What treatments work for anxiety in children with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)? Systematic review.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Anxiety is more prevalent in children with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) than in the general population. A systematic review was carried out to identify which treatment methods are most effective for children with CFS and anxiety. DESIGN:Systematic review using search terms entered into the Cochrane library and Ovid to search the databases Medline, Embase and psychINFO. PARTICIPANTS:Studies were selected if participants were <18 years old, diagnosed with CFS/ME (using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence or Oxford criteria) and had a valid assessment of anxiety. INTERVENTIONS:We included observational studies and randomised controlled trials. COMPARISON:Any or none. OUTCOMES:Change in anxiety diagnostic status and/or change in anxiety severity on a validated measure of anxiety from pretreatment to post-treatment. RESULTS:The review identified nine papers from eight studies that met the inclusion criteria. None of the studies specifically targeted anxiety but six studies tested an intervention and measured anxiety as a secondary outcome. Of these studies, four used a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-type approach to treat CFS/ME, one used a behavioural approach and one compared a drug treatment, gammaglobulin with a placebo. Three of the CBT-type studies described an improvement in anxiety as did the trial of gammaglobulin. As none of the studies stratified outcomes according to anxiety diagnostic status or severity, we were unable to determine whether anxiety changed prognosis or whether treatments were equally effective in those with comorbid anxiety compared with those without. CONCLUSION:We do not know what treatment should be offered for children with both anxiety and CFS/ME. Further research is therefore required to answer this question. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:This review was registered on Prospective Register of Systematic Review Protocols (PROSPERO) and the protocol is available from http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016043488.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In children and adolescents, anxiety disorders (ADs) are among the most prevalent mental disorders. While there is a solid empirical foundation to support CBT as an evidence-based treatment for childhood ADs, the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of CBT are not well explored. Exposure is assumed to be vital to the efficacy of CBT in ADs, but empirical evidence (e.g., dismantling studies) showing that exposure is indeed a vital element of effective treatments is relatively scarce. The proposed meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of exposure in reducing symptoms of anxiety among children and adolescents. METHODS:A systematic search of several electronic databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Psyndex plus, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE will be conducted (from inception onwards). We will include randomized and non-randomized clinical trials examining exposure and anxiety among children and adolescents. If feasible, we will also include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies. The primary outcome will be improvement in anxiety levels (recovery or change in anxiety rating scale) after exposure. Three reviewers will independently screen all citations, abstract data, and full-text articles. The methodological quality (or risk of bias) of individual studies will be appraised using an appropriate tool. If feasible, we will conduct mixed effects meta-analysis. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., dose of exposure, age group, methodological quality). DISCUSSION:This systematic review and meta-analysis will examine the role of exposure in reducing symptoms of anxiety among youth. The review will provide information on the working mechanisms underlying the efficacy of CBT. Our findings will be of interest to mental health professionals, researchers, and policy makers who wish to support children and adolescents with anxiety disorders by guiding well-informed treatment decisions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO (CRD42019128667).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:At least 30% of young people with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) also have symptoms of depression. This systematic review aimed to establish which treatment approaches for depression are effective and whether comorbid depression mediates outcome. SETTING:A systematic review was undertaken. The search terms were entered into MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and the Cochrane library. PARTICIPANTS:Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify relevant papers. Inclusion criteria were children age <18, with CFS/ME, defined using CDC, NICE or Oxford criteria, and having completed a valid assessment for depression. RESULTS:9 studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria, but none specifically tested treatments for paediatric CFS/ME with depression and none stratified outcome for those who were depressed compared with those who were not depressed. There is no consistent treatment approach for children with CFS/ME and comorbid depression, although cognitive-behavioural therapy for CFS/ME and a multicomponent inpatient programme for CFS/ME have