Efficacies of Various Anaerobic Starter Seeds for Biogas Production from Different Types of Wastewater.
ABSTRACT: Various anaerobic starter seeds from different sources were investigated for their efficacies in treatment of different types of wastewater. Six combinations of starter seeds and wastewaters were selected out of 25 combination batch experiments and operated in semicontinuous reactors. It was noticed that the efficacies of various anaerobic starter seeds for biogas production from different types of wastewater in terms of reactor performance and stability were depended on wastewater characteristics and F/M ratio affecting microbial community and their microbial activities. However, exogenous starter seed can be used across different types of wastewater with or without acclimatization. Four reactors reached the targeted OLR of 2?kg COD/m3·d with high performance and stability except for concentrated rubber wastewater (RBw), even using high active starter seeds of cassava starch (CSs) and palm oil (POs). The toxic compounds in RBw such as ammonia and sulfate might also adversely affect methanogenic activity in CSsRBw and POsRBw reactors. DGGE analysis showed that propionate utilizers, Smithella propionica strain LYP and Syntrophus sp., were detected in all samples. For Archaea domain, methylotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and acetoclastic methanogens were also detected. Syntrophic relationships were assumed between propionate utilizers and methanogens as acetate/H2 producers and utilizers, respectively.
Project description:The impact of different concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of anaerobic treatment was evaluated. Results revealed that for all of the tested tetracycline concentrations, no major sustained impact on methane production was observed. Instead, a significant increase in propionic acid was observed in the reactor subjected to the highest concentration of tetracycline (20 mg/L). Microbial community analyses suggest that an alternative methanogenic pathway, specifically that of methanol-utilizing methanogens, may be important for ensuring the stability of methane production in the presence of high tetracycline concentrations. In addition, the accumulation of propionate was due to an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA)-producing bacteria coupled with a reduction in propionate utilizers. An increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with ribosomal protection proteins was observed after 30 days of exposure to high concentrations of tetracycline, while other targeted resistance genes showed no significant changes. These findings suggest that anaerobic treatment processes can robustly treat wastewater with varying concentrations of antibiotics while also deriving value-added products and minimizing the dissemination of associated antibiotic resistance genes.
Project description:Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been used for wastewater treatment and production of renewable energy or biogas. Propionate accumulation is one of the important problems leading to an unstable system and low methane production. Revealing propionate-degrading microbiome is necessary to gain a better knowledge for alleviation of the problem. Herein, we systematically investigated the propionate-degrading cultures enriched from various anaerobic sludge sources of agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Different microbial profiles were shown even though the methanogenic activities of all cultures were similar. Interestingly, non-classical propionate-degrading key players Smithella, Syntrophomonas, and Methanosaeta were observed as common prevalent taxa in our enriched cultures. Moreover, different hydrogenotrophic methanogens were found specifically to the different sludge sources. The enriched culture of high salinity sludge showed a distinct microbial profile compared to the others, containing mainly Thermovirga, Anaerolinaceae, Methanosaeta, Syntrophobactor, and Methanospirillum. Our microbiome analysis revealed different propionate-degrading community profiles via mainly the Smithella pathway and offers inside information for microbiome manipulation in AD systems to increase biogas production corresponding to their specific microbial communities.
Project description:Ammonia accumulation is a major inhibitory substance causing anaerobic digestion upset and failure in CH4 production. At high ammonia levels, CH4 production through syntrophic acetate oxidization (SAO) pathways is more tolerant to ammonia toxicity than the acetoclastic methanogenesis pathway, but the low CH4 production rate through SAO constitutes the main reason for the low efficiency of energy recovery in anaerobic digesters treating ammonia-rich substrates. In this study, we showed that acetate fermentation to CH4 and CO2 occurred through SAO pathway in the anaerobic reactors containing a high ammonia concentration (5.0 g l-1 NH4+ -N), and the magnetite nanoparticles supplementation increased the CH4 production rates from acetate by 36-58%, compared with the anaerobic reactors without magnetite under the same ammonia level. The mechanism of facilitated methanogenesis was proposed to be the establishment of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) for SAO, in which magnetite facilitated DIET between syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria and methanogens. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that the bacterial Geobacteraceae and the archaeal Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriaceae might be involved in magnetite-mediated DIET for SAO and CH4 production. This study demonstrated that magnetite supplementation might provide an effective approach to accelerate CH4 production rates in the anaerobic reactors treating wastewater containing high ammonia.
