Time dependent modulation of tumor radiosensitivity by a pan HDAC inhibitor: abexinostat.
ABSTRACT: Despite prominent role of radiotherapy in lung cancer management, there is an urgent need for strategies increasing therapeutic efficacy. Reversible epigenetic changes are promising targets for combination strategies using HDAC inhibitors (HDACi). Here we evaluated on two NSCLC cell lines, the antitumor effect of abexinostat, a novel pan HDACi combined with irradiation in vitro in normoxia and hypoxia, by clonogenic assays, demonstrating that abexinostat enhances radiosensitivity in a time dependent way with mean SER10 between 1.6 and 2.5 for A549 and H460. We found, by immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry assays and western blotting, in abexinostat treated cells, increasing radio-induced caspase dependent apoptosis and persistent DNA double-strand breaks associated with decreased DNA damage signalling and repair. Interestingly, we demonstrated on nude mice xenografts that abexinostat potentiates tumor growth delay in combined modality treatments associating not only abexinostat and irradiation but also when adding cisplatin. Altogether, our data demonstrate in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect potentiation by abexinostat combined with irradiation in NSCLC. Moreover, our work suggests for the first time to our knowledge promising triple combination opportunities with HDACi, irradiation and cisplatin which deserves further investigations and could be of major interest in the treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:EBV-related nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) still raise serious therapeutic problems. The therapeutic potential of the histone-deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Abexinostat was investigated using 5 preclinical NPC models including 2 patient-derived xenografts (C15 and C17). The cytotoxicity of Abexinostat used either alone or in combination with cis-platin or irradiation was assessed in vitro by MTT and clonogenic assays using 2 EBV-negative (CNE1 and HONE1) and 3 EBV-positive NPC models (C15, C17 and C666-1). Subsequently, the 3 EBV-positive models were used under the form of xenografts to assess the impact of systemic treatments by Abexinostat or combinations of Abexinostat with cis-platin or irradiation. Several cell proteins known to be affected by HDAC inhibitors and the small viral non-coding RNA EBER1 were investigated in the treated tumors. Synergistic cytotoxic effects of Abexinostat combined with cis-platin or irradiation were demonstrated in vitro for each NPC model. When using xenografts, Abexinostat by itself (12.5 mg/kg, BID, 4 days a week for 3 weeks) had significant anti-tumor effects against C17. Cooperative effects with cis-platin (2 mg/kg, IP, at days 3, 10 and 17) and irradiation (1 Gy) were observed for the C15 and C17 xenografts. Simultaneously two types of biological alterations were induced in the tumor tissue, especially in the C17 model: a depletion of the DNA-repair protein RAD51 and a stronger in situ detection of the small viral RNA EBER1. Overall, these results support implementation of phase I/II clinical trials of Abexinostat for the treatment of NPC. A depletion of RAD51 is likely to contribute to the cooperation of Abexinostat with DNA damaging agents. Reduction of RAD51 combined to enhanced detection of EBER 1 might be helpful for early assessment of tumor response.
Project description:Abexinostat is a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that demonstrates efficacy in malignancy treatment. Like other HDACi, this drug induces a profound thrombocytopenia whose mechanism is only partially understood. We have analyzed its effect at doses reached in patient plasma on in vitro megakaryopoiesis derived from human CD34(+) cells. When added at day 0 in culture, abexinostat inhibited CFU-MK growth, megakaryocyte (MK) proliferation and differentiation. These effects required only a short incubation period. Decreased proliferation was due to induction of apoptosis and was not related to a defect in TPO/MPL/JAK2/STAT signaling. When added later (day 8), the compound induced a dose-dependent decrease (up to 10-fold) in proplatelet (PPT) formation. Gene profiling from MK revealed a silencing in the expression of DNA repair genes with a marked RAD51 decrease at protein level. DNA double-strand breaks were increased as attested by elevated ?H2AX phosphorylation level. Moreover, ATM was phosphorylated leading to p53 stabilization and increased BAX and p21 expression. The use of a p53 shRNA rescued apoptosis, and only partially the defect in PPT formation. These results suggest that HDACi induces a thrombocytopenia by a p53-dependent mechanism along MK differentiation and a p53-dependent and -independent mechanism for PPT formation.