shown some promise in reducing depressive symptoms. An antiviral medication in a small scale, retrospective, uncontrolled study suggested possible benefit. CONCLUSIONS:It is not possible to determine what treatment approaches are effective for depression in paediatric CFS/ME, nor to determine the impact of depression on the outcome of CFS/ME treatment. Young people with significant depression tend to have been excluded from previous treatment studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for young people is increasingly being provided using technology-assisted formats. Although there is increasing evidence regarding the efficacy of such approaches, as illustrated by quantitative systematic reviews, the literature has also highlighted challenges with implementation factors, including high attrition rates and variable user engagement. Qualitative review methods can help to address the factors that impact young peoples' experience of technology-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (tech-assisted CBT) and, thus, enable us to better understand such implementation factors. To date, no such qualitative synthesis exists. OBJECTIVE:The primary aim of this review was to systematically identify and synthesize the qualitative literature concerning the experiences of young people who have used tech-assisted CBT. METHODS:This systematic review applied Thomas and Harden's 2008 qualitative thematic synthesis approach. This involved line-by-line coding of the results sections of included studies and an inductive analysis on identified themes, followed by the generation of analytical themes through a process of iteration and interpretation of the descriptive themes. PsycINFO, ACM Digital Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and JMIR Publications databases were searched. The inclusion criteria were (1) studies involving school-aged young people over preschool age (6 years) but under the age of 18 years, (2) use of any form of tech-assisted CBT for any time period, (3) a stated focus of qualitative data to document the experiences of participants, and (4) studies published in English. The exclusion criteria were (1) interventions only provided face-to-face with no technological component, (2) only focused on the performance of the technology rather than participant experience, and (3) numerical data that sought to represent qualitative data. RESULTS:A total of 14 studies were included in this review. Overall, these studies represented interventions for low mood and anxiety (n=10), trauma or self-harm (n=2), and physical difficulties (n=2). Overall, 5 analytical themes emerged on young people's experiences with tech-assisted CBT: (1) helpfulness, (2) therapeutic process, (3) transferability, (4) gameplay experience, and (5) limitations. In addition, these analytical themes contained the following subthemes: positive experiences, tech-assisted CBT versus face-to-face CBT, understanding of a CBT model, process of change, skills development, application to everyday life settings, parental involvement, character relatedness, playability, negative experiences, and broad content. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, young people's experiences with tech-assisted CBT were mostly positive. The use of gaming environments, relatable characters, concrete metaphors, and age-appropriate narratives contributed to these positive experiences. Evidence suggests that technology can help to mediate face-to-face relationships with therapists and help young people to understand the CBT model. Clear barriers also emerged, including over-reliance on reading and writing skills and dissatisfaction with overly generalized content and comparison with commercial technologies. TRIAL REGISTRATION:International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42018103388; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42018103388.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although the number of studies examining the relationships between sedentary behaviors (SB) and anxiety is growing, an overarching evidence, taking into account children, adolescents, and adults as well as different types of SB and different categories of anxiety outcomes, is still missing. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at obtaining a comprehensive overview of existing evidence. METHODS:A search in the following databases: PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Academic Search Complete, ERIC, HealthSource: Nursing/Academic Edition and MEDLINE, resulted in k = 31 original studies included in the systematic review (total N = 99,192) and k = 17 (total N = 27,443) included in the meta-analysis. Main inclusion criteria referred to testing the SB--anxiety relationship, the quality score (above the threshold of 65%), and the language of publications (English). The study was following the PRISMA statement and was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42017068517). RESULTS:Both the systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that overall average effects were small: higher levels of symptoms of anxiety were associated with higher levels of SB (weighted r = .093, 95% CI [.055, .130], p < .001). Moderator analyses indicated that trends for stronger effects were observed among adults, compared to children/adolescents (p = .085). CONCLUSIONS:Further longitudinal studies are necessary to elucidate the predictive direction of the anxiety-SB relationship and to clarify whether the effects depend on the type of anxiety indicators.
