Oleoylethanolamide inhibits ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated melanogenesis via ERK, Akt and CREB signaling pathways in B16 melanoma cells.
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to examine the potential inhibitory activity of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated melanogenesis and the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Our data demonstrated that OEA markedly inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase, was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by OEA. In addition, OEA may suppress melanogenesis through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?)-independent pathway. Moreover, OEA activated ERK, Akt, p38 pathways and inhibits CREB pathway in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. The specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 partly blocked OEA-inhibited melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity and partly abrogated the OEA-suppressed expression of melanogenic proteins. Furthermore, OEA presented remarkable inhibition on the body pigmentation in the zebrafish model system. Our findings demonstrated that OEA is an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation through activation of ERK, Akt and p38 pathways, inhibition of the CREB pathway, and subsequent down-regulation of MITF, TRP-1 and tyrosinase production.
Project description:The individual parts of Morus alba L. including root bark, branches, leaves, and fruits are used as a cosmetic ingredient in many Asian countries. This study identified several anti-melanogenesis constituents in a 70% ethanol extract of M. alba leaves. The ethyl acetate fraction of the initial ethanol extract decreased the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of melanin. Twelve compounds were isolated from this fraction and their structures were identified based on spectroscopic spectra. Then, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenesis effects of the isolated compounds in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compounds 3 and 8 significantly inhibited not only melanin production but also intracellular tyrosinase activity in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone (?-MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These same compounds also inhibited melanogenesis-related protein expression such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1). Compound 3 modulated the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and p38 signaling pathways in ?-MSH-activated B16-F10 melanoma cells, which resulted in the anti-melanogenesis effects. These results suggest that compound 3, isolated from M. alba leaves, could be used to inhibit melanin production via the regulation of melanogenesis-related protein expression.
Project description:Although autophagy plays a role in melanogenesis by regulating melanosome degradation and biogenesis in melanocytes, a detailed understanding of the regulatory functions of autophagy factors is lacking. Here, we report a mechanistic link between microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) activation and melanogenesis. We observed high expression of LC3 in melanosome-associated pigment-rich melanocytic nevi of sun-exposed skin, as indicated by patterns of melanosomal protein MART1 expression. Rapamycin-induced autophagy significantly increased the melanin index, tyrosinase activity and expression of several proteins linked to melanosome biogenesis, including microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), pre-melanosome protein and tyrosinase, in Melan-a melanocytes. siRNA-mediated knockdown of LC3, but not beclin-1 or ATG5, decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity. LC3 knockdown also markedly inhibited MITF expression and subsequent rapamycin-induced melanosome formation. More importantly, LC3 knockdown suppressed α-MSH-mediated melanogenesis by attenuating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and MITF expression in Melan-a cells via decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Overexpression of constitutively active ERK reversed the effect of LC3 knockdown on CREB phosphorylation and MITF expression. These findings demonstrate that LC3 contributes to melanogenesis by increasing ERK-dependent MITF expression, thereby providing a mechanistic insight into the signaling network that links autophagy to melanogenesis.
Project description:Dendropanax morbiferus H. Lév has been reported to have some pharmacologic activities and also interested in functional cosmetics. We found that the water extract of D. morbiferus leaves significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced B16-F10 cells. D. morbiferus reduced melanogenesis-related protein levels, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), TRP-1, and TRP-2, without any cytotoxicity. Two active ingredients of D. morbiferus, (10E)-9,16-dihydroxyoctadeca-10,17-dien-12,14-diynoate (DMW-1) and (10E)-(-)-10,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,9,16-triol (DMW-2) were identified by testing the anti-melanogenic effects and then by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. DMW-1 and DMW-2 significantly inhibited melanogenesis by the suppression of protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive binding protein (CREB) and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. DMW-1 showed a better inhibitory effect than DMW-2 in ?-MSH-induced B16-F10 cells. D. morbiferus and its active component DMW-1 inhibited melanogenesis through the downregulation of cAMP, p-PKA/CREB, p-p38, MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase. These results indicate that D. morbiferus and DMW-1 may be useful ingredients for cosmetics and therapeutic agents for skin hyperpigmentation disorders.
