Innate immune activating ligand SUMOylation affects tumor cell recognition by NK cells.
ABSTRACT: Natural Killer cells are innate lymphocytes involved in tumor immunosurveillance. They express activating receptors able to recognize self-molecules poorly expressed on healthy cells but up-regulated upon stress conditions, including transformation. Regulation of ligand expression in tumor cells mainly relays on transcriptional mechanisms, while the involvement of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifiers remains largely unexplored. Here, we focused on the SUMO pathway and demonstrated that the ligand of DNAM1 activating receptor, PVR, undergoes SUMOylation in multiple myeloma. Concurrently, we found that PVR is preferentially located in intracellular compartments in human multiple myeloma cell lines and malignant plasma cells and that inhibition of the SUMO pathway promotes its translocation to the cell surface, increasing tumor cell susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytolysis. Our findings provide the first evidence of an innate immune activating ligand regulated by SUMOylation, and confer to this modification a novel role in impairing recognition and killing of tumor cells.
Project description:Over-activation of SUMOylation is correlated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM), with the mechanism unclear. Wnt signaling is one of the aberrantly regulated pathways related to cancer tumorigenesis and progression. Whether SUMOylation is involved in regulating the activity of Wnt/?-catenin pathway, however, has not been reported in MM. Here we found that the TOPflash reporter activity and the expression of Wnt/?-catenin target genes can be down-regulated after interference with SUMOylation through SUMO-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). SUMOylation inhibition down-regulated ?-catenin at protein level via promotion of ubiquitin-proteasomal mediated degradation. Furthermore, over-expression of ?-catenin rescued Wnt/?-catenin pathway activity and partially prevented increased apoptosis and growth inhibition induced by SUMOylation inhibition, indicating that ?-catenin was responsible for the observed effect on Wnt/?-catenin pathway. To gain a clearer view, we exploited the inter-protein interactions of ?-catenin and SUMO-1 in myeloma cell lines. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assay proved that ?-catenin is subjected to SUMOylation in vivo, which may, at least partially explain the impact of SUMOylation inhibition on ?-catenin. The association of SUMO-1 and ?-catenin was confirmed in myeloma patient samples. Taken together, our data proved that SUMOylation inhibition down-regulates Wnt/?-catenin pathway by promoting the ubiquitin-proteasomal mediated degradation of ?-catenin. SUMOylation of ?-catenin is part of the mechanisms involved in the dysregulated proliferation of myeloma cells.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that proceeds through a premalignant state of monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance; however, the molecular events responsible for myelomagenesis remain uncharacterized. To identify cellular pathways deregulated in MM, we addressed that sumoylation is homologous to ubiquitination and results in the attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Sumo onto target proteins. Sumoylation was markedly enhanced in MM patient lysates compared with normal plasma cells and expression profiling indicated a relative induction of sumoylation pathway genes. The Sumo-conjugating enzyme Ube2I, the Sumo-ligase PIAS1, and the Sumo-inducer ARF were elevated in MM patient samples and cell lines. Survival correlated with expression because 80% of patients with low UBE2I and PIAS1 were living 6 years after transplantation, whereas only 45% of patients with high expression survived 6 years. UBE2I encodes the sole Sumo-conjugating enzyme in mammalian cells and cells transfected with a dominant-negative sumoylation-deficient UBE2I mutant exhibited decreased survival after radiation exposure, impaired adhesion to bone marrow stroma cell and decreased bone marrow stroma cell-induced proliferation. UBE2I confers cells with multiple advantages to promote tumorigenesis and predicts decreased survival when combined with PIAS1. The sumoylation pathway is a novel therapeutic target with implications for existing proteasomal-based treatment strategies.