Project description:Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a "macro"-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater. Thus, typical approaches may be oversimplifying the complexity of the microbial ecology and granular development. To identify critical microbial interactions at both macro- and micro- level ecosystem ecology, we perform community and network analyses on 300 PTA-degrading granules from a lab-scale UASB reactor and two full-scale reactors. Based on MiSeq-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of individual granules, different granule-types co-exist in both full-scale reactors regardless of granule size and reactor sampling depth, suggesting that distinct microbial interactions occur in different granules throughout the reactor. In addition, we identify novel networks of syntrophic metabolic interactions in different granules, perhaps caused by distinct thermodynamic conditions. Moreover, unseen methanogenic relationships (e.g. "Candidatus Aminicenantes" and Methanosaeta) are observed in UASB reactors. In total, we discover unexpected microbial interactions in granular micro-ecosystems supporting UASB ecology and treatment through a unique single-granule level approach.
Project description:We studied the peptide-degrading anaerobic communities of methanogenic reactors from two mesophilic full-scale modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating brewery wastewater in Colombia. Most probable number (MPN) counts varied between 7.1 x 10(8) and 6.6 × 10(9) bacteria/g volatile suspended solids VSS (Methanogenic Reactor 1) and 7.2 × 10(6) and 6.4 × 10(7) bacteria/g (VSS) (Methanogenic Reactor 2). Metabolites detected in the highest positive MPN dilutions in both reactors were mostly acetate, propionate, isovalerate and, in some cases, negligible concentrations of butyrate. Using the highest positive dilutions of MPN counts, 50 dominant strains were isolated from both reactors, and 12 strains were selected for sequencing their 16S rRNA gene based on their phenotypic characteristics. The small-subunit rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains were affiliated to the families Propionibacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae and Syntrophomonadaceae in the low G + C gram-positive group and Desulfovibrio spp. in the class ?-Proteobacteria. The main metabolites detected in the highest positive dilutions of MPN and the presence of Syntrophomonadaceae indicate the effect of the syntrophic associations on the bioconversion of these substrates in methanogenic reactors. Additionally, the potential utilization of external electron acceptors for the complete degradation of amino acids by Clostridium strains confirms the relevance of these acceptors in the transformation of peptides and amino acids in these systems.
Project description:Background:Methanogenic archaea are of importance to the global C-cycle and to biological methane (CH4) production through anaerobic digestion and pure culture. Here, the individual and combined effects of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), acetate, and propionate on the metabolism of the autotrophic, hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis S2 were investigated. Cu, Zn, acetate, and propionate may interfere directly and indirectly with the acetyl-CoA synthesis and biological CH4 production. Thus, these compounds can compromise or improve the performance of M. maripaludis, an organism which can be applied as biocatalyst in the carbon dioxide (CO2)-based biological CH4 production (CO2-BMP) process or of methanogenic organisms applied in anaerobic digestion. Results:Here, we show that Cu concentration of 1.9 µmol L-1 reduced growth of M. maripaludis, whereas 4.4 and 6.3 µmol L-1 of Cu even further retarded biomass production. However, 1.0 mmol L-1 of Zn enhanced growth, but at Zn concentrations >?2.4 mmol L-1 no growth could be observed. When both, Cu and Zn, were supplemented to the medium, growth and CH4 production could even be observed at the highest tested concentration of Cu (6.3 µmol L-1). Hence, it seems that the addition of 1 mmol L-1 of Zn enhanced the ability of M. maripaludis to counteract the toxic effect of Cu. The physiological effect to rising concentrations of acetate (12.2, 60.9, 121.9 mmol L-1) and/or propionate (10.3, 52.0, 104.1 mmol L-1) was also investigated. When instead of acetate 10.3 mmol L-1 propionate was provided in the growth medium, M. maripaludis could grow without reduction of the specific growth rate (µ) or the specific CH4 productivity (qCH4). A combination of inorganic and/or organic compounds resulted in an increase of µ and qCH4 for Zn/Cu and Zn/acetate beyond the values that were observed if only the individual concentrations of Zn, Cu, acetate were used. Conclusions:Our study sheds light on the physiological effect of VFAs and heavy metals on M. maripaludis. Differently from µ and qCH4, MER was not influenced by the presence of these compounds. This indicated that each of these compounds directly interacted with the C-fixation machinery of M. maripaludis. Until now, the uptake of VFAs other than acetate was not considered to enhance growth and CH4 production of methanogens. The finding of propionate uptake by M. maripaludis is important for the interpretation of VFA cycling in anaerobic microenvironments. Due to the importance of methanogens in natural and artificial anaerobic environments, our results help to enhance the understanding the physiological and biotechnological importance with respect to anaerobic digestion, anaerobic wastewater treatment, and CO2-BMP. Finally, we propose a possible mechanism for acetate uptake into M. maripaludis supported by in silico analyses.
