Psychological distress and quality of life: rationale and protocol of a prospective cohort study in a rural district in Bangaladesh.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:A significant proportion of the global burden of disease has been attributed to mental and behavioural disorders. People with mental disorders (MDs) have lower levels of health-related quality of life than those without MDs. Several studies have shown that in low-resource countries, a range of social determinants including poor health literacy is critical in the epidemiological transition of disease outcome. There is a lack of evidence of MDs literacy, the prevalence and risk factors of common mental health conditions, or any validated instruments to measure psychological distress or evaluate the quality of life in rural areas of Bangladesh. AIMS:The aims of this study are: (1) report the awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of MDs; (2) estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for psychological distress; (3) measure association of psychological distress and other socio-demographic factors with quality of life and (4) test the feasibility to use Kessler 10-item (K10) and WHO Quality Of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires in rural Bangladesh for measuring psychological distress and quality of life. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A sample of 1500 adults aged 18-59 years and 1200 older adults aged 60-90 years will be interviewed from a multistage cluster random sample. Each participant will go through a face-to-face interview to assess their awareness and KAP of MDs. Information about the participant's sociodemographic and socioeconomic status will be collected along with the psychological distress (K10) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Internal consistency, validity, reliability and item discrimination of K10 and WHOQOL-BREF instruments will be determined by using Rasch analysis and regression techniques. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Human Ethics Approval was received from the Swinburne University of Technology Human Ethics Committee. Results of this research will be disseminated via scientific forums including peer-reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both stigma and psychological distress affect quality of life (QOL). This study is an attempt to determine the effects of these two factors on QOL and to explore possible mediation effects between psychological distress and self-stigma in opioid-dependent individuals. METHODS:This cross-sectional study comprised 268 consecutive, treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals who were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), the Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S), the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12 (CHQ-12), and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI). A series of regression models were constructed to determine if the SSS-S and CHQ-12 predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. Moreover, a comparison of the potential mediation effects of psychological distress (as assessed by the CHQ-12) was made between the SSS-S and the WHOQOL-BREF using the Baron and Kenny procedure (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test. RESULTS:The CHQ-12 score was predictive of the scores for the four domains and almost all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF except the item, "Dependence on medical aids." Nonetheless, the SSS-S score predicted three of the four facets of the social QOL after adjustment of the CHQ-12 score. Psychological distress completely mediated the relation between self-stigma and the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, and partially mediated the relationship between self-stigma and social QOL (two-tailed Sobel test: p = 0.02 for each domain). CONCLUSIONS:Psychological distress has a significant impact on the QOL of treated opioid users. It appears to be a core element in reducing the negative effects of self-stigma on aspects of QOL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire for use in a rural district of Bangladesh. METHODS:This cross-sectional study recruited a multi-stage cluster random sample of 2425 participants from the rural district Narail of Bangladesh in May-July 2017. Rasch analysis was carried out using the sampled participants, as well as multiple validation random sub-samples of 300 participants, to validate four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire: physical, psychological, social and environmental. RESULTS:The original WHOQOL-BREF appeared to be a poor fit for both sampled and sub-sampled group of participants in Narail district in all underlying domains: physical, psychological, social and environmental. Two items (sleep and work capacity) from the physical domain, two items (personal belief and negative feelings) from the psychological domain and three items (home environment, health care and transport) from the environment domain were excluded for goodness of fit of the Rasch model. The social domain exhibited reasonably reliable fitness while fulfilling all the assumptions of the Rasch model. A modified version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire using five-items for the physical ([Formula: see text] = 36.47, p = 0.013, Person Separation Index (PSI) = 0.773), four-items for the psychological ([Formula: see text] = 28.30, p = 0.029, PSI = 0.708) and five-items for the environmental ([Formula: see text] = 36.97, p = 0.011, PSI = 0.804) domain was applied, which showed adequate internal consistency, reliability, unidimensionality, and similar functioning for different age-sex distributions. CONCLUSIONS:The modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire translated into Bengali language appeared to be a valid tool for measuring quality of life in a typical rural district in Bangladesh. Despite some limitations of the modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, further application of Rasch analysis using this version or an improved one in other representative rural areas of Bangladesh is recommended to assess the external validity of the outcomes of this study and to determine the efficacy of this tool to measure the quality of life at the national rural level.