Project description:: The epigenetic mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes or osteoblasts are still not fully understood. Herein, we performed an epigenetic library functional screen and identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, which promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. Using gene expression microarrays, chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K9Ac combined with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq), and bioinformatics, we identified several key genes involved in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation that were targeted by abexinostat. Concordantly, ChIP-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed marked increase in H3K9Ac epigenetic mark on the promoter region of AdipoQ, FABP4, PPAR?, KLF15, CEBPA, SP7, and ALPL in abexinostat-treated hMSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (PF-573228) or insulin-like growth factor-1R/insulin receptor (NVP-AEW51) signaling exhibited significant inhibition of abexinostat-mediated adipocytic differentiation, whereas inhibition of WNT (XAV939) or transforming growth factor-? (SB505124) signaling abrogated abexinostat-mediated osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our findings provide insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors, transcription factors, and differentiation pathways governing adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Manipulating such pathways allows a novel use for epigenetic compounds in hMSC-based therapies and tissue engineering.This unbiased epigenetic library functional screen identified several novel compounds, including abexinostat, that promoted adipocytic and osteoblastic differentiation of human skeletal (mesenchymal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs). These data provide new insight into the understanding of the relationship between the epigenetic effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors, transcription factors, and differentiation pathways controlling adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs. Manipulating such pathways allows a novel use for epigenetic compounds in hMSC-based therapies for tissue engineering, bone disease, obesity, and metabolic-disorders.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths. Chemoresistance, particularly against platinum compounds, contributes to a poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and heat shock protein 90 inhibitors (HSP90i) are known to modulate pathways involved in chemoresistance. This study investigated the effects of HDACi (panobinostat, LMK235) and HSP90i (luminespib, HSP990) on the potency of cisplatin in ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, CaOV3, OVCAR3 and cisplatin-resistant sub-clones). Preincubation with HDACi increased the cytotoxic potency of HSP90i, whereas preincubation with HSP90i had no effect. Preincubation with HSP90i or HDACi 48h prior to cisplatin enhanced the cisplatin potency significantly in all cell lines via apoptosis induction and affected the expression of apoptosis-relevant genes and proteins. For CaOV3CisR and A2780CisR, a preincubation with HDACi for 48-72 h led to complete reversal of cisplatin resistance. Furthermore, permanent presence of HDACi in sub-cytotoxic concentrations prevented the development of cisplatin resistance in A2780. However, triple combinations of HDACi, HSP90i and cisplatin were not superior to dual combinations. Overall, priming with HDACi sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to treatment with HSP90i or cisplatin and has an influence on the development of cisplatin resistance, both of which may contribute to an improved ovarian cancer treatment.
Project description:Cisplatin is one of the most common chemotherapeutic drugs for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the response rate is limited because of drug resistance. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), which can alter DNA accessibility by regulating chromatin structure and inducing apoptosis, exhibit a synergistic action with cisplatin. However, no biomarkers that can predict the efficacy of the combination of HDACis and cisplatin have been reported. Our study found that panobinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, increased the cisplatin sensitivity of several NSCLC cell lines with low ERCC1 expression but not those with high ERCC1 expression or gain-of-function (GOF) p53 mutation despite of ERCC1 expression level. ERCC1 knockdown increased the cisplatin sensitivity of NSCLC cell lines with high ERCC1 expression without GOF p53 mutations. In addition, in low ERCC1 expression NSCLC cell lines, knockdown of GOF mutant p53 enhanced cisplatin sensitivity. Further double knockdown of ERCC1 and GOF mutant p53 but not ERCC1 knockdown alone increased the cisplatin sensitivity of cells with both high ERCC1 expression and GOF p53 mutations. Therefore, this study demonstrated that ERCC1 expression combined with p53 mutation status may determine the efficacy of cisplatin and HDACi combined therapy and guide the development of future NSCLC therapies.