Project description:Excess melanin deposition in the skin causes cosmetic problems. HSP70 upregulation decreases microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, which eventually decreases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation upregulates p53, which increases the melanocortin receptor (MC1R) and MITF. Furthermore, HSP70 decreases p53 and radiofrequency irradiation (RF) increases HSP70. We evaluated whether RF increased HSP70 and decreased p53, consequently decreasing the MITF/tyrosinase pathway and melanogenesis in UV-B radiated animal skin. Various RF combinations with 50, 100, and 150 ms and 5, 10, and 15 W were performed on the UV-B radiated mouse skin every 2 d for 28 d. When RF was performed with 100 ms/10 W, melanin deposition, evaluated by Fontana-Masson staining, decreased without skin crust formation in the UV-B radiated skin. Thus, we evaluated the effect of RF on decreasing melanogenesis in the HEMn and UV-B radiated skin at a setting of 100 ms/10 W. HSP70 expression was decreased in the UV-B radiated skin but was increased by RF. The expression of p53, MC1R, and MITF increased in the UV-B radiated skin but was decreased by RF. The expression of p53, MC1R, and MITF increased in the α-MSH treated HEMn but was decreased by RF. The decreasing effects of RF on p53, MC1R, CREB and MITF were higher than those of HSP70-overexpressed HEMn. The decreasing effect of RF on p53, MC1R, CREB, and MITF disappeared in the HSP70-silenced HEMn. MC1R, CREB, and MITF were not significantly decreased by the p53 inhibitor in α-MSH treated HEMn. RF induced a greater decrease in MC1R, CREB, and MITF than the p53 inhibitor. Therefore, RF may have decreased melanin synthesis by increasing HSP70 and decreasing p53, thus decreasing MC1R/CREB/MITF and tyrosinase activity.
Project description:Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound that is a potent inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-melanogenesis activity of PA have not yet been reported. The aim of the current study was to clarify the melanogenesis inhibitory effects of PA and its molecular mechanisms in murine melanoma cells (B16F10). We first predicted the 3D structure of tyrosinase and used a molecular docking algorithm to simulate binding between tyrosinase and PA. These molecular modeling studies calculated a binding energy of -527.42 kcal/mol and indicated that PA interacts with Cu400 and 401, Val283, and His263. Furthermore, PA significantly decreased α-MSH-induced intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited key melanogenic proteins such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. In addition, PA decreased MITF expression levels by inhibiting phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). These results demonstrate that PA can effectively suppress melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results show that PA could serve as a potential inhibitor of melanogenesis, and hence could be explored as a possible skin-lightening agent.
Project description:Excessive production of melanin implicates hyperpigmentation disorders. Flavokawain A (FLA) and flavokawain B (FLB) have been reported with anti-melanogenic activity, but their melanogenic inhibition and toxicity effects on the vertebrate model of zebrafish are still unknown. In the present study, cytotoxic as well as melanogenic effects of FLA and FLB on cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity were evaluated in ?-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Master regulator of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) and the other downstream melanogenic-related genes were verified via quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Toxicity assessment and melanogenesis inhibition on zebrafish model was further observed. FLA and FLB significantly reduced the specific cellular melanin content by 4.3-fold and 9.6-fold decrement, respectively in ?-MSH-induced B16/F10 cells. Concomitantly, FLA significantly reduced the specific cellular tyrosinase activity by 7-fold whilst FLB by 9-fold. The decrement of melanin production and tyrosinase activity were correlated with the mRNA suppression of Mitf which in turn down-regulate Tyr, Trp-1 and Trp-2. FLA and FLB exhibited non-toxic effects on the zebrafish model at 25 and 6.25 µM, respectively. Further experiments on the zebrafish model demonstrated successful phenotype-based depigmenting activity of FLA and FLB under induced melanogenesis. To sum up, our findings provide an important first key step for both of the chalcone derivatives to be further studied and developed as potent depigmenting agents.
Project description:Melanogenesis is a critical self-defense mechanism against ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis; however, dysregulation of melanin production and distribution causes skin-disfiguring pigmentary disorders. Melanogenesis is initiated by UVR-induced cAMP generation and ensuing activation of transcription factor CREB, which induces expression of the master melanogenic regulator MITF. Recent studies have demonstrated that recruitment of CRTCs to the CREB transcription complex is also required for UVR-stimulated melanogenesis. Therefore, modulation of cAMP-CRTC/CREB-MITF signaling may be a useful therapeutic strategy for UVR-associated skin pigmentary disorders. <b>Methods</b>: We identified the small-molecule Ro31-8220 from CREB/CRTC activity screening and examined its melanogenic activity in cultured mouse and human melanocytes as well as in human skin. Molecular mechanisms were deciphered by immunoblotting, RT-PCR, promoter assays, tyrosinase activity assays, immunofluorescent examination of CRTC3 subcellular localization, and shRNA-based knockdown. <b>Results</b>: Ro31-8220 suppressed basal and cAMP-stimulated melanin production in melanocytes and human melanocyte co-culture as well as UVR-stimulated melanin accumulation in human skin through downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase expression. Mechanistically, down regulation of MITF expression by Ro31-8220 was due to inhibition of transcriptional activity of CREB, which was resulted from phosphorylation-dependent blockade of nuclear translocation of CRTC3 via JNK activation. The selective JNK activator anisomycin also inhibited melanin production through phosphoinhibition of CRTC3, while JNK inhibition enhanced melanogenesis by stimulating CRTC3 dephosphorylation and nuclear migration. <b>Conclusions</b>: Melanogenesis can be enhanced or suppressed via pharmacological modulation of a previously unidentified JNK-CRTC/CREB-MITF signaling axis. As Ro31-8220 potently inhibits UVR-stimulated melanin accumulation in human skin, suggesting that small-molecule JNK-CRTC signaling modulators may provide therapeutic benefit for pigmentation disorders.
