Nonspecific Feelings Expected and Experienced during or Immediately after Electroacupuncture: A Pilot Study in a Teaching Situation.
ABSTRACT: Some feelings elicited by acupuncture-type interventions are "nonspecific", interpretable as resulting from the placebo effect, our own self-healing capacities-or, indeed, the flow of qi. Expectation is thought to contribute to these nonspecific effects. Here we describe the use of two innovative 20-item questionnaires (EXPre20 and EXPost20) in a teaching situation.Respondents were acupuncture students or practitioners on electroacupuncture (EA) training courses (N = 68). EXPre20 and EXPost20 questionnaires were completed before and after receiving individualised treatment administered by colleagues. Respondents were also asked about their prior experience of EA or transcutaneous electroacupuncture stimulation (TEAS).Respondents expected significantly more items to change than not to change, but significantly fewer were experienced as changing. Increases in given questionnaire items were both expected and experienced significantly more often than decreases. "Tingling", "Relaxation", and "Relief" or "Warmth" were most often expected to increase or were experienced as such, and "Pain" and "Tension" to decrease or experienced as decreasing. Expectations of change or no change were confirmed more often than not, particularly for "Tingling" and "Tension". This was not the result of the personal respondent style. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of two primary feeling clusters, "Relaxation" and "Alertness".Feelings experienced during or immediately after acupuncture-type interventions may depend both on prior experience and expectation.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) are effective in the treatment of patients with low back pain. However, there is little evidence to support the use of one intervention over the other. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.The study design is a randomized controlled trial. Patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain of more than three months duration are recruited at Rehabilitation Center of Taboao da Serra - SP (Brazil). After examination, sixty-six patients will be randomized into one of two groups: acupuncture group (AG) (n = 33) and electroacupuncture group (EG) (n = 33). Interventions will last one hour, and will happen twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary clinical outcomes will be pain intensity as measured and functional disability.quality of pain, quality of life. perception of the overall effect, depressive state, flexibility and kinesiophobia. All the outcomes will be assessed will be assessed at baseline, at treatment end, and three months after treatment end. Significance level will be determined at the 5 % level. Results of this trial will help clarify the value of acupuncture and electroacupuncture as a treatment for chronic low back pain and if they are different.Results of this trial will help clarify the value of acupuncture needling and electroacupuncture stimulation of specific points on the body as a treatment for chronic low back pain.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02039037 . Register October 30, 2013.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) on adrenocortical function in patients with etomidate anesthesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly divided 80 patients who underwent elective surgery into 4 groups: group etomidate (ETO), group etomidate + electroacupuncture (ETO+EA), group etomidate + sham acupuncture (ETO+SEA), and group propofol (PRO). The patients in group ETO, ETO+EA, and ETO+SEA were induced with etomidate and sufentanil and maintained with intravenous infusion of etomidate and remifentanil. Group PRO was induced with propofol and sufentanil and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. Group ETO+EA received electro-acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli and Sanyinjiao throughout the operation, while group ETO+SEA received electro-acupuncture stimulation at non-acupoints. We recorded the values of MAP, HR, BIS, CVP, cortisol, ACTH, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and arterial blood gas during the perioperative period. RESULTS: Cortisol concentrations were significantly higher at all times except T0 in group ETO+EA compared with group ETO. The ACTH concentrations were lower in group ETO+EA than that in group ETO at point T3. CONCLUSIONS: Electroacupuncture at ST 36 and SP 6 can mitigate the adrenal cortical inhibition induced by etomidate and can reduce the secretion of catecholamines during surgery.
