Silicon quantum processor with robust long-distance qubit couplings.
ABSTRACT: Practical quantum computers require a large network of highly coherent qubits, interconnected in a design robust against errors. Donor spins in silicon provide state-of-the-art coherence and quantum gate fidelities, in a platform adapted from industrial semiconductor processing. Here we present a scalable design for a silicon quantum processor that does not require precise donor placement and leaves ample space for the routing of interconnects and readout devices. We introduce the flip-flop qubit, a combination of the electron-nuclear spin states of a phosphorus donor that can be controlled by microwave electric fields. Two-qubit gates exploit a second-order electric dipole-dipole interaction, allowing selective coupling beyond the nearest-neighbor, at separations of hundreds of nanometers, while microwave resonators can extend the entanglement to macroscopic distances. We predict gate fidelities within fault-tolerance thresholds using realistic noise models. This design provides a realizable blueprint for scalable spin-based quantum computers in silicon.Quantum computers will require a large network of coherent qubits, connected in a noise-resilient way. Tosi et al. present a design for a quantum processor based on electron-nuclear spins in silicon, with electrical control and coupling schemes that simplify qubit fabrication and operation.
Project description:Silicon nanoelectronic devices can host single-qubit quantum logic operations with fidelity better than 99.9%. For the spins of an electron bound to a single-donor atom, introduced in the silicon by ion implantation, the quantum information can be stored for nearly 1 second. However, manufacturing a scalable quantum processor with this method is considered challenging, because of the exponential sensitivity of the exchange interaction that mediates the coupling between the qubits. Here we demonstrate the conditional, coherent control of an electron spin qubit in an exchange-coupled pair of <sup>31</sup>P donors implanted in silicon. The coupling strength, J = 32.06 ± 0.06 MHz, is measured spectroscopically with high precision. Since the coupling is weaker than the electron-nuclear hyperfine coupling A ? 90 MHz which detunes the two electrons, a native two-qubit controlled-rotation gate can be obtained via a simple electron spin resonance pulse. This scheme is insensitive to the precise value of J, which makes it suitable for the scale-up of donor-based quantum computers in silicon that exploit the metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication protocols commonly used in the classical electronics industry.
Project description:Large-scale quantum computers must be built upon quantum bits that are both highly coherent and locally controllable. We demonstrate the quantum control of the electron and the nuclear spin of a single (31)P atom in silicon, using a continuous microwave magnetic field together with nanoscale electrostatic gates. The qubits are tuned into resonance with the microwave field by a local change in electric field, which induces a Stark shift of the qubit energies. This method, known as A-gate control, preserves the excellent coherence times and gate fidelities of isolated spins, and can be extended to arbitrarily many qubits without requiring multiple microwave sources.
Project description:Donor spins in silicon are highly competitive qubits for upcoming quantum technologies, offering complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility, coherence (T2) times of minutes to hours, and simultaneous initialization, manipulation, and readout fidelities near ~99.9%. This allows for many quantum error correction protocols, which will be essential for scale-up. However, a proven method of reliably coupling spatially separated donor qubits has yet to be identified. We present a scalable silicon-based platform using the unique optical properties of "deep" chalcogen donors. For the prototypical 77Se+ donor, we measure lower bounds on the transition dipole moment and excited-state lifetime, enabling access to the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics using known silicon photonic resonator technology and integrated silicon photonics. We also report relatively strong photon emission from this same transition. These results unlock clear pathways for silicon-based quantum computing, spin-to-photon conversion, photonic memories, integrated single-photon sources, and all-optical switches.
Project description:Significant advances have been made towards fault-tolerant operation of silicon spin qubits, with single qubit fidelities exceeding 99.9%, several demonstrations of two-qubit gates based on exchange coupling, and the achievement of coherent single spin-photon coupling. Coupling arbitrary pairs of spatially separated qubits in a quantum register poses a significant challenge as most qubit systems are constrained to two dimensions with nearest neighbor connectivity. For spins in silicon, new methods for quantum state transfer should be developed to achieve connectivity beyond nearest-neighbor exchange. Here we demonstrate shuttling of a single electron across a linear array of nine series-coupled silicon quantum dots in ~50 ns via a series of pairwise interdot charge transfers. By constructing more complex pulse sequences we perform parallel shuttling of two and three electrons at a time through the array. These experiments demonstrate a scalable approach to physically transporting single electrons across large silicon quantum dot arrays.