Project description:High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common and aggressive ovarian cancer subtype with the worst clinical outcome due to intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. Standard treatment involves platinum compounds. Cancer development and chemoresistance is often associated with an increase in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) to increase platinum potency in HGSOC. Four HGSOC cell lines with different cisplatin sensitivity were treated with combinations of cisplatin and entinostat (class I HDACi), panobinostat (pan-HDACi), or nexturastat A (class IIb HDACi), respectively. Inhibition of class I HDACs by entinostat turned out superior in increasing cisplatin potency than pan-HDAC inhibition in cell viability assays (MTT), apoptosis induction (subG1), and caspase 3/7 activation. Entinostat was synergistic with cisplatin in all cell lines in MTT and caspase activation assays. MTT assays gave combination indices (CI values) < 0.9 indicating synergism. The effect of HDAC inhibitors could be attributed to the upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes (CDNK1A, APAF1, PUMA, BAK1) and downregulation of survivin. In conclusion, the combination of entinostat and cisplatin is synergistic in HGSOC and could be an effective strategy for the treatment of aggressive ovarian cancer.
Project description:It has been demonstrated that several inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) can enhance chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and reduce sarcoma tumor volume in preclinical models. The authors sought to determine the maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, safety, and toxicity of the HDAC inhibitor abexinostat (PCI-24781) when administered with doxorubicin to patients with metastatic sarcomas.Participants were enrolled in a standard, phase 1, 3 + 3, dose-escalation study design. Abexinostat was administered on days 1 through 5 with 75 mg/m(2) of doxorubicin administered on day 4 of every 21-day cycle until patients developed disease progression or drug intolerance or reached a cumulative lifetime doxorubicin dose of 450 mg/m(2). Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support was provided at physician discretion on arm A and was provided to all participants in arm B. From 3 to 6 participants initially received abexinostat 30 mg/m(2) twice daily, and subsequent cohorts were administered doses of 15 mg/m(2), 45 mg/m(2), or 60 mg/m(2) twice daily. All patients without progressive disease after receiving a cumulative lifetime doxorubicin dose of 450 mg/m(2) were given the option to continue with abexinostat as a single agent until they developed disease progression.In total, 22 participants (10 who had previously experienced tumor growth after doxorubicin therapy) were enrolled (6 in arm A, 14 in arm B), 20 were evaluable for dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and 17 were evaluable for radiologic response. In arm A, participants received abexinostat 15 mg/m(2) or 30 mg/m(2) twice daily. DLTs of grade 3 and 4 neutropenia were observed in 2 of 3 participants who received abexinostat 30 mg/m(2) twice daily. Neither of those patients received G-CSF prophylaxis. In arm B, participants received abexinostat at doses of 30 mg/m(2), 45 mg/m(2), or 60 mg/m(2) twice daily, all with mandated G-CSF support. Two DLTs were observed at the 60 mg/m(2) twice-daily dose (grade 3 infection, grade 4 thrombocytopenia). The pharmacokinetics of abexinostat were not affected by doxorubicin. HDAC activity, as measured by histone acetylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was maximally inhibited at the abexinostat 30 mg/m(2) twice-daily dose. Of the 17 participants who were evaluable for radiologic response, 1 patient had a partial response, 9 patients had stable disease, and 7 patients had progressive disease as their best response; and 8 patients completed ? 5 cycles. Three of those participants had stable disease as their most recent disease status when the current report was written. Four participants who continued on monotherapy remained in stable disease for a median of 9.8 weeks after completing doxorubicin. The most common toxicities were fatigue, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. No study-related deaths were observed.The maximum tolerated dose for abexinostat was 45 mg/m(2) twice daily administered on days 1 through 5 when patients received doxorubicin 75 mg/m(2) on day 4 of a 3-week cycle and G-CSF support was mandated. Toxicities were manageable, and tumor responses were observed. Additional studies are needed to further define the specific contributions of HDAC inhibition in patients who receive doxorubicin for the treatment of metastatic sarcoma.
