ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Approximately 800 thousand patients require mechanical ventilation in the United States annually with an in-hospital mortality rate of over 30%. The majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are over the age of 65 and advanced age is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and in-hospital mortality rates. However, the mechanisms which predispose aging ventilator patients to increased mortality rates are not fully understood. Ventilation with conservative fluid management decreases mortality rates in acute respiratory distress patients, but to date there has been no investigation of the effect of conservative fluid management on VILI and ventilator associated mortality rates. We hypothesized that age-associated increases in susceptibility and incidence of pulmonary edema strongly promote age-related increases in ventilator associated mortality. METHODS:2month old and 20month old male C57BL6 mice were mechanically ventilated with either high tidal volume (HVT) or low tidal volume (LVT) for up to 4h with either liberal or conservative fluid support. During ventilation, lung compliance, total lung capacity, and hysteresis curves were quantified. Following ventilation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for total protein content and inflammatory cell infiltration. Wet to dry ratios were used to directly measure edema in excised lungs. Lung histology was performed to quantify alveolar barrier damage/destruction. Age matched non-ventilated mice were used as controls. RESULTS:At 4h, both advanced age and HVT ventilation significantly increased markers of inflammation and injury, degraded pulmonary mechanics, and decreased survival rates. Conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema and improved pulmonary mechanics by 1h in advanced age HVT subjects. In 4h ventilations, conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema, improved lung mechanics, and resulted in significantly lower mortality rates in older subjects. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that conservative fluid alone can attenuate the age associated increase in ventilator associated mortality.
Project description:The antiinflammatory effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sodium sulfide (Na2S) treatment may prevent acute lung injury induced by high tidal volume (HVT) ventilation. However, lung protection may be limited by direct pulmonary toxicity associated with H2S inhalation. Therefore, the authors tested whether the inhalation of H2S or intravascular Na2S treatment can protect against ventilator-induced lung injury in mice.Anesthetized mice continuously inhaled 0, 1, 5, or 60 ppm H2S or received a single bolus infusion of Na2S (0.55 mg/kg) or vehicle and were then subjected to HVT (40 ml/kg) ventilation lasting 4 h (n = 4-8 per group).HVT ventilation increased the concentrations of protein and interleukin-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, contributing to reduced respiratory compliance and impaired arterial oxygenation, and caused death from lung injury and pulmonary edema. Inhalation of 1 or 5 ppm H2S during HVT ventilation did not alter lung injury, but inhalation of 60 ppm H2S accelerated the development of ventilator-induced lung injury and enhanced the pulmonary expression of the chemoattractant CXCL-2 and the leukocyte adhesion molecules CD11b and L-selectin. In contrast, pretreatment with Na2S attenuated the expression of CXCL-2 and CD11b during HVT ventilation and reduced pulmonary edema. Moreover, Na2S enhanced the pulmonary expression of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes (NQO1, GPX2, and GST-A4) and prevented oxidative stress-induced depletion of glutathione in lung tissue.The data suggest that systemic intravascular treatment with Na2S represents a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent both ventilator-induced lung injury and pulmonary glutathione depletion by activating Nrf2-dependent antioxidant gene transcription.
Project description:RATIONALE:Mechanical ventilation with high VT (HVT) progressively leads to lung injury and decreased efficiency of gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) directs blood flow to well-ventilated lung regions, preserving systemic oxygenation during pulmonary injury. Recent experimental studies have revealed an important role for leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis by 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) in the impairment of HPV by endotoxin. OBJECTIVES:To investigate whether or not impairment of HPV contributes to the hypoxemia associated with HVT and to evaluate the role of LTs in ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS:We studied wild-type and 5LO-deficient mice ventilated for up to 10 hours with low VT (LVT) or HVT. RESULTS:In wild-type mice, HVT, but not LVT, increased pulmonary vascular permeability and edema formation, impaired systemic oxygenation, and reduced survival. HPV, as reflected by the increase in left pulmonary vascular resistance induced by left mainstem bronchus occlusion, was markedly impaired in animals ventilated with HVT. HVT ventilation increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of LTs and neutrophils. In 5LO-deficient mice, the HVT-induced increase of pulmonary vascular permeability and worsening of respiratory mechanics were markedly attenuated, systemic oxygenation was preserved, and survival increased. Moreover, in 5LO-deficient mice, HVT ventilation did not impair the ability of left mainstem bronchus occlusion to increase left pulmonary vascular resistance. Administration of MK886, a 5LO-activity inhibitor, or MK571, a selective cysteinyl-LT(1) receptor antagonist, largely prevented ventilator-induced lung injury. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that LTs play a central role in the lung injury and impaired oxygenation induced by HVT ventilation.