Project description:Artocarpus communis is an agricultural plant that is also used in folk medicine to prevent skin diseases, including acne and dermatitis. Extracts of A. communis have been used to effectively inhibit melanogenesis; however, the antimelanogenesis mechanism of these extracts has not yet been investigated. The present study utilized a cell-free tyrosinase assay as well as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (-MSH-) induced tyrosinase assay conducted in B16F10 cells, performed a cytotoxicity assay, and determined cellular melanin content to examine the effects of a methanolic extract of A. communis (ACM) and various organic partition fractions of A. communis on melanogenesis. In addition, we performed western blot analysis to elucidate the mechanism of their antimelanogenesis effect. Our results indicated that, except for the n-hexane extract, ACM and the various partition extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations effectively decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity by downregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Moreover, ACM and the partition fractions activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to inhibit the synthesis of MITF and finally to decrease melanin production. In conclusion, we suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of ACM and the various partition fractions may be useful as references for developing skin-lighting agents for use in medicines or cosmetics.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> SOX10 (SRY-related HMG-box 10) and MITF-M (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor M) restrict the expression of melanogenic genes, such as TYR (tyrosinase), in melanocytes. DACE (diacetylcaffeic acid cyclohexyl ester) inhibits melanin production in ?-MSH (?-melanocyte stimulating hormone)-activated B16-F0 melanoma cells. In this study, we evaluated the antimelanogenic activity of DACE <i>in vivo</i> and elucidated the molecular basis of its action. <b>Methods:</b> We employed melanocyte cultures and hyperpigmented skin samples for pigmentation assays, and applied chromatin immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, RT-PCR or siRNA-based knockdown for mechanistic analyses. <b>Results:</b> Topical treatment with DACE mitigated UV-B-induced hyperpigmentation in the skin with attenuated expression of MITF-M and TYR. DACE also inhibited melanin production in ?-MSH- or ET-1 (endothelin 1)-activated melanocyte cultures. As a mechanism, DACE blocked the nuclear import of CRTC1 (CREB-regulated co-activator 1) in melanocytes. DACE resultantly inhibited SOX10 induction, and suppressed the transcriptional abilities of CREB/CRTC1 heterodimer and SOX10 at MITF-M promoter, thereby ameliorating facultative melanogenesis. Furthermore, this study unveiled new issues in melanocyte biology that i) KPNA1 (Imp?5) escorted CRTC1 as a cargo across the nuclear envelope, ii) SOX10 was inducible in the melanogenic process, and iii) CRTC1 could direct SOX10 induction at the transcription level. <b>Conclusion:</b> We propose the targeting of CRTC1 as a unique strategy in the treatment of acquired pigmentary disorders.
Project description:Hibiscus syriacus L. exhibited promising potential as a new source of food and colorants containing various anthocyanins. However, the function of anthocyanins from H. syriacus L. has not been investigated. In the current study, we evaluated whether anthocyanins from the H. syriacus L. varieties Pulsae and Paektanshim (PS and PTS) inhibit melanin biogenesis. B16F10 cells and zebrafish larvae were exposed to PS and PTS in the presence or absence of ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), and melanin contents accompanied by its regulating genes and proteins were analyzed. PS and PTS moderately downregulated mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro, but significantly decreased extracellular and intracellular melanin production in B16F10 cells, and inhibited ?-MSH-induced expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. PS and PTS also attenuated pigmentation in ?-MSH-stimulated zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, PS and PTS activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas PD98059, a specific ERK inhibitor, completely reversed PS- and PTS-mediated anti-melanogenic activity in B16