Genetic Diagnosis of Chromosomal Congenital Anomalies in Albanian Pediatric Patients by Array CGH.
ABSTRACT: AIM:The aim of our study was to identify chromosomal imbalances by whole-genome microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in DNA samples of children in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. The present paper describes the first Albanian experience of an array CGH application. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The cohort included seven children with developmental delay or intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism and congenital anomalies according to clinical criteria, suggestive of chromosomal anomalies. The age range was from newborn to five years old. The cytogenetic analysis determined by a standard method of G-banding according to the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN 2005) was performed for all our patients, while array CGH was performed on genomic DNA isolated from the blood of 7 cases. RESULTS:Among the seven patients analysed with array CGH, three patients resulted in duplication and one deletion, one patient with a microdeletion and three patients with duplication. Array CGH facilitated the recognition of submicroscopic deletions and duplications as risk factors for genetic diagnosis in all our patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our case series with congenital chromosomal anomalies confirms the high diagnostic value of the method, as suggested by previous studies. The technique must be available also in less developed countries, to significantly improve the genetic diagnosis of paediatric patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability, congenital anomalies and dysmorphic features. The identification of chromosomal abnormalities in these patients and the genetic counselling will provide family members with an explanation for their child's developmental disability or birth defect, allowing better information about recurrence risks, and permit the anticipation of certain medical problems that require intervention.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been repeatedly shown to be a successful tool for the identification of genomic variations in a clinical population. During the last decade, the implementation of array CGH has resulted in the identification of new causative submicroscopic chromosome imbalances and copy number variations (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric (neurobehavioral) diseases. Currently, array-CGH-based technologies have become an integral part of molecular diagnosis and research in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders and children with intellectual disability (mental retardation) and congenital anomalies. Here, we introduce the Russian cohort of children with intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies analyzed by BAC array CGH and a novel bioinformatic strategy. RESULTS: Among 54 individuals highly selected according to clinical criteria and molecular and cytogenetic data (from 2426 patients evaluated cytogenetically and molecularly between November 2007 and May 2012), chromosomal imbalances were detected in 26 individuals (48%). In two patients (4%), a previously undescribed condition was observed. The latter has been designated as meiotic (constitutional) genomic instability resulted in multiple submicroscopic rearrangements (including CNVs). Using bioinformatic strategy, we were able to identify clinically relevant CNVs in 15 individuals (28%). Selected cases were confirmed by molecular cytogenetic and molecular genetic methods. Eight out of 26 chromosomal imbalances (31%) have not been previously reported. Among them, three cases were co-occurrence of subtle chromosome 9 and 21 deletions. CONCLUSIONS: We conducted an array CGH study of Russian patients suffering from intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. In total, phenotypic manifestations of clinically relevant genomic variations were found to result from genomic rearrangements affecting 1247 disease-causing and pathway-involved genes. Obviously, a significantly lesser part of them are true candidates for intellectual disability, autism or epilepsy. The success of our preliminary array CGH and bioinformatic study allows us to expand the cohort. According to the available literature, this is the first comprehensive array CGH evaluation of a Russian cohort of children with neuropsychiatric disorders and congenital anomalies.
Project description:AIM:To determine the diagnostic yield and criteria that could help to classify and interpret the copy number variations (CNVs) detected by chromosomal microarray (CMA) technique in patients with congenital and developmental abnormalities including dysmorphia, developmental delay (DD) or intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and congenital anomalies (CA). METHOD:CMA analysis was performed in 337 patients with DD/ID with or without dysmorphism, ASD, and/or CA. In 30 of 337 patients, chromosomal imbalances had previously been detected by classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic methods. RESULTS:In 73 of 337 patients, clinically relevant variants were detected and better characterized. Most of them were >1 Mb. Variants of unknown clinical significance (VOUS) were discovered in 35 patients. The most common VOUS size category was <300 kb (40.5%). Deletions and de novo imbalances were more frequent in pathogenic CNV than in VOUS category. CMA had a high diagnostic yield of 43/307, excluding patients previously detected by other methods. CONCLUSION:CMA was valuable in establishing the diagnosis in a high proportion of patients. Criteria for classification and interpretation of CNVs include CNV size and type, mode of inheritance, and genotype-phenotype correlation. Agilent ISCA v2 Human Genome 8x60 K oligonucleotide microarray format proved to be reasonable resolution for clinical use, particularly in the regions that are recommended by the International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium and associated with well-established syndromes.