Project description:There is no disease-specific instrument to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Indian patients with asthma. However, an abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), a generic Hindi HRQoL measure, has been developed and validated in India.To evaluate the WHOQOL-Bref in adult patients with asthma and to test possible modifications to the instrument to improve its psychometric adequacy.Sixty-seven patients with asthma completed the WHOQOL-Bref. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the four domains (physical, psychological, social relationships and environment) of the scale. Overall fit of data to model expectations, appropriate category ordering, presence of differential item functioning, individual item fit and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability were explored for each domain. Item deletion and rescoring were applied to misfitting items to improve overall performance.The overall fit of the WHOQOL-Bref data was adequate. Item 3 (pain prevents doing work) displayed a large positive fit residual value (indicating violation of unidimensionality), resulting in poor construct validity for the physical domain. No item exhibited differential item functioning. Ten items had disordered thresholds. The WHOQOL-Bref was modified by dropping item 3 and rescoring category structures of 16 items. The modified scale had good construct validity for all domains, ordered thresholds for all items and good targeting of items to persons.The WHOQOL-Bref performed inadequately in describing HRQoL in the asthma patients studied. However, when modified by Rasch analysis, the scale proved better than the original scale.
Project description:The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires are widely used around the world and can claim strong cross-cultural validity due to their development in collaboration with international field centres. To enhance conceptual equivalence of quality of life across cultures, optional national items are often developed for use alongside the core instrument. The present study outlines the development of national items for the New Zealand WHOQOL-BREF. Focus groups with members of the community as well as health experts discussed what constitutes quality of life in their opinion. Based on themes extracted of aspects not contained in the existing WHOQOL instrument, 46 candidate items were generated and subsequently rated for their importance by a random sample of 585 individuals from the general population. Applying importance criteria reduced these items to 24, which were then sent to another large random sample (n = 808) to be rated alongside the existing WHOQOL-BREF. A final set of five items met the criteria for national items. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four national items as belonging to the psychological domain of quality of life, and one item to the social domain. Rasch analysis validated these results and generated ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithms to allow use of parametric statistics for domain scores with and without national items.
Project description:To investigate the distribution, internal consistency reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) in persons with mild to moderate Parkinson disease (PD).Cross-sectional.Movement disorders center.Convenience sample of people with PD (n=96) recruited from a movement disorders center and controls (n=60) recruited from the community (N=156).Not applicable.WHOQOL-BREF.The WHOQOL-BREF domain data were relatively normally distributed, and internal consistency reliability was acceptable (?=.65-.85). Participants with PD reported lower quality of life (QOL) than controls in all except the environment domain, and physical QOL was the most impaired domain in the PD group. Age, fatigue, and physical activity limitations predicted physical QOL; depression, fatigue, and apathy predicted psychological QOL; education, executive dysfunction, and apathy predicted social QOL; and age, education, depression, and apathy predicted environment QOL.The WHOQOL-BREF is a suitable tool to assess QOL in patients with mild to moderate PD. It is relatively normally distributed and internally consistent; effectively discriminates between individuals with and without PD; and correlates with relevant demographic characteristics, PD-related impairments, and activity limitations.
Project description:Seafarers have reported impaired health and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Social support might increase HRQOL, but little is known about this association among Chinese seafarers. The aim of this study was to describe social support and explore its association with HRQOL among Chinese seafarers.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the ports of Nantong and Rugao, China, from April to December 2013. A total of 917 Chinese seafarers were interviewed on social support, mental distress, perceived occupational stress, and HRQOL using the following self-administered questionnaires: The Social Support Rating Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale, Occupational Stress Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used to analyze the association between seafarers' subjective level of social support and their HRQOL.Of the 917 male Chinese seafarers included in the study, 40.7% perceived high levels of social support, and 39.1% were highly satisfied with their overall quality of life (QOL). Hierarchical regression analysis showed significant associations between level of social support and all health dimensions in the WHOQOL-BREF, even after adjusting for depressive symptoms, occupational stress, occupational activities, sleep duration, and other relevant covariates. Compared with the medium or low level social support group, seafarers with a high level of social support had better QOL scores in the general facet health and QOL (? = 2.43, p<0.05), and the physical health (? = 3.23, p<0.001), psychological health (? = 5.56, p<0.001), social relation (? = 6.07, p<0.001), and environment domains (? = 4.27, p<0.001). In addition, depression, occupational stress, occupational activities, and sleep duration were found to be determinants of seafarers' HRQOL.Chinese seafarers have poorer HRQOL than the general population, but social support has a significant positive effect on their HRQOL. Efforts to improve social support should be undertaken.