Project description:Posttranslational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a major regulator of transcription. We previously showed that progesterone receptors (PR) have a single consensus psiKXE SUMO-conjugation motif centered at Lys-388 in the N-terminal domain of PR-B and a homologous site of PR-A. SUMOylation of the PR is hormone-dependent and has a suppressive effect on transcription of an exogenous promoter. Here we show that repression of PR activity by SUMOylation at Lys-388 is uncoupled from phosphorylation, involves synergy between tandem progesterone response elements, and is associated with lowered ligand sensitivity and slowed ligand-dependent down-regulation. However, paradoxically, cellular overexpression of SUMO-1 increases PR transcriptional activity even if Lys-388 is mutated, suggesting that the receptors are activated indirectly by other SUMOylated proteins. One of these is the coactivator SRC-1, whose binding to PR and enhancement of agonist-dependent N-/C-terminal interactions is augmented by the presence of SUMO-1. Increased transcription due to SRC-1 is independent of PR SUMOylation based on assays with the Lys-388 mutants and the pure antiprogestin ZK98299, which blocks N-/C-terminal interactions. In summary, SUMOylation tightly regulates the transcriptional activity of PR by repressing the receptors directly while activating them indirectly through augmented SRC-1 coactivation.
Project description:Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), a member of the ubiquitin-related protein family, is covalently conjugated to lysine residues of its substrates in a process referred to as SUMOylation. SUMOylation occurs through a series of enzymatic reactions analogous to that of the ubiquitination pathway, resulting in modification of the biochemical and functional properties of substrates. To date, four mammalian SUMO isoforms, a single heterodimeric SUMO-activating E1 enzyme SAE1/SAE2, a single SUMO-conjugating E2 enzyme ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I (UBC9), and a few subgroups of SUMO E3 ligases have been identified. Several SUMO E3 ligases such as topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich (TOPORS), TNF receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7), and tripartite motif containing 27 (TRIM27) have dual functions as ubiquitin E3 ligases. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin E3 ligase UHRF2 also acts as a SUMO E3 ligase. UHRF2 effectively enhances zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) SUMOylation but does not enhance ZNF131 ubiquitination. In addition, the SUMO E3 activity of UHRF2 on ZNF131 depends on the presence of SET and RING finger-associated and nuclear localization signal-containing region domains, whereas the critical ubiquitin E3 activity RING domain is dispensable. Our findings suggest that UHRF2 has independent functional domains and regulatory mechanisms for these two distinct enzymatic activities.
Project description:SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier) is a post-translational modifier of the ubiquitin family controlling the function and fate of thousands of proteins. SUMOylation is deregulated in various hematological malignancies, where it participates in both tumorigenesis and cancer cell response to therapies. This is the case for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemias (APL) where SUMOylation, and subsequent destruction, of the PML-RAR? fusion oncoprotein are triggered by arsenic trioxide, which is used as front-line therapy in combination with retinoic acid to cure APL patients. A similar arsenic-induced SUMO-dependent degradation was also documented for Tax, a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV1) viral protein implicated in Adult T-cell Leukemogenesis. SUMOylation also participates in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) response to both chemo- and differentiation therapies, in particular through its ability to regulate gene expression. In Multiple Myeloma, many enzymes of the SUMO pathway are overexpressed and their high expression correlates with lower response to melphalan-based chemotherapies. B-cell lymphomas overexpressing the c-Myc oncogene also overexpress most components of the SUMO pathway and are highly sensitive to SUMOylation inhibition. Targeting the SUMO pathway with recently discovered pharmacological inhibitors, alone or in combination with current therapies, might therefore constitute a powerful strategy to improve the treatment of these cancers.
Project description:Hypoxia occurs in pathological conditions, such as cancer, as a result of the imbalance between oxygen supply and consumption by proliferating cells. HIFs are critical molecular mediators of the physiological response to hypoxia but also regulate multiple steps of carcinogenesis including tumor progression and metastasis. Recent data support that sumoylation, the covalent attachment of the Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) to proteins, is involved in the activation of the hypoxic response and the ensuing signaling cascade. To gain insights into differences of the SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 proteome of HeLa cells under normoxia and cells grown for 48 h under hypoxic conditions, we employed endogenous SUMO-immunoprecipitation in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry (SILAC). The group of proteins whose abundance was increased both in the total proteome and in the SUMO IPs from hypoxic conditions was enriched in enzymes linked to the hypoxic response. In contrast, proteins whose SUMOylation status changed without concomitant change in abundance were predominantly transcriptions factors or transcription regulators. Particularly interesting was transcription factor TFAP2A (Activating enhancer binding Protein 2 alpha), whose sumoylation decreased on hypoxia. TFAP2A is known to interact with HIF-1 and we provide evidence that deSUMOylation of TFAP2A enhances the transcriptional activity of HIF-1 under hypoxic conditions. Overall, these results support the notion that SUMO-regulated signaling pathways contribute at many distinct levels to the cellular response to low oxygen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has become one of the most serious complications after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) is a reversible process, including SUMO E1-, E2-, and E3-mediated SUMOylation and SUMO-specific protease-mediated deSUMOylation, with the latter having been shown to play a vital role in myocardial IRI previously. However, little is known about the function and regulation of SUMO E3 ligases in myocardial IRI. RESULTS:In this study, we found dramatically decreased expression of PIAS1 after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mouse myocardium and H9C2 cells. PIAS1 deficiency aggravated apoptosis and inflammation of cardiomyocytes via activating the NF-?B pathway after I/R. Mechanistically, we identified PIAS1 as a specific E3 ligase for PPAR? SUMOylation. Moreover, H9C2 cells treated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) displayed reduced PPAR? SUMOylation as a result of down-regulated PIAS1, and act an anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory function through repressing NF-?B activity. Finally, overexpression of PIAS1 in H9C2 cells could remarkably ameliorate I/R injury. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our findings demonstrate the crucial role of PIAS1-mediated PPAR? SUMOylation in protecting against myocardial IRI.
Project description:The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a ubiquitin-like protein that covalently modifies a large number of cellular proteins. SUMO modification has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for protein function and localization. SUMOylation is a dynamic process that is mediated by activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligating (E3) enzymes and readily reversed by a family of ubiquitin-like protein-specific proteases (Ulp) in yeast and sentrin/SUMO-specific proteases (SENP) in human. This review will focus on the de-SUMOylating enzymes with special attention to their biological function.
Project description:We show that central components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, the tumor suppressor proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (the ID complex), are SUMOylated in response to replication fork stalling. The ID complex is SUMOylated in a manner that depends on the ATR kinase, the FA ubiquitin ligase core complex, and the SUMO E3 ligases PIAS1/PIAS4 and is antagonized by the SUMO protease SENP6. SUMOylation of the ID complex drives substrate selectivity by triggering its polyubiquitylation by the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 to promote its removal from sites of DNA damage via the DVC1-p97 ubiquitin segregase complex. Deregulation of ID complex SUMOylation compromises cell survival following replication stress. Our results uncover a regulatory role for SUMOylation in the FA pathway, and we propose that ubiquitin-SUMO signaling circuitry is a mechanism that contributes to the balance of activated ID complex dosage at sites of DNA damage.
Project description:Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation is a reversible post-translational modification process implicated in the regulation of gene transcription, DNA repair, and cell cycle. SUMOylation depends on the sequential activities of E1 activating, E2 conjugating, and E3 ligating enzymes. SUMO E3 ligases enhance transfer of SUMO from the charged E2 enzyme to the substrate. We have previously identified PIASy, a member of the Siz/protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) RING family of SUMO E3 ligases, as essential for mitotic chromosomal SUMOylation in frog egg extracts and demonstrated that it can mediate effective SUMOylation. To address how PIASy catalyzes SUMOylation, we examined various truncations of PIASy for their ability to mediate SUMOylation. Using NMR chemical shift mapping and mutagenesis, we identified a new SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) in PIASy. The new SIM and the currently known SIM are both located at the C terminus of PIASy, and both are required for the full ligase activity of PIASy. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of PIASy-mediated SUMOylation. PIASy adds to the growing list of SUMO E3 ligases containing multiple SIMs that play important roles in the E3 ligase activity.