Project description:In 65 patients, who had unexplained ocular developmental anomalies (ODAs) with at least one other birth defect and/or intellectual disability, we performed oligonucleotide comparative genome hybridisation-based microarray analysis (array-CGH; 105A or 180K, Agilent Technologies). In four patients, array-CGH identified clinically relevant deletions encompassing a gene known to be involved in ocular development (FOXC1 or OTX2). In four other patients, we found three pathogenic deletions not classically associated with abnormal ocular morphogenesis, namely, del(17)(p13.3p13.3), del(10)(p14p15.3), and del(16)(p11.2p11.2). We also detected copy number variations of uncertain pathogenicity in two other patients. Rearranged segments ranged in size from 0.04 to 5.68?Mb. These results show that array-CGH provides a high diagnostic yield (15%) in patients with syndromal ODAs and can identify previously unknown chromosomal regions associated with these conditions. In addition to their importance for diagnosis and genetic counselling, these data may help identify genes involved in ocular development.
Project description:We used whole-genome exon-targeted oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in a cohort of 256 patients with developmental delay (DD)/intellectual disability (ID) with or without dysmorphic features, additional neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and/or congenital malformations. In 69 patients, we identified 84 non-polymorphic copy-number variants, among which 41 are known to be clinically relevant, including two recently described deletions, 4q21.21q21.22 and 17q24.2. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed also 15 potentially pathogenic changes, including three rare deletions, 5q35.3, 10q21.3, and 13q12.11. Additionally, we found 28 copy-number variants of unknown clinical significance. Our results further support the notion that copy-number variants significantly contribute to the genetic etiology of DD/ID and emphasize the efficacy of the detection of novel candidate genes for neurodevelopmental disorders by whole-genome array CGH.
Project description:Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental condition caused by a recurrent chromosomal microdeletion involving about 28 contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Most patients display a specific congenital heart defect, characteristic facial features, a particular behavior, and intellectual disability. Cases from sub-Saharan Africa have been seldom reported. The present study describes 3 Cameroonian patients affected by WBS, aged 19 months, 13 and 14 years, in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The first patient presented with a congenital heart defect, the second and third with learning difficulties as well as developmental and behavioral issues. In the latter 2 cases, the facial phenotypes were similar to those of the unaffected population with the same ethnic background. However, the cardiovascular anomalies and friendly behavioral attitudes led to suspicion of WBS. FISH revealed the deletion of the WBS critical region in the first patient, and array-CGH detected a heterozygous ∼1.4-Mb deletion in the 7q11.23 region in the second and third patient. This preliminary report suggests that for sub-Saharan Africans clinical suspicion of WBS could be mostly based on behavioral phenotype and structural heart defects, and less on the classical facial dysmorphic signs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Intellectual disability affects approximately 1 to 3% of the general population. The etiology is still poorly understood and it is estimated that one-half of the cases are due to genetic factors. Cryptic subtelomeric aberrations have been found in roughly 5 to 7% of all cases. METHODS:We performed a subtelomeric FISH analysis on 76 unrelated children with normal standard karyotype ascertained by developmental delay or intellectual disability, associated with congenital malformations, and/or facial dysmorphisms. RESULTS:Ten cryptic chromosomal anomalies have been identified in the whole cohort (13,16%), 8 in the group of patients characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability associated with congenital malformations and facial dysmorphisms, 2 in patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability and facial dysmorphisms only. CONCLUSION:We demonstrate that a careful clinical examination is a very useful tool for pre-selection of patients for genomic analysis, clearly enhancing the chromosomal anomaly detection rate. Clinical features of most of these patients are consistent with the corresponding emerging chromosome phenotypes, pointing out these new clinical syndromes associated with specific genomic imbalances.
Project description:Individuals with ring chromosome 13 may show characteristics observed in a deletion syndrome and could present a set of dismorphies along with intellectual disability, according to chromosomal segments involved in the genetic imbalance. Nevertheless, ring anomalies likewise is called "dynamic mosaicism", phenomena triggered by the inner instability concerning the ring structure, thus leading to the establishment of different cell clones with secondary aberrations. Phenotypic features, such as growth failure and other anomalies in patients with this condition have been associated with an inherent ring chromosome mitotic instability, while recent studies offer evidence on a role played by the differential loss of genes implicated in development. Here, we observed similar mosaicism rates and specific gene loss profile among three individuals with ring chromosome 13 using GTW-banding karyotype analyses along with FISH and CGH-array approaches. Karyotypes results were: patient 1-r(13)(p13q32.3), patient 2-r(13)(p11q33.3), and patient 3-r(13)(p12q31.1). Array-CGH has revealed qualitative genetic differences among patients in this study and it was elusive in precise chromosomal loss statement, ranging from 13?Mb, 6.8?Mb, and 30?Mb in size. MIR17HG and ZIC2 loss was observed in a patient with digital anomalies, severe growth failure, microcephaly and corpus callosum agenesis while hemizygotic EFNB2 gene loss was identified in two patients, one of them with microphtalmia. According to these findings, it can be concluded that specific hemizygotic loss of genes related to development, more than dynamic mosaicism, may be causative of congenital anomalies shown in patients with ring 13 chromosome.