Project description:Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung inflammatory disorder with a 30-50% mortality. Sepsis and pneumonia are the leading causes of ARDS. On the cellular level there is pulmonary capillary endothelial cell permeability and fluid leakage into the pulmonary parenchyma, followed by neutrophils, cytokines and an acute inflammatory response. When fluid increases in the interstitium then the outward movement continues and protein rich fluid floods the alveolar spaces through the tight junctions of the epithelial cells. Neutrophils play an important role in the development of pulmonary edema associated with acute lung injury or ARDS. Animal studies have shown that endothelial injury appears within minutes to hours after Acute Lung Injury (ALI) initiation with resulting intercellular gaps of the endothelial cells. The Endothelial Cell (EC) gaps allow for permeability of fluid, neutrophils and cytokines into the pulmonary parenchymal space. The neutrophils that infiltrate the lungs and migrate into the airways express pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and contribute to both the endothelial and epithelial integrity disruption of the barriers. Pharmacological treatments have been ineffective. The ARDS Network trial identified low tidal volume mechanical ventilation, positive end expiratory pressure and fluid management guidelines that have improved outcomes for patients with ARDS. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used in specialized centers for severe cases. Prone positioning has recently proven to have significantly decreased ventilator days and days in the intensive care unit. Current investigation includes administration of mesenchymal stem cell therapy, partial fluid ventilation, TIP peptide nebulized administration and the continued examination of pharmacologic drugs.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Diabetic patients may develop acute lung injury less often than non-diabetics; a fact that could be partially ascribed to the usage of antidiabetic drugs, including metformin. Metformin exhibits pleiotropic properties which make it potentially beneficial against lung injury. We hypothesized that pretreatment with metformin preserves alveolar capillary permeability and, thus, prevents ventilator-induced lung injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-four rabbits were randomly assigned to pretreatment with metformin (250 mg/Kg body weight/day per os) or no medication for two days. Explanted lungs were perfused at constant flow rate (300 mL/min) and ventilated with injurious (peak airway pressure 23 cmH?O, tidal volume ?17 mL/Kg) or protective (peak airway pressure 11 cmH?O, tidal volume ?7 mL/Kg) settings for 1 hour. Alveolar capillary permeability was assessed by ultrafiltration coefficient, total protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in BALF.<h4>Results</h4>High-pressure ventilation of the ex-vivo lung preparation resulted in increased microvascular permeability, edema formation and microhemorrhage compared to protective ventilation. Compared to no medication, pretreatment with metformin was associated with a 2.9-fold reduction in ultrafiltration coefficient, a 2.5-fold reduction in pulmonary edema formation, lower protein concentration in BALF, lower ACE activity in BALF, and fewer histological lesions upon challenge of the lung preparation with injurious ventilation. In contrast, no differences regarding pulmonary artery pressure and BALF total cell number were noted. Administration of metformin did not impact on outcomes of lungs subjected to protective ventilation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pretreatment with metformin preserves alveolar capillary permeability and, thus, decreases the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury in this model.