Project description:Acupuncture has been shown to reduce pain, and acupuncture-induced sensation may be important for this analgesia. In addition, cognitive coping strategies can influence sensory perception. However, the role of coping strategy on acupuncture modulation of pain and sensory thresholds, and the association between acupuncture sensation and these modulatory effects, is currently unknown.Electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at acupoints ST36 and GB39 of 61 healthy adults. Different coping conditions were experimentally designed to form an active coping strategy group (AC group), who thought they could control EA stimulation intensity, and a passive coping strategy group (PC group), who did not think they had such control. Importantly, neither group was actually able to control EA stimulus intensity. Quantitative sensory testing was performed before and after EA, and consisted of vibration (VDT), mechanical (MDT), warm (WDT), and cold (CDT) detection thresholds, and pressure (PPT), mechanical (MPT), heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds. Autonomic measures (e.g. skin conductance response, SCR) were also acquired to quantify physiological response to EA under different coping conditions. Subjects also reported the intensity of any acupuncture-induced sensations.Coping strategy was induced with successful blinding in 58% of AC subjects. Compared to PC, AC showed greater SCR to EA. Under AC, EA reduced PPT and CPT. In the AC group, improved pain and sensory thresholds were correlated with acupuncture sensation (VDTchange vs. MI: r=0.58, CDTchange vs. tingling: r=0.53, CPTchange vs. tingling; r=0.55, CPTchange vs. dull; r=0.55). However, in the PC group, improved sensory thresholds were negatively correlated with acupuncture sensation (CDTchange vs. intensity sensitization: r=-0.52, WDTchange vs. fullness: r=-0.57).Our novel approach was able to successfully induce AC and PC strategies to EA stimulation. The interaction between psychological coping strategy and acupuncture sensation intensity can differentially modulate pain and sensory detection threshold response to EA. In a clinical context, our findings suggest that instructions given to the patient can significantly affect therapeutic outcomes and the relationship between acupuncture intensity and clinical response. Specifically, acupuncture analgesia can be enhanced by matching physical stimulation intensity with psychological coping strategy to acupuncture contexts.KCT0000905.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Electroacupuncture has been used for treatment in patients with overactive bladder. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for treating overactive bladder of postmenopausal women. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a multicenter, randomized controlled, parallel clinical trial. Two hundred ninety participants with overactive bladder syndrome will be recruited from Dongguk University Bundang Oriental Hospital and Cheonan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University and randomly allocated into one of two groups in a 1:1 ratio. One group will receive electroacupuncture (EA) and the other acupuncture (AC). The allocation will be concealed from both participants and assessors. The study period will be about 10 weeks, including 6 weeks of electroacupuncture or acupuncture treatment and a four week follow-up period. Both EA group and AT group will undergo acupuncture at 7 fixed points, and the EA group will undergo electronic stimulation at 6 points. The primary outcome will be the average number of micturitions per 24 h based on a 3-day bladder diary. The secondary outcome will comprise the 3-day bladder diary, the overactive bladder symptom score and the results of the King's health questionnaire. DISCUSSION:The results of this trial will provide information regarding the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for treating overactive bladder in postmenopausal women. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03260907 . Registered on 24 August 2017.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Chronic pain is a leading cause of disability and remains under-treated in nearly half of patients with cancer. The opioid crisis has highlighted an urgent public health need for effective nonpharmacological pain management. Electroacupuncture (EA) and Battlefield Acupuncture (BFA) represent nonpharmacological modalities used in clinical practice to manage pain; however, their effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated in oncology settings. METHODS:We describe the design of a 3-arm, parallel, single-center, multisite randomized controlled trial that investigates EA and BFA versus usual-care wait-list control (WLC) for chronic musculoskeletal pain among 360 patients with diverse cancer types across various stages. The primary aim is to compare effects of EA and BFA versus WLC on pain, physical function, and co-morbid symptoms. The secondary aim is to examine the interaction between patient outcome expectancy and acupuncture modality (EA vs BFA) on pain reduction. The tertiary aim is to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms and responses to acupuncture. Patients will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to EA:BFA:WLC. Acupuncture groups will receive weekly treatments over 10 weeks. WLC will receive usual care over the same evaluation period as the acupuncture groups. The primary endpoint will be the change in average pain intensity score from baseline to week 12. We will collect validated patient-reported outcomes and blood/saliva samples at multiple timepoints over 24 weeks. DISCUSSION:Our findings will advance nonpharmacological pain management in oncology and inform personalized treatment approaches that integrate individuals' expectations and genetic biomarkers to deliver "precision" acupuncture to cancer patients with chronic pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02979574.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that acupuncture can alleviate postmenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes, but few studies have assessed symptoms during the menopausal transition (MT) period. Thus, the effect of acupuncture upon MT symptoms is unclear. We designed a large-scale trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms compared with sham electroacupuncture and at observing the safety of electroacupuncture.In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 360 women will be randomized to either an electroacupuncture group or a sham electroacupuncture group. During the 8-week-long treatment, a menopause rating scale, average 24-hour hot flash score, Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire score, and level of female hormones will be observed. Follow-ups at the 20th and 32nd week will be made.Though there is no completely inert placebo acupuncture and blinding is difficult in acupuncture trials, the placebo effect of EA can still be partially excluded in this study. For the placebo control, we use non-points and a tailor-made sham needle. This needle is different from a retractable needle, which is usually used for sham acupuncture. The needle in this trial is more simply constructed and more acceptable to Chinese people. We expect to evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture for MT symptoms and clarify its effect on these symptoms.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01849172 (Date of registration: 05/05/2013).