Project description:Cat-eye syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome of chromosomal origin. Individuals with cat-eye syndrome are characterized by the presence of preauricular pits and/or tags, anal atresia, and iris coloboma. Many reported cases also presented with variable congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. Most patients diagnosed with CES carry a small supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome, resulting in partial tetrasomy of 22p-22q11.21. There are two types of small supernumerary marker chromosome, depending on the breakpoint site. In a very small proportion of cases, other cytogenetic anomalies are reportedly associated with the cat-eye syndrome phenotype. Here, we report a patient with cat-eye syndrome caused by a type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. The phenotype was atypical and included a severe developmental delay. The use of array comparative genomic hybridization ruled out the involvement of another chromosomal imbalance in the neurological phenotype. In the literature, only a few patients with cat-eye syndrome present with a severe developmental delay, and all of the latter carried an atypical partial trisomy 22 or an uncharacterized small supernumerary marker chromosome. Hence, this is the first report of a severe neurological phenotype in cat-eye syndrome with a typical type 1 small supernumerary marker chromosome. Our observation clearly complicates prognostic assessment, particularly when cat-eye syndrome is diagnosed prenatally.
Project description:Poland Syndrome (PS) is a rare congenital disorder presenting with agenesis/hypoplasia of the pectoralis major muscle variably associated with thoracic and/or upper limb anomalies. Most cases are sporadic, but familial recurrence, with different inheritance patterns, has been observed. The genetic etiology of PS remains unknown. Karyotyping and array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses can identify genomic imbalances that can clarify the genetic etiology of congenital and neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously reported a chromosome 11 deletion in twin girls with pectoralis muscle hypoplasia and skeletal anomalies, and a chromosome six deletion in a patient presenting a complex phenotype that included pectoralis muscle hypoplasia. However, the contribution of genomic imbalances to PS remains largely unknown.To investigate the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances in PS, standard cytogenetic and array-CGH analyses were performed in 120 PS patients.Following the application of stringent filter criteria, 14 rare copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in 14 PS patients in different regions outside known common copy number variations: seven genomic duplications and seven genomic deletions, enclosing the two previously reported PS associated chromosomal deletions. These CNVs ranged from 0.04 to 4.71 Mb in size. Bioinformatic analysis of array-CGH data indicated gene enrichment in pathways involved in cell-cell adhesion, DNA binding and apoptosis processes. The analysis also provided a number of candidate genes possibly causing the developmental defects observed in PS patients, among others REV3L, a gene coding for an error-prone DNA polymerase previously associated with Möbius Syndrome with variable phenotypes including pectoralis muscle agenesis.A number of rare CNVs were identified in PS patients, and these involve genes that represent candidates for further evaluation. Rare inherited CNVs may contribute to, or represent risk factors of PS in a multifactorial mode of inheritance.
Project description:Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The International Standard Cytogenomic Array (ISCA) Consortium held two international workshops and conducted a literature review of 33 studies, including 21,698 patients tested by CMA. We provide an evidence-based summary of clinical cytogenetic testing comparing CMA to G-banded karyotyping with respect to technical advantages and limitations, diagnostic yield for various types of chromosomal aberrations, and issues that affect test interpretation. CMA offers a much higher diagnostic yield (15%-20%) for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained DD/ID, ASD, or MCA than a G-banded karyotype ( approximately 3%, excluding Down syndrome and other recognizable chromosomal syndromes), primarily because of its higher sensitivity for submicroscopic deletions and duplications. Truly balanced rearrangements and low-level mosaicism are generally not detectable by arrays, but these are relatively infrequent causes of abnormal phenotypes in this population (<1%). Available evidence strongly supports the use of CMA in place of G-banded karyotyping as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for patients with DD/ID, ASD, or MCA. G-banded karyotype analysis should be reserved for patients with obvious chromosomal syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), a family history of chromosomal rearrangement, or a history of multiple miscarriages.