Project description:Although acute lung injury contributes significantly to critical illness, resolution often occurs spontaneously via activation of incompletely understood pathways. We recently found that mechanical ventilation of mice increases the level of pulmonary adenosine, and that mice deficient for extracellular adenosine generation show increased pulmonary edema and inflammation after ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Here, we profiled the response to VILI in mice with genetic deletions of each of the 4 adenosine receptors (ARs) and found that deletion of the A2BAR gene was specifically associated with reduced survival time and increased pulmonary albumin leakage after injury. In WT mice, treatment with an A2BAR-selective antagonist resulted in enhanced pulmonary inflammation, edema, and attenuated gas exchange, while an A2BAR agonist attenuated VILI. In bone marrow-chimeric A2BAR mice, although the pulmonary inflammatory response involved A2BAR signaling from bone marrow-derived cells, A2BARs located on the lung tissue attenuated VILI-induced albumin leakage and pulmonary edema. Furthermore, measurement of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) demonstrated that A2BAR signaling enhanced amiloride-sensitive fluid transport and elevation of pulmonary cAMP levels following VILI, suggesting that A2BAR agonist treatment protects by drying out the lungs. Similar enhancement of pulmonary cAMP and AFC were also observed after beta-adrenergic stimulation, a pathway known to promote AFC. Taken together, these studies reveal a role for A2BAR signaling in attenuating VILI and implicate this receptor as a potential therapeutic target during acute lung injury.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute, diffuse, inflammatory lung injury leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary oedema and loss of aerated tissue. Previous literature showed that restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS shortens time on mechanical ventilation and length of ICU-stay. However, the effect of intravenous fluid use on mortality remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between cumulative fluid balance (FB), time on mechanical ventilation and mortality in ARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective observational study. Patients were divided in four cohorts based on cumulative FB on day 7 of ICU-admission: ?0 L (Group I); 0-3.5 L (Group II); 3.5-8 L (Group III) and ?8 L (Group IV). In addition, we used cumulative FB on day 7 as continuum as a predictor of mortality. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and ventilator-free days. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality and ICU length of stay. RESULTS:Six hundred ARDS patients were included, of whom 156 (26%) died within 28 days. Patients with a higher cumulative FB on day 7 had a longer length of ICU-stay and fewer ventilator-free days on day 28. Furthermore, after adjusting for severity of illness, a higher cumulative FB was associated with 28-day mortality (Group II, adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1 [1.0-4.6], p = 0.045; Group III, aOR 3.3 [1.7-7.2], p = 0.001; Group IV, aOR 7.9 [4.0-16.8], p<0.001). Using restricted cubic splines, a non-linear dose-response relationship between cumulative FB and probability of death at day 28 was found; where a more positive FB predicted mortality and a negative FB showed a trend towards survival. CONCLUSIONS:A higher cumulative fluid balance is independently associated with increased risk of death, longer time on mechanical ventilation and longer length of ICU-stay in patients with ARDS. This underlines the importance of implementing restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS patients.
Project description:Conservative fluid management increases ventilator-free days without influencing overall mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (a marker of ventricular filling) or aldosterone (a marker of effective circulating volume) may identify patients for whom fluid management impacts survival.This was a retrospective analysis of the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT), a randomized trial comparing conservative with liberal fluid management in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Using plasma collected at study enrollment, we measured B-type natriuretic peptide and aldosterone by immunoassay. Multivariable analyses examined the interaction between B-type natriuretic peptide or aldosterone concentration and fluid strategy with regard to 60-day in-hospital mortality.Among 625 patients with adequate plasma, median B-type natriuretic peptide concentration was 825 pg/mL (interquartile range, 144-1,574 pg/mL), and median aldosterone was 2.49 ng/dL (interquartile range, 1.1-4.3 ng/dL). B-type natriuretic peptide did not predict overall mortality, correlate with fluid balance, or modify the effect of conservative vs liberal fluid management on outcomes. In contrast, among patients with lower aldosterone concentrations, conservative fluid management increased ventilator-free days (17.1 ± 9.8 vs 12.5 ± 10.3, P < .001) and decreased mortality (19% vs 30%, P = .03) (P value for interaction = .01).In acute respiratory distress syndrome, B-type natriuretic peptide does not modify the effect of fluid management on outcomes. Lower initial aldosterone appears to identify patients for whom conservative fluid management may improve mortality.