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, which is the world's most common form of dementia. It is important to identify early and easily available interventions to delay the progression of MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Acupuncture has been reported to improve the clinical outcomes of MCI treatment. Acupuncture is a complex intervention, involving both specific and non-specific factors associated with therapeutic benefits. Therefore, we intend to obtain basic data for developing an optimal acupuncture treatment for MCI by comparing the effects of different acupuncture treatment methods on cognitive function in MCI patients. METHODS:This study will be a prospective, outcome-assessor-blinded, parallel-arm, single-center (DongShin University Gwangju Korean Medicine Hospital, Republic of Korea), randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-two participants with MCI will be randomized in equal numbers to four groups (basic acupuncture (BA), acupoint specificity (AS), needle duration (ND), or electroacupuncture (EA)) and receive acupuncture treatment once per day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The BA and ND groups will receive acupuncture treatment for 30 and 20 min, respectively, at Baihui (GV20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Fengchi (GB20), and Shenting (GV24). The EA group will receive electroacupuncture treatment at the same acupoints for 30 min. The AS group will receive acupuncture treatment at GV20, EX-HN1, GB20, GV24, and Taixi (KI3) for 30 min. The outcome measured will be scores on the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, the Korean Activities of Daily Living scale, the Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and the European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level scale. All scores will be recorded before intervention, 8 weeks after the first intervention, and 12 weeks after completing the intervention. DISCUSSION:Four acupuncture protocols will be assessed and compared as potential MCI treatments. This study is expected to provide data to be used in developing an optimal acupuncture method for MCI treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Information Service, KCT0003430 . Registered on 16 January 2019. http://cris.nih.go.kr ).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) for postoperative pain after laparoscopic appendectomy compared with sham electroacupuncture (SEA) and no acupuncture treatment. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study is a protocol for a three-arm, randomised, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of acupuncture treatment), controlled, parallel trial. 138 participants diagnosed with appendicitis and scheduled for laparoscopic appendectomy will be randomly assigned to the EA group (n=46), SEA group (n=46) or control group (n=46). The EA group will receive acupuncture treatment at both regional and distal acupuncture points with electrostimulation. The SEA group will receive sham acupuncture treatment with mock electrostimulation. Both EA and SEA groups will receive a total of four treatments 1?hour preoperative, 1?hour postoperative and during the morning and afternoon the day after surgery with the same routine postoperative pain control. The control group will receive only routine postoperative pain control. The primary outcome is the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 24?hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes are the PI-NRS, analgesic consumption, opioid-related side effects, time to first passing flatus, quality of life and adverse events evaluated 6, 12, 24 and 36?hours and 7 days after surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was planned in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and the Korean Good Clinical Practice Guidelines to protect the participants and was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University Medical Center (KMC IRB-1427-02). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001328).
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture as an additional treatment for residual insomnia associated with major depressive disorder (MDD).Randomized, placebo-controlled.A psychiatric outpatient clinic.78 Chinese patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed MDD, insomnia complaint, a Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS(17)) score ≤ 18, and fixed antidepressant dosage.Electroacupuncture, minimal acupuncture (superficial needling at non-acupuncture points), or noninvasive placebo acupuncture 3 sessions weekly for 3 weeks.Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), HDRS(17), 1 week sleep diaries, and 3 day actigraphy were administered at baseline, 1 week post-treatment, and 4 week post-treatment. There was significant group by time interaction in ISI, PSQI, and sleep diary-derived sleep efficiency (mixed-effects models, P = 0.04, P = 0.03, and P = 0.01, respectively). Post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture were more efficacious than placebo acupuncture in ISI and PSQI at 1 week and 4 week post-treatment. Minimal acupuncture resulted in greater improvement in sleep diary-derived sleep efficiency than placebo acupuncture at 1 week post-treatment. There was no significant between-group difference in actigraphy measures, depressive symptoms, daily functioning, and hypnotic consumption, and no difference in any measures between electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture.Compared with placebo acupuncture, electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture resulted in greater improvement in subjective sleep measures at 1 week and 4 week post-treatment. No significant difference was found between electroacupuncture and minimal acupuncture, suggesting that the observed differences could be due to nonspecific effects of needling, regardless of whether it is done according to traditional Chinese medicine theory.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs in 68.1% of patients within the first month of undergoing chemotherapy; however, standardized treatment for CIPN has not been established yet. The efficacy of acupuncture, a widely used treatment for CIPN in South Korea, has not been studied sufficiently. This study aimed to review the studies that evaluated the efficacy of acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) in treating CIPN. METHODS:A literature search was performed on relevant international databases - MEDLINE, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Databases, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure - as well as Korean databases - the National Digital Science Library, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, DBpia, and Korean Studies Information Service System. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that aimed to treat CIPN symptoms with acupuncture or EA and set not only a control group with a conventional pharmacological treatment or injection, but also a placebo control or sham-acupuncture group, were included. Meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the efficacy of acupuncture/EA on the basis of symptom score. RESULTS:Of the 13 studies included in the literature review, 12 RCTs compared acupuncture and pharmacological treatments. There were 3 EA RCTs, but only 1 RCT compared EA and sham-EA. A total of 832 participants were included in these studies. Five RCTs showed that acupuncture was more effective than pharmacological treatment in terms of efficacy rate. Regarding the risk of bias summary, the quality of included studies was poor. Only 1 study compared the efficacy of EA and sham EA; therefore, the specific efficacy of acupuncture could not be elucidated. CONCLUSION:Acupuncture is safe, but the symptom-alleviating effect on CIPN can hardly be determined because of methodological deficiencies of the included studies. In terms of the clinical efficacy rate, acupuncture was more effective than conventional pharmacological treatments. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018111509.