 to 30%). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and ?-glucan content were determined both in flour blends and their products. Changes in physical quality and taste of chapatti and biscuits after blending of hulless barley flour with wheat flour were measured. The chapatti quality score decreased by 15% and biscuit spread factor by 33% after 30% barley flour blending. Significant increase in ?-glucan content and antioxidant activity of flour blends and their products was observed at 30% blending level. The phenolic content increased from 63 to 135 µg for biscuits and 237 to 287 ug GAE/g for chapatti with blending of 30% barley flour.
Project description:Flours from various wheat varieties varied in gluten strength were blended in varying proportions and evaluated for pasting and dough rheological properties. The different blends of strong: very weak/weak/medium flour (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100) (w/w) were prepared. Two strong and three weak wheat varieties were selected for this study on the basis of Farinograph dough stability (DS). Strong wheat (HUW468 and HP1761), medium weak (HUW234), weak (HD2894) and very weak (WH1021) wheat variety had DS of 11.4-13.5 min, 9.9 min, 6.2 min, and 2.8 min, respectively. Protein content of the flour decreased with increase in proportion of weak wheat flours in the blends. The lowest values of protein content, paste viscosities and mixographic parameters were observed for blend of strong and very weak wheat flour (25:75). The blending of strong wheat flour with weaker wheat flour decreased the protein content and mixographic properties. The regression equations for blending of weak wheat with strong wheat flour had the highest regression coefficient for paste viscosities (Peak, final, breakdown and setback) and pasting temperature indicated that the greatest change in these properties with increase in blending level of weak wheat. The blending of weak wheat with strong wheat flour had the highest regression coefficient indicating the greatest change in MPT as the blending level was increased. The blending of very weak, weak and medium wheat flour with strong wheat flour showed significant effect on G' and G?. The flours with variable dough rheological properties suitable for different products can be produced by blending strong and weak wheat flour.
Project description:The consumption of cereal foods such as biscuit has become very popular globally. Partial replacement of wheat flour with beniseed and unripe plantain flours rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals will increase nutrient, diversify utilization of beniseed and unripe plantain, and increase biscuit variety. Wheat composite biscuit was produced from wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain flours. The composite flour was mixed in the proportion of 100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:20:10, 60:30:10, and 50:40:10% of wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain, respectively. The physical, sensory, chemical, and microbial properties of the biscuits were determined. The physical properties ranged from 6.80 g to 8.30 g for weight, spread ratio 6.93-7.38, and break strength 500-690 g. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in taste, crispness, flavor and texture of the biscuits while significant differences (P < 0.05) existed in color and overall acceptability. The proximate composition of the biscuits ranged from 1.84% to 2.55% for moisture, protein 8.03-9.26%, fat 30.07-35.81%, ash 2.94-3.68%, crude fiber 0.47-0.80%, carbohydrate 48.74-55.96%, and energy 526.53-554.21 kcal/100 g. The microbial count of the best biscuit after 20 days of storage was 4.0 × 10(3) cfu/g for bacteria and mould contained 5.0 × 10(4) cfu/g. This study forms a basis for new product development for the biscuit food industry.
Project description:Many carbohydrate foods contain starch that is rapidly digested and elicits a high Glycaemic Index. A legume ingredient (PulseON®) rich in Type 1 resistant starch (RS1) was recently developed; however, its potential as a functional ingredient when processed into a food product required assessment. PulseON® was used to replace 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the wheat flour in a savoury biscuit recipe. In vitro starch digestion kinetics of biscuits and water-holding properties of ingredients were assessed. The RS1 in PulseON® did not appear to be structurally compromised during biscuit making. Replacing 50% wheat flour with PulseON® reduced the starch hydrolysis index of biscuits by nearly 60%. This seems to result from the ingredients' impact on water availability for starch gelatinisation. Overall, these findings highlight the potential of using biscuits as a food vehicle for PulseON® to increase consumer intakes of legume protein, dietary fibre, and potentially low glycaemic starch.
Project description:Biofortified colored wheat (black, blue, and purple) is rich in anthocyanins and phenolic acid compounds that impart positive physiological effects in humans. A large proportion of wheat is consumed in the form of Chapatti in Asian countries. The effect of chapatti cooking on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds (anthocyanins and phenolics), and antioxidant activities of these wheat varieties were checked in this study. Apart from acceptable sensory parameters, good taste, and soft texture of chapatti, biofortified colored wheat chapatti and flour had higher dietary fibers, protein content, and lower carbohydrate content. Higher soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity were in the order of black > blue > purple > white. Chapatti making has reduced their antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content in comparison to flour. Moreover, the reduction in antioxidant activity is less as compared to the decrease in anthocyanin content. Our results suggest that colored wheat can be a better alternative to normal wheat for preparing chapatti as it would have additional health-promoting activities.