Project description:Anxiety disorders are common among adolescents and lead to poor long-term outcomes. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an evidenced-based intervention for adolescent anxiety disorders, but little is known about whether and how parents should be involved. This systematic review evaluated how parents have been involved and associated treatment outcomes in studies of CBT for adolescent anxiety disorders. Electronic systematic searches were conducted in PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, Medline, AMED databases, to identify studies investigating CBT for adolescent anxiety disorder(s) that included parents in treatment. Twenty-three papers were identified. Parents were involved in treatment in a number of different ways: by attending separate parent sessions, joint parent-adolescent sessions, or both, or through provision of a workbook while attending some adolescent sessions. Content varied but was most typically aimed at the parent developing an understanding of core CBT components and skills to help them manage their adolescent's anxiety and avoidance. Treatment outcomes indicate that CBT with parental involvement is an effective intervention for adolescent anxiety disorders; however, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding whether parental involvement (generally or in any particular form) enhances treatment outcomes. Poor reporting and methodological issues also limit the conclusions. Further research is required to identify whether there are particular types of parental involvement in CBT that bring clinical benefits to adolescents with anxiety disorders generally, as well as in particular circumstances.
Project description:Previous meta-analyses of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for children and young people with anxiety disorders have not considered the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT for the remission of childhood anxiety.To provide a meta-analysis on the efficacy of transdiagnostic CBT for children and young people with anxiety disorders.The analysis included randomized controlled trials using transdiagnostic CBT for children and young people formally diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. An electronic search was conducted using the following databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Current Controlled Trials, Medline, PsycArticles, PsychInfo, and Web of Knowledge. The search terms included "anxiety disorder(s)", "anxi*", "cognitive behavio*, "CBT", "child*", "children", "paediatric", "adolescent(s)", "adolescence", "youth" and "young pe*". The studies identified from this search were screened against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 20 studies were identified as appropriate for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Pre- and posttreatment (or control period) data were used for analysis.Findings indicated significantly greater odds of anxiety remission from pre- to posttreatment for those engaged in the transdiagnostic CBT intervention compared with those in the control group, with children in the treatment condition 9.15 times more likely to recover from their anxiety diagnosis than children in the control group. Risk of bias was not correlated with study effect sizes.Transdiagnostic CBT seems effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety in children and young people. Further research is required to investigate the efficacy of CBT for children under the age of 6.
Project description:AIM:We conducted a systematic review aggregate and network meta-analysis of psychological interventions for people with type 1 diabetes to assess their effectiveness in improving glycaemic levels. METHODS:We searched the following databases from 1 January 2003 to 1 July 2018: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, Dissertation Abstract International. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT) of psychological interventions for children and adults with type 1 diabetes reported in any language. We extracted data on publications, participant characteristics at baseline, intervention and control group, and data for the primary outcome, change in glycaemic control [HbA1c (mmol/mol/%)]. Study authors were contacted for missing data. The review was registered with international prospective register of systematic reviews registration (PROSPERO) CRD42016033619. RESULTS:Twenty-four adult RCTs and 23 of children with type 1 diabetes were included in the systematic review. In aggregate meta-analysis there was no overall effect of psychological intervention compared with control on HbA1c [adults, nine RCTs, n = 1102, pooled mean difference -0.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.27 to 0.03, I2 = 29.0%, P = 0.19; children, 20 RCTs, n = 2567, -0.09, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.04, I2 =54.0% P=0.002]. Network meta-analysis suggested that probability and rank-ordering of effectiveness is highest for attention control groups (b = -0.47, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.12) followed by cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (-0.26, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.06) compared with usual care for adults. CONCLUSIONS:Overall psychological interventions for children and adults with type 1 diabetes do not improve glycaemic control. For adults, CBT-based interventions have the potential to be effective.