Project description:Semiconductor spin qubits have recently seen major advances in coherence time and control fidelities, leading to a single-qubit performance that is on par with other leading qubit platforms. Most of this progress is based on microwave control of single spins in devices made of isotopically purified silicon. For controlling spins, the exchange interaction is an additional key ingredient which poses new challenges for high-fidelity control. Here, we demonstrate exchange-based single-qubit gates of two-electron spin qubits in GaAs double quantum dots. Using careful pulse optimization and closed-loop tuning, we achieve a randomized benchmarking fidelity of (99.50±0.04)% and a leakage rate of 0.13% out of the computational subspace. These results open new perspectives for microwave-free control of singlet-triplet qubits in GaAs and other materials.
Project description:Large-scale quantum computers will require the ability to apply long sequences of entangling gates to many qubits. In a photonic architecture, where single-qubit gates can be performed easily and precisely, the application of consecutive two-qubit entangling gates has been a significant obstacle. Here, we demonstrate a two-qubit photonic quantum processor that implements two consecutive CNOT gates on the same pair of polarisation-encoded qubits. To demonstrate the flexibility of our system, we implement various instances of the quantum algorithm for solving of systems of linear equations.
Project description:Quantum computing promises significant speed-up for certain types of computational problems. However, robust implementations of semiconducting qubits must overcome the effects of charge noise that currently limit coherence during gate operations. Here we describe a scheme for protecting solid-state qubits from uniform electric field fluctuations by generalizing the concept of a decoherence-free subspace for spins, and we propose a specific physical implementation: a quadrupole charge qubit formed in a triple quantum dot. The unique design of the quadrupole qubit enables a particularly simple pulse sequence for suppressing the effects of noise during gate operations. Simulations yield gate fidelities 10-1,000 times better than traditional charge qubits, depending on the magnitude of the environmental noise. Our results suggest that any qubit scheme employing Coulomb interactions (for example, encoded spin qubits or two-qubit gates) could benefit from such a quadrupolar design.
Project description:Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ?B produced by nuclear spins.
Project description:Hybrid quantum gates hold great promise for quantum information processing since they preserve the advantages of different quantum systems. Here we present compact quantum circuits to deterministically implement controlled-NOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between a flying photon qubit and diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers assisted by microcavities. The target qubits of these universal quantum gates are encoded on the spins of the electrons associated with the diamond NV centers and they have long coherence time for storing information, and the control qubit is encoded on the polarizations of the flying photon and can be easily manipulated. Our quantum circuits are compact, economic, and simple. Moreover, they do not require additional qubits. The complexity of our schemes for universal three-qubit gates is much reduced, compared to the synthesis with two-qubit entangling gates. These schemes have high fidelities and efficiencies, and they are feasible in experiment.
Project description:Quantum computers promise to solve certain problems more efficiently than their digital counterparts. A major challenge towards practically useful quantum computing is characterizing and reducing the various errors that accumulate during an algorithm running on large-scale processors. Current characterization techniques are unable to adequately account for the exponentially large set of potential errors, including cross-talk and other correlated noise sources. Here we develop cycle benchmarking, a rigorous and practically scalable protocol for characterizing local and global errors across multi-qubit quantum processors. We experimentally demonstrate its practicality by quantifying such errors in non-entangling and entangling operations on an ion-trap quantum computer with up to 10 qubits, and total process fidelities for multi-qubit entangling gates ranging from [Formula: see text] for 2 qubits to [Formula: see text] for 10 qubits. Furthermore, cycle benchmarking data validates that the error rate per single-qubit gate and per two-qubit coupling does not increase with increasing system size.