Project description:Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) degradation is an important process in methanogenic ecosystems, and is usually catalyzed by SCFA-oxidizing bacteria in syntrophy with methanogens. Current knowledge of this functional guild is mainly based on isolates or enrichment cultures, but these may not reflect the true diversity and in situ activities of the syntrophs predominating in full-scale systems. Here we obtained 182 medium to high quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the microbiome of two full-scale anaerobic digesters. The transcriptomic response of individual MAG was studied after stimulation with low concentrations of acetate, propionate, or butyrate, separately. The most pronounced response to butyrate was observed for two MAGs of the recently described genus Candidatus Phosphitivorax (phylum Desulfobacterota), expressing a butyrate beta-oxidation pathway. For propionate, the largest response was observed for an MAG of a novel genus in the family Pelotomaculaceae, transcribing a methylmalonyl-CoA pathway. All three species were common in anaerobic digesters at Danish wastewater treatment plants as shown by amplicon analysis, and this is the first time their syntrophic features involved in SCFA oxidation were revealed with transcriptomic evidence. Further, they also possessed unique genomic features undescribed in well-characterized syntrophs, including the metabolic pathways for phosphite oxidation, nitrite and sulfate reduction.
Project description:Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are widely considered as a next generation wastewater treatment system. However, fundamental insight on the temporal dynamics of microbial communities associated with MEC performance under different organic types with varied loading concentrations is still unknown, nevertheless this knowledge is essential for optimizing this technology for real-scale applications. Here, the temporal dynamics of anodic microbial communities associated with MEC performance was examined at low (0.5 g COD/L) and high (4 g COD/L) concentrations of acetate or propionate, which are important intermediates of fermentation of municipal wastewaters and sludge. The results showed that acetate-fed reactors exhibited higher performance in terms of maximum current density (I: 4.25 ± 0.23 A/m2), coulombic efficiency (CE: 95 ± 8%), and substrate degradation rate (98.8 ± 1.2%) than propionate-fed reactors (I: 2.7 ± 0.28 A/m2; CE: 68 ± 9.5%; substrate degradation rate: 84 ± 13%) irrespective of the concentrations tested. Despite of the repeated sampling of the anodic biofilm over time, the high-concentration reactors demonstrated lower and stable performance in terms of current density (I: 1.1 ± 0.14 to 4.2 ± 0.21 A/m2), coulombic efficiency (CE: 44 ± 4.1 to 103 ± 7.2%) and substrate degradation rate (64.9 ± 6.3 to 99.7 ± 0.5%), while the low-concentration reactors produced higher and dynamic performance (I: 1.1 ± 0.12 to 4.6 ± 0.1 A/m2; CE: 52 ± 2.5 to 105 ± 2.7%; substrate degradation rate: 87.2 ± 0.2 to 99.9 ± 0.06%) with the different substrates tested. Correlating reactor's performance with temporal dynamics of microbial communities showed that relatively similar anodic microbial community composition but with varying relative abundances was observed in all the reactors despite differences in the substrate and concentrations tested. Particularly, Geobacter was the predominant bacteria on the anode biofilm of all MECs over time suggesting its possible role in maintaining functional stability of MECs fed with low and high concentrations of acetate and propionate. Taken together, these results provide new insights on the microbial community dynamics and its correlation to performance in MECs fed with different concentrations of acetate and propionate, which are important volatile fatty acids in wastewater.
Project description:In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products.
Project description:Background:Biomethanation is a promising solution to upgrade the CH4 content in biogas. This process consists in the injection of H2 into an anaerobic digester, using the capacity of indigenous hydrogenotrophic methanogens for converting the injected H2 and the CO2 generated from the anaerobic digestion process into CH4. However, the injection of H2 could cause process disturbances by impacting the microbial communities of the anaerobic digester. Better understanding on how the indigenous microbial community can adapt to high H2 partial pressures is therefore required. Results:Seven microbial inocula issued from industrial bioprocesses treating different types of waste were exposed to a high H2 partial pressure in semi-continuous reactors. After 12 days of operation, even though both CH4 and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were produced as end products, one of them was the main product. Acetate was the most abundant VFA, representing up to 94% of the total VFA production. VFA accumulation strongly anti-correlated with CH4 production according to the source of inoculum. Three clusters of inocula were distinguished: (1) inocula leading to CH4 production, (2) inocula leading to the production of methane and VFA in a low proportion, and (3) inocula leading to the accumulation of mostly VFA, mainly acetate. Interestingly, VFA accumulation was highly correlated to a low proportion of archaea in the inocula, a higher amount of homoacetogens than hydrogenotrophic methanogens and, the absence or the very low abundance in members from the Methanosarcinales order. The best methanogenic performances were obtained when hydrogenotrophic methanogens and Methanosarcina sp. co-dominated all along the operation. Conclusions:New insights on the microbial community response to high H2 partial pressure are provided in this work. H2 injection in semi-continuous reactors showed a significant impact on microbial communities and their associated metabolic patterns. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens, Methanobacterium sp. or Methanoculleus sp. were highly selected in the reactors, but the presence of co-dominant Methanosarcinales related species were required to produce higher amounts of CH4 than VFA.