Project description:Social anxiety disorder-a chronic and naturally unremitting disease that causes substantial impairment-can be treated with pharmacological, psychological, and self-help interventions. We aimed to compare these interventions and to identify which are most effective for the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder in adults.We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of interventions for adults with social anxiety disorder, identified from published and unpublished sources between 1988 and Sept 13, 2013. We analysed interventions by class and individually. Outcomes were validated measures of social anxiety, reported as standardised mean differences (SMDs) compared with a waitlist reference. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42012003146.We included 101 trials (13?164 participants) of 41 interventions or control conditions (17 classes) in the analyses. Classes of pharmacological interventions that had greater effects on outcomes compared with waitlist were monoamine oxidase inhibitors (SMD -1·01, 95% credible interval [CrI] -1·56 to -0·45), benzodiazepines (-0·96, -1·56 to -0·36), selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs; -0·91, -1·23 to -0·60), and anticonvulsants (-0·81, -1·36 to -0·28). Compared with waitlist, efficacious classes of psychological interventions were individual cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT; SMD -1·19, 95% CrI -1·56 to -0·81), group CBT (-0·92, -1·33 to -0·51), exposure and social skills (-0·86, -1·42 to -0·29), self-help with support (-0·86, -1·36 to -0·36), self-help without support (-0·75, -1·25 to -0·26), and psychodynamic psychotherapy (-0·62, -0·93 to -0·31). Individual CBT compared with psychological placebo (SMD -0·56, 95% CrI -1·00 to -0·11), and SSRIs and SNRIs compared with pill placebo (-0·44, -0·67 to -0·22) were the only classes of interventions that had greater effects on outcomes than appropriate placebo. Individual CBT also had a greater effect than psychodynamic psychotherapy (SMD -0·56, 95% CrI -1·03 to -0·11) and interpersonal psychotherapy, mindfulness, and supportive therapy (-0·82, -1·41 to -0·24).Individual CBT (which other studies have shown to have a lower risk of side-effects than pharmacotherapy) is associated with large effect sizes. Thus, it should be regarded as the best intervention for the initial treatment of social anxiety disorder. For individuals who decline psychological intervention, SSRIs show the most consistent evidence of benefit.National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In all healthcare settings, a small proportion of patients account for a large level of healthcare use and associated high healthcare costs. Depression and anxiety are common co-morbidities in patients who are high users of care. The aims of this systematic review are to: (1) estimate the prevalence of anxiety/depression in adults who are high users of general physical healthcare services and/or who accrue high healthcare costs (2) estimate the magnitude of healthcare use associated with the presence of anxiety/depression. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This review will include any studies where patients are high users of primary, secondary or emergency healthcare services and/or accrue high healthcare costs. This is the first systematic review to focus on patients who are over the age of 18, whose degree of anxiety/depression has been evaluated with a standardised questionnaire or by a clinical interview generating a diagnosis according to international diagnostic criteria. The review will include eligible studies indexed in Medline, PsychINFO, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Library from inception to 1 April 2019. We will estimate the prevalence of anxiety/depression in these populations and the magnitude of use associated with anxiety/depression across various general physical healthcare settings. We will provide a narrative description of findings and factors that may influence them. A meta-analysis may be pursued if the degree of heterogeneity across studies is acceptable. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This systematic review will use data from existing studies, hence no ethical approvals are required. Findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and at relevant academic meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:PROSPERO CRD42018102628.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Effective treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) relies on a correct classification of so called 'fluctuating active' versus 'passive' patients. For successful treatment with CBT is it especially important to recognise the passive patients and give them a tailored treatment protocol. In the present study it was evaluated whether CFS patient's physical activity pattern can be assessed most accurately with the 'Activity Pattern Interview' (API), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) or the CFS-Activity Questionnaire (CFS-AQ). METHODS: The three instruments were validated compared to actometers. Actometers are until now the best and most objective instrument to measure physical activity, but they are too expensive and time consuming for most clinical practice settings. In total 226 CFS patients enrolled for CBT therapy answered the API at intake and filled in the two questionnaires. Directly after intake they wore the actometer for two weeks. Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves the validity of the three methods were assessed and compared. RESULTS: Both the API and the two questionnaires had an acceptable validity (0.64 to 0.71). None of the three instruments was significantly better than the others. The proportion of false predictions was rather high for all three instrument. The IPAQ had the highest proportion of correct passive predictions (sensitivity 70.1%). CONCLUSION: The validity of all three instruments appeared to be fair, and all showed rather high proportions of false classifications. Hence in fact none of the tested instruments could really be called satisfactory. Because the IPAQ showed to be the best in correctly predicting 'passive' CFS patients, which is most essentially related to treatment results, it was concluded that the IPAQ is the preferable alternative for an actometer when treating CFS patients in clinical practice.