Project description:Quality of life measurement is a useful addition to measurement of health outcomes in evaluation of the benefits of many health and welfare interventions. The WHOQOL-BREF measures quality of life from a broad multi-dimensional perspective but was not used in Malawi. The objective of this study was to translate the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire into the main local language of Malawi: Chichewa; and to validate it quantitatively with respect to internal consistency, domain structure, and discriminant validity for this context.WHO-mandated guidelines were followed for translation, adaptation, pre-testing (focus groups), piloting (patient interviews) and data coding. Analyses using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression were undertaken to investigate the validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in the ways described above. Additional regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic variables on the domain scores.309 respondents completed the questionnaire (with >98% response rates for all questions except Q21 (sex life)). 259 were sick with a variety of health problems, and 50 were considered healthy. All domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha?>?=0.7) with all item scores also most highly correlated with the scores of their assigned domain. All domain scores varied by health problem, and more depressed respondents had significantly lower scores in all domains than those less depressed. Domain scores and their associations with socio-demographic variables are presented and discussed.This study demonstrates that the new Chichewa WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire is acceptable and comprehensible to respondents in Malawi. The questionnaire also passed a number of tests of the validity of its psychometric properties. In the pilot population we found that older age was associated with lower Physical domain scores. Conversely, higher levels of educational attainment were found to be associated with higher quality of life in all domains except for Social Relationships. Respondents living as married or single were found to have higher quality of life in the Physical, Psychological and Social domains, and those who were widowed lower Physical quality of life.
Project description:Buruli Ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which, due to scarring and contractures can lead to stigma and functional limitations. However, recent advances in treatment, combined with increased public health efforts have the potential to significantly improve disease outcome.To study the Quality of Life (QoL) of former Buruli Ulcer patients who, in the context of a randomized controlled trial, reported early with small lesions (cross-sectional diameter <10 cm), and received a full course of antibiotic treatment.127 Participants of the BURULICO drug trial in Ghana were revisited. All former patients aged 16 or older completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF was also administered to 82 matched healthy controls. Those younger than 16 completed the Childrens' Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) only.The median (Inter Quartile Range) score on the DLQI was 0 (0-4), indicating good QoL. 85% of former patients indicated no effect, or only a small effect of the disease on their current life. Former patients also indicated good QoL on the physical and psychological domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, and scored significantly higher than healthy controls on these domains. There was a weak correlation between the DLQI and scar size (? = 0.32; p<0.001).BU patients who report early with small lesions and receive 8 weeks of antimicrobial therapy have a good QoL at long-term follow-up. These findings contrast with the debilitating sequelae often reported in BU, and highlight the importance of early case detection.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:There is evidence to support the correlation between a stronger sense of coherence (SOC) and better perceived quality of life (QOL). However, this association has not been described among Iranian students. METHODS:Students were selected by stratified randomization and demographic data including age, gender, and employment status were collected. SOC was measured using the short-form of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire was used to assess the QOL. Data was collected over one year between 2014 and 2015. RESULTS:A total of 459 students participated in the study. The Cronbach's alpha score in domains of physical health, psychological health, environmental health, social relationships, and WHOQOL-BREF total score were 0.84, 0.83, 0.84, 0.78, and 0.94, respectively. Measured Cronbach's alpha for domains of meaningfulness, manageability, comprehensibility, and SOC-13 total score were 0.68, 0.67, 0.76, and 0.87, respectively. Marital status was not related to SOC whereas married students had significantly higher scores of QOL in the domains of psychological health, social relationships, and environment health (p=0.006, p<0.0001 and p=0.043, respectively). There were significant strong positive relationships between all components of SOC (meaningfulness, manageability, and comprehensibility) and all domains of WHOQOF-BREF (p<0.0001 for all). CONCLUSION:This study shows that SOC and marital status are significant predictors of QOL among Iranian students.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF, a generic quality of life scale, among older people in Canada and Norway. Very similar data from the Canadian and Norwegian Field Trial data (Canada n = 192; Norway, n = 469) were analyzed and compared. Higher negatively skewed mean scores were found for all WHOQOL-BREF domains in Canada. For both study samples, missing values were highest for the sex item from the social domain. Ceiling effects were found (Canada n = 21; Norway n = 11) primarily among items in the physical and environmental domains. In both study samples, a multitrait multimethod procedure indicated items correlated most strongly with their parent domains; however, equally appreciable correlations were observed between physical, psychological, and environmental items (r = 0.33-0.64; p < 0.01). The social domain had the lowest internal consistency (α = 0.67 Canada, α = 0.55 Norway). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) yielded marginal goodness-of-fit between the hypothesized WHOQOL-BREF measurement model and the sample data as well as differing patterns of domain misspecification. Patterns of correlations (p < 0.01) of WHOQOL-BREF domains with WHOQOL-OLD facets, a global QOL item, the SF-12, and the geriatric depression scale provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Domain scores also significantly discriminated between health and unhealthy populations and presence of morbidity. Empirical support was found, in part, for the construct validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in older adults. Despite some different patterns found in the CFA, possibly due to cultural or sampling differences, it appears that the instrument is reliable, valid, and facilitates cross-cultural comparisons.