Project description:Chemotherapeutic agents are generally used as a frontline therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy arises rapidly in NSCLC, and the reasons for chemotherapy resistance have not been fully determined. Here, we found cisplatin, but not paclitaxel and doxorubicin, induced the enrichment of cancer stem cell (CSC) and conferred multidrug resistance in NSCLC cell lines. In vivo study confirmed drug-resistant tumors displayed the enhanced expressions of CSC transcription factors. Mechanistically, cisplatin treatment resulted in C/EBP-?-dependent increasing of TRIB1. The crucial role of TRIB1 in cisplatin-induced enrichment of CSC and drug resistance was verified by knockdown TRIB1. Interestingly, cisplatin treatment also contributed to the increasement of HDAC, the interaction of TRIB1 with HDAC, and inactivation of p53. Similarly, the silencing of HDAC led to reduction of cisplatin-induced CSC, and combined knockdown of HDAC and TRIB1 exhibited enhanced effect. Additionally, the combination of HDAC inhibitor and cisplatin showed a reinforced antitumor action in NSCLC cell lines with TRIB1-dependent manner and remarkably shrink tumors in xenograft models. Moreover, cisplatin-treated NSCLC patients with high levels of TRIB1 exhibited a significantly poorer prognosis. Our findings illustrate a novel perspective in the evolution of chemotherapy resistance and provide a promising approach for the treatment of patients with NSCLC.
Project description:Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting. Among 58 treated patients, the median age was 61.5 years (range, 20-82); 47% of the patients had M1 stage disease, and 95% had received previous chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy in combination with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 90 mg/m2 (140 mg). Of the 51 patients evaluable for response, best overall response was 8% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PRs]), and best loco-regional response was 12% (1 CR and 5 PRs) at a median follow-up of 16 weeks. Of note, patients with target or non-target brain lesions showed encouraging responses, with 1 patient achieving a best loco-regional response of CR. Treatment-emergent grade ?3 adverse events (AEs) were few, with most common being thrombocytopenia (17%), lymphopenia (12%), and hypokalemia (7%). Six patients (10%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. No grade ?3 prolongation of the QTc interval was observed, with no treatment discontinuations due to this AE. Oral abexinostat combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. The combination may have potential for treatment of patients with brain lesions.
Project description:High grade epithelial ovarian cancers are relatively sensitive to DNA damaging platinum-based chemotherapy, suggesting that the dependencies of ovarian tumors on DNA damage response pathways can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. Our goal was to determine if the DNA damage mark gamma-H2AX phosphorylation (pH2AX) could be used to identify suitable cytotoxic histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) for ovarian cancer treatment. Nineteen chemically diverse HDACi compounds were tested in 7 ovarian cancer cell lines. Fluorescent, biochemical and cell-based assays were performed to assess DNA damage by induction of pH2AX and to measure cell viability and apoptosis. The relationships between pH2AX and the cellular effects of cell viability and apoptosis were calculated. Selected HDACi were tested in combination with cisplatin and other DNA damaging agents to determine if the HDACi improved upon the effects of the DNA damaging agents. The HDACi compounds induced differing levels of pH2AX expression. High levels of pH2AX in HDACi-treated ovarian cancer cells were tightly associated with decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. Consequently, a ketone-based HDACi was chosen and found to enhance the effects of cisplatin, even in ovarian cancer cells with extreme resistance to DNA damaging drugs. In conclusion, a fluorescent-based assay for pH2AX can be used to determine cellular responses to HDACi in vitro and may be a useful tool to identify potentially more effective HDACi for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In addition, these results lend support to the inclusion of ketone-derived HDACi compounds for future development.