Project description:Insects are abundant in the predominantly sub-Saharan Africa region and are generally high in protein. Wheat grain contains gluten that is vital for the quality of baked goods but does not grow well in warm regions. Partial substitution of wheat with sorghum and insect in biscuits could contribute to food security among vulnerable populations. This study identified insect types most commonly consumed by the rural Olugboja community living in the rural part of the Ikare-Akoko local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria and consumer acceptance of biscuits supplemented with a sorghum and insect meal. Whole grain sorghum meal and insect meal were blended at a ratio of 3:1 (w/w sorghum: insect). Composite biscuits were made by partially substituting wheat flour with the sorghum-insect meal at 20%, 40%, and 60% (w/w). Wheat biscuit (100%) was used as a control. Regular consumers of biscuits (n = 84) evaluated the acceptability of the biscuit samples using a five-point facial hedonic scale, which was followed by focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess consumer perceptions of the use of insect as a food source. Biscuits containing the sorghum-insect meal (mean = 4.0 ± 0.6) were more acceptable than the control (3.58 ± 0.6). The biscuits supplemented with 20% of the sorghum-insect meal were the most acceptable (mean = 4.23 ± 0.6) compared to those with higher concentrations (40% and 60%). FGDs revealed that the taste of the biscuits was an important motivation for consumers to accept insect as a food source.
Project description:The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions.
Project description:Background:Voluntarily fortified snack products are increasingly available but are not necessarily formulated to meet known dietary nutrient gaps, so potential impacts on population micronutrient intake adequacy are uncertain. Objectives:We modeled the impacts of hypothetical micronutrient-fortified biscuits on inadequate micronutrient intake in children and women of reproductive age (WRA) in Cameroon. Methods:In a nationally representative survey stratified by macro-region (North, South, and Yaoundé/Douala), 24-h dietary recall data were collected from 883 children aged 12-59 mo and from 912 WRA. We estimated usual nutrient intake by the National Cancer Institute method for vitamin A, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc, and iron. We simulated the impact of biscuit fortification on prevalence of micronutrient intake below the estimated average requirement, given observed biscuit consumption, in the presence and absence of large-scale food fortification (LSFF) programs. Results:Biscuit consumption in the prior 24-h by children and WRA, respectively, ranged from 4.5% and 1.5% in the South, to 20.7% and 5.9% in Yaoundé/Douala. In the absence of LSFF programs, biscuits fortified with retinol (600 ?g/100 g), folic acid (300 ?g/100 g), and zinc (8 mg/100 g) were predicted to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy among children by 10.3 ± 4.4, 13.2 ± 4.2, and 12.0 ± 6.1 percentage points, respectively, in Yaoundé/Douala. However, when existing vitamin A-fortified oil, and folic acid-fortified and zinc-fortified wheat flour programs were considered, the additional impacts of fortified biscuits were reduced substantially. Micronutrient-fortified biscuits were predicted to have minimal impact on dietary inadequacy in WRA, with or without LSFF programs. Conclusions:Given observed patterns of biscuit consumption in Cameroon, biscuit fortification is unlikely to reduce dietary inadequacy of studied micronutrients, except possibly for selected nutrients in children in urban areas in the absence of LSFF programs. As voluntary fortification becomes increasingly common, modeling studies could help guide efforts to ensure that fortified products align with public health goals.
Project description:To investigate the variation in sugar and energy content of cakes and biscuits available in the UK.We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2016 of 381 cakes and 481 biscuits available in nine main UK supermarkets.The sugar and energy content was collected from product packaging and nutrition labelling of cake and biscuit products.The average sugar content in cakes and biscuits was 36.6±7.6?and 30.0±9.2?g/100?g, respectively. The mean energy content was 406±37 for cakes and 484±38 kcal/100?g for biscuits. There was a large variation in sugar and energy content between different cake and biscuit categories and within the same category. 97% of cakes and 74% of biscuits would receive a 'red' (high) label for sugar.This research makes available baseline data of the cakes and biscuits market in the UK for future evaluation of the recently launched sugar-reduction programme. The study showed that reductions in sugar and energy content of cakes and biscuits are possible, since there was a large variation in sugar and energy content between different cake and biscuit categories and within the same category. A reduction in sugar and energy content, and overall cake and biscuit consumption, can help reduce overall sugar and energy intake in the UK and thus reduce the risk of obesity and dental caries.
Project description:The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments.Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study identified several quality related key genes including many other genes, their interactions (quality x development) and temporal and spatial distributions.The candidate genes identified for processing quality and information on temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions would be useful for designing wheat improvement programs for processing quality either by changing their expression or development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers.
Project description:In this paper, the basic components, nutrient composition, and processing characteristics of cassava flour were determined. In addition, the effects of xanthan gum and inulin on the pasting properties, microstructure, and thermal properties of cassava flour were studied. Biscuits were prepared using cassava flour as the main raw material and the optimal technology and formula for the biscuits were determined by single-factor and orthogonal tests. The effects of xanthan gum and inulin on the quality of cassava flour short biscuits were also investigated, and volatile components in the biscuits were determined using electronic nose technique. The addition of xanthan gum improved the pasting properties and microstructure of cassava flour, and improved the taste and increased hardness and brittleness of the biscuits, making their quality similar to that of commercially available short biscuits. The addition of inulin inhibited the setback of starch and improved starch gelatinization. However, inulin was not suitable for processing of cassava flour biscuits as it decreased their hardness, brittleness, and taste. The optimal formula and baking conditions of cassava flour short biscuits were as follows: cassava flour 100 g, water 24 g, shortening 25 g, sugar 30 g, baking powder 0.6 g, salt 1 g, and egg 25 g; the surface fire and primer fire temperatures were 180°C, and the baking time was 9 min. In addition, although the main aroma volatile components present in cassava flour and low gluten wheat flour short biscuits were similar, the proportions of each component were different.