Project description:In the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (NCT00281268), adults with acute lung injury randomized to a conservative vs. liberal fluid management protocol had increased days alive and free of mechanical ventilator support (ventilator-free days). Recruiting sufficient children with acute lung injury into a pediatric trial is challenging. A Bayesian statistical approach relies on the adult trial for the a priori effect estimate, requiring fewer patients. Preparing for a Bayesian pediatric trial mirroring the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial, we aimed to: 1) identify an inverse association between fluid balance and ventilator-free days; and 2) determine if fluid balance over time is more similar to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial liberal or conservative arms.Multicentered retrospective cohort study.Five pediatric intensive care units.Mechanically ventilated children (age?1 month to <18 yrs) with acute lung injury admitted in 2007-2010.None.Fluid intake, output, and net fluid balance were collected on days 1-7 in 168 children with acute lung injury (median age 3 yrs, median PaO2/FIO2 138) and weight-adjusted (mL/kg). Using multivariable linear regression to adjust for age, gender, race, admission day illness severity, PaO2/FIO2, and vasopressor use, increasing cumulative fluid balance (mL/kg) on day 3 was associated with fewer ventilator-free days (p=.02). Adjusted for weight, daily fluid balance on days 1-3 and cumulative fluid balance on days 1-7 were higher in these children compared to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial conservative arm (p<.001, each day) and was similar to adults in the liberal arm.Increasing fluid balance on day 3 in children with acute lung injury at these centers is independently associated with fewer ventilator-free days. Our findings and the similarity of fluid balance patterns in our cohort to adults in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial liberal arm demonstrate the need to determine whether a conservative fluid management strategy improves clinical outcomes in children with acute lung injury and support a Bayesian trial mirroring the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus results in an attenuated inflammatory response, reduces pulmonary microvascular permeability, and may decrease the risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Studies have shown that patients with ARDS are better managed by a conservative as compared to liberal fluid management strategy. However, it is not known if the same fluid management principles hold true for patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus and ARDS.As diabetes mellitus results in reduced pulmonary microvascular permeability and an attenuated inflammatory response, we hypothesize that in the setting of ARDS, diabetic patients will be able to tolerate a positive fluid balance better than patients without diabetes.The Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) randomized patients with ARDS to conservative versus liberal fluid management strategies. In a secondary analysis of this trial, we calculated the interaction of diabetic status and differing fluid strategies on outcomes. Propensity score subclassification matching was used to control for the differing baseline characteristics between patients with and without diabetes.Nine hundred fifty-six patients were analyzed. In a propensity score matched analysis, the difference in the effect of a conservative as compared to liberal fluid management strategy on ventilator free days was 2.23 days (95% CI: -0.97 to 5.43 days) in diabetic patients, and 2.37 days (95% CI: -0.21 to 4.95 days) in non-diabetic patients. The difference in the effect of a conservative as compared to liberal fluid management on 60 day mortality was 2% (95% CI: -11.8% to 15.8%) in diabetic patients, and -7.9% (95% CI: -21.7% to 5.9%) in non-diabetic patients.When comparing a conservative fluid management strategy to a liberal fluid management strategy, diabetic patients with ARDS did not have a statistically significant difference in outcomes than non-diabetic patients.
Project description:In the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) of the National Institutes of Health Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network, a conservative fluid protocol (FACTT Conservative) resulted in a lower cumulative fluid balance and better outcomes than a liberal fluid protocol (FACTT Liberal). Subsequent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network studies used a simplified conservative fluid protocol (FACTT Lite). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of FACTT Lite, FACTT Conservative, and FACTT Liberal protocols.Retrospective comparison of FACTT Lite, FACTT Conservative, and FACTT Liberal. Primary outcome was cumulative fluid balance over 7 days. Secondary outcomes were 60-day adjusted mortality and ventilator-free days through day 28. Safety outcomes were prevalence of acute kidney injury and new shock.ICUs of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network participating hospitals.Five hundred three subjects managed with FACTT Conservative, 497 subjects managed with FACTT Liberal, and 1,124 subjects managed with FACTT Lite.Fluid management by protocol.Cumulative fluid balance was 1,918 ± 323 mL in FACTT Lite, -136 ± 491 mL in FACTT Conservative, and 6,992 ± 502 mL in FACTT Liberal (p < 0.001). Mortality was not different between groups (24% in FACTT Lite, 25% in FACTT Conservative and Liberal, p = 0.84). Ventilator-free days in FACTT Lite (14.9 ± 0.3) were equivalent to FACTT Conservative (14.6 ± 0.5) (p = 0.61) and greater than in FACTT Liberal (12.1 ± 0.5, p < 0.001 vs Lite). Acute kidney injury prevalence was 58% in FACTT Lite and 57% in FACTT Conservative (p = 0.72). Prevalence of new shock in FACTT Lite (9%) was lower than in FACTT Conservative (13%) (p = 0.007 vs Lite) and similar to FACTT Liberal (11%) (p = 0.18 vs Lite).FACTT Lite had a greater cumulative fluid balance than FACTT Conservative but had equivalent clinical and safety outcomes. FACTT Lite is an alternative to FACTT Conservative for fluid management in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.