Knockout of the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 protects the heart from pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes the coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Under pathological conditions, ATP synthase hydrolyzes ATP to replenish protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, sustaining mitochondrial membrane potential. ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a nuclear-encoded, ATP synthase-interacting protein that selectively inhibits the hydrolysis activity of ATP synthase, which may render the protective role of IF1 in ischemic hearts. However, the in vivo cardiac function of IF1 and the potential therapeutic application targeting IF1 remain obscure. In the present study, we uncovered that IF1 is upregulated in mouse hearts with pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and in human hearts with dilated cardiomyopathy. IF1 knockout (KO) mice were protected against cardiac dysfunction and pathological development induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or isoproterenol infusion. The reduced ATP hydrolysis activated AMPK activity in IF1 KO hearts, which together facilitated autophagy. These results suggest that IF1 upregulation in the failing heart may be a maladaptive response. Inhibiting IF1 in the hypertrophied heart not only prevents cell death from excessive mitochondrial depolarization but also activates AMPK signaling and increases autophagy. Therefore, IF1 inhibition may serve as a potential therapeutic target in treating pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Project description:ATPase inhibitory factor-1 (IF1) preserves cellular ATP under conditions of respiratory collapse, yet the function of IF1 under normal respiring conditions is unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that IF1 promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the context of heart failure (HF). Methods and results: Cardiac expression of IF1 was increased in mice and in humans with HF, downstream of neurohumoral signaling pathways and in patterns that resembled the fetal-like gene program. Adenoviral expression of wild-type IF1 in primary cardiomyocytes resulted in pathological hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and the augmentation of extramitochondrial glycolysis. Similar perturbations were observed with an IF1 mutant incapable of binding to ATP synthase (E55A mutation), an indication that these effects occurred independent of binding to ATP synthase. Instead, IF1 promoted mitochondrial fragmentation and compromised mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> handling, which resulted in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca<sup>2+</sup> overloading. The effects of IF1 on Ca<sup>2+</sup> handling were associated with the cytosolic activation of calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and inhibition of CaMKII or co-expression of catalytically dead CaMKIIδC was sufficient to prevent IF1 induced pathological hypertrophy. Conclusions: IF1 represents a novel member of the fetal-like gene program that contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiac remodeling in HF. Furthermore, we present evidence for a novel, ATP-synthase-independent, role for IF1 in mitochondrial Ca<sup>2+</sup> handling and mitochondrial-to-nuclear crosstalk involving CaMKII.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common clinic scenario that occurs in the context of reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) blocks the reversal of the F1Fo-ATP synthase to prevent detrimental consumption of cellular ATP and associated demise. In the present study, we study the role and mechanism of IF1 in myocardial I/R injury. <b>Methods:</b> Mice were ligated the left anterior descending coronary artery to build the I/R model <i>in vivo</i>. Rat hearts were isolated and perfused with constant pressure according to Langendorff. Also, neonatal cardiomyocytes hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) model was also used. Myocardial infarction area, cardiac function, cellular function, and cell viability was conducted and compared. <b>Results:</b> Our data revealed that IF1 is upregulated in hearts after I/R and cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/re-oxygenation (H/R). IF1 delivered with adenovirus and adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) ameliorated cardiac dysfunction and pathological development induced by I/R <i>ex vivo</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Mechanistically, IF1 stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis activity and stimulates AMPK activation during <i>in vivo</i> basal and I/R and <i>in vitro</i> OGD/R conditions, and activation of AMPK by IF1 is responsible for its cardioprotective effects against H/R-induced injury. <b>Conclusions:</b> These results suggest that increased IF1 in the I/R heart confer cardioprotective effects via activating AMPK signaling. Therefore, IF1 can be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pathological ischemic injury and heart failure.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy, an adaptive process that responds to increased wall stress, is characterized by the enlargement of cardiomyocytes and structural remodeling. It is stimulated by various growth signals, of which the mTORC1 pathway is a well-recognized source. Here, we show that loss of Flcn, a novel AMPK-mTOR interacting molecule, causes severe cardiac hypertrophy with deregulated energy homeostasis leading to dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. We found that mTORC1 activity was upregulated in Flcn-deficient hearts, and that rapamycin treatment significantly reduced heart mass and ameliorated cardiac dysfunction. Phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-alpha (T172) was reduced in Flcn-deficient hearts and nonresponsive to various stimulations including metformin and AICAR (5-amino-1-?-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide). ATP levels were elevated and mitochondrial function was increased in Flcn-deficient hearts, suggesting that excess energy resulting from up-regulated mitochondrial metabolism under Flcn deficiency might attenuate AMPK activation. Expression of Ppargc1a, a central molecule for mitochondrial metabolism, was increased in Flcn-deficient hearts and indeed, inactivation of Ppargc1a in Flcn-deficient hearts significantly reduced heart mass and prolonged survival. Ppargc1a inactivation restored phospho-AMPK-alpha levels and suppressed mTORC1 activity in Flcn-deficient hearts, suggesting that up-regulated Ppargc1a confers increased mitochondrial metabolism and excess energy, leading to inactivation of AMPK and activation of mTORC1. Rapamycin treatment did not affect the heart size of Flcn/Ppargc1a doubly inactivated hearts, further supporting the idea that Ppargc1a is the critical element leading to deregulation of the AMPK-mTOR-axis and resulting in cardiac hypertrophy under Flcn deficiency. These data support an important role for Flcn in cardiac homeostasis in the murine model.
Project description:Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the NAD+-dependent sirtuin family of protein deacylase that catalyzes removal of post-translational modifications, such as succinylation, malonylation, and glutarylation on lysine residues. In light of the SIRT5's roles in regulating mitochondrion function, we show here that SIRT5 deficiency leads to suppression of mitochondrial NADH oxidation and inhibition of ATP synthase activity. As a result, SIRT5 deficiency decreases mitochondrial ATP production, increases AMP/ATP ratio, and subsequently activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured cells and mouse hearts under energy stress conditions. Moreover, Sirt5 knockout attenuates transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction in mice, which is associated with decreased ATP level, increased AMP/ATP ratio and enhanced AMPK activation. Our study thus uncovers an important role of SIRT5 in regulating cellular energy metabolism and AMPK activation in response to energy stress.
Project description:AIM:The study aims to evaluate protective effects of sophoricoside (Sop) on cardiac hypertrophy. Meanwhile, the potential and significance of Sop should be broadened and it should be considered as an attractive drug for the treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. METHODS:Using the phenylephrine (PE)-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) enlargement model, the potent protection of Sop against cardiomyocytes enlargement was evaluated. The function of Sop was validated in mice received transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) or sham surgery. At 1 week after TAC surgery, mice were treated with Sop for the following 4 weeks, the hearts were harvested after echocardiography examination. RESULTS:Our study revealed that Sop significantly mitigated TAC-induced heart dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. Mechanistically, Sop treatment induced a remarkable activation of AMPK/mTORC1-autophagy cascade following sustained hypertrophic stimulation. Importantly, the protective effect of Sop was largely abolished by the AMPK? inhibitor Compound C, suggesting an AMPK activation-dependent manner of Sop function on suppressing pathological cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSION:Sop ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by activating AMPK/mTORC1-mediated autophagy. Hence, Sop might be an attractive candidate for the treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by stresses such as aging and neurohumoral activation is an independent risk factor for heart failure and is considered a target for the treatment of heart failure. However, the mechanisms underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy remain largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the roles of SIRT2 in aging-related and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS:Male C57BL/6J wild-type and Sirt2 knockout mice were subjected to the investigation of aging-related cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy was also induced by Ang II (1.3 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks) in male C57BL/6J Sirt2 knockout mice, cardiac-specific SIRT2 transgenic (SIRT2-Tg) mice, and their respective littermates (8 to ?12 weeks old). Metformin (200 mg/kg/d) was used to treat wild-type and Sirt2 knockout mice infused with Ang II. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and cardiac function were examined in these mice. RESULTS:SIRT2 protein expression levels were downregulated in hypertrophic hearts from mice. Sirt2 knockout markedly exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and decreased cardiac ejection fraction and fractional shortening in aged (24-month-old) mice and Ang II-infused mice. Conversely, cardiac-specific SIRT2 overexpression protected the hearts against Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and rescued cardiac function. Mechanistically, SIRT2 maintained the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in aged and Ang II-induced hypertrophic hearts in vivo as well as in cardiomyocytes in vitro. We identified the liver kinase B1 (LKB1), the major upstream kinase of AMPK, as the direct target of SIRT2. SIRT2 bound to LKB1 and deacetylated it at lysine 48, which promoted the phosphorylation of LKB1 and the subsequent activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling. Remarkably, the loss of SIRT2 blunted the response of AMPK to metformin treatment in mice infused with Ang II and repressed the metformin-mediated reduction of cardiac hypertrophy and protection of cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS:SIRT2 promotes AMPK activation by deacetylating the kinase LKB1. Loss of SIRT2 reduces AMPK activation, promotes aging-related and Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, and blunts metformin-mediated cardioprotective effects. These findings indicate that SIRT2 will be a potential target for therapeutic interventions in aging- and stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:The goal of this analysis was to profile the gene expression signatures associated to different neuronal doses of IF1. The mitochondrial ATP synthase produces ATP by oxidative phosphorylation and integrates different signals to regulate cellular functions and fate. The ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a structurally-disordered protein that inhibits the ATP synthase, contributing to metabolic reprogramming and signalling through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). mtROS regulate kinases and transcription factors in mitohormetic responses that favour adaptation to toxic insults. IF1 is tissue-specifically expressed and in human and mouse brain is in molar excess over the ATP synthase. Herein, we have used genetic approaches to ablate or overexpress IF1 in neurons to investigate its role in brain functions. IF1 inhibits a fraction of the ATP synthase under physiological conditions and regulates respiration, mtROS production and mitochondrial structure. Transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses indicate that IF1 regulates synaptic transmission and cognition. Ablation of IF1 impairs short-term memory whereas IF1 overexpression increases basal synaptic transmission and learning by mtROS-dependent activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2). Overall, we show that IF1 dose plays a fundamental role in the regulation of neuronal function by controlling the fraction of inhibited ATP synthase that acts as source of mitohormetic mtROS, further emphasizing the ATP synthase/IF1 as promising targets to treat cognitive disorders.
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is an inevitable forerunner of heart failure. Regardless of the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte mitochondrial alterations are always observed in this context. The translocases of mitochondrial outer membrane (Tom) complex governs the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins to maintain mitochondrial function under pathophysiological conditions; however, its role in the development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. Here, we showed that Tom70 was downregulated in pathological hypertrophic hearts from humans and experimental animals. The reduction in Tom70 expression produced distinct pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy both in vivo and in vitro. The defective mitochondrial import of Tom70-targeted optic atrophy-1 triggered intracellular oxidative stress, which led to a pathological cellular response. Importantly, increased Tom70 levels provided cardiomyocytes with full resistance to diverse pro-hypertrophic insults. Together, these results reveal that Tom70 acts as a molecular switch that orchestrates hypertrophic stresses and mitochondrial responses to determine pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Mitochondria are important regulators of the metabolic phenotype in type 2 diabetes. A key factor in mitochondrial physiology is the H+-ATP synthase. The expression and activity of its physiological inhibitor, ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), controls tissue homeostasis, metabolic reprogramming and signalling. We aimed to characterise the putative role of IF1 in mediating skeletal muscle metabolism in obesity and diabetes. METHODS:We examined the 'mitochondrial signature' of obesity and type 2 diabetes in a cohort of 100 metabolically characterised human skeletal muscle biopsy samples. The expression and activity of H+-ATP synthase, IF1 and key mitochondrial proteins were characterised, including their association with BMI, fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose and HOMA-IR. IF1 was also overexpressed in primary cultures of human myotubes derived from the same biopsies to unveil the possible role played by the pathological inhibition of the H+-ATP synthase in skeletal muscle. RESULTS:The results indicate that type 2 diabetes and obesity act via different mechanisms to impair H+-ATP synthase activity in human skeletal muscle (76% reduction in its catalytic subunit vs 280% increase in IF1 expression, respectively) and unveil a new pathway by which IF1 influences lipid metabolism. Mechanistically, IF1 altered cellular levels of ?-ketoglutarate and L-carnitine metabolism in the myotubes of obese (84% of control) and diabetic (76% of control) individuals, leading to limited ?-oxidation of fatty acids (60% of control) and their cytosolic accumulation (164% of control). These events led to enhanced release of TNF-? (10 ± 2 pg/ml, 27 ± 5 pg/ml and 35 ± 4 pg/ml in control, obese and type 2 diabetic participants, respectively), which probably contributes to an insulin resistant phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Overall, our data highlight IF1 as a novel regulator of lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders, and a possible target for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic switch that plays an important role in energy homeostasis at the cellular and whole body level, hence a promising drug target. AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex composed of catalytic ?-subunit and regulatory ?- and ?-subunits with multiple isoforms for each subunit. It has been shown that AMPK activity is increased in cardiac hypertrophy and failure but it is unknown whether changes in subunit composition of AMPK contribute to the altered AMPK activity. In this study, we determined the protein expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms during cardiac development as well as during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mouse heart. We also compared the findings in failing mouse heart to that of the human failing hearts in order to determine whether the mouse heart is a good model of AMPK in human diseases. In mouse developmental hearts, AMPK was highly expressed in the fetal stages and fell back to the adult level after birth. In the failing mouse heart, there was a significant increase in ?2, ?2, and ?2 subunits both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrary, we found significant increases in the protein level of ?1, ?1 and ?2c subunits in human failing hearts with no change in the mRNA level. We also compared isoform-specific AMPK activity in the mouse and human failing hearts. Consistent with the literature, in the failing mouse heart, the ?2 complexes accounted for ~2/3 of total AMPK activity while the ?1 complexes accounted for the remaining 30-35%. In the human hearts, however, the contribution of ?1-AMPK activity was significantly higher (>40%) in the non-failing hearts, and it further increased to 50% in the failing hearts. Thus, the human hearts have a greater amount of ?1-AMPK activity compared to the rodent hearts. In summary, the protein level and the isoform distribution of AMPK in the heart change significantly during normal development as well as in heart failure. These observations provide a basis for future development of therapeutic strategies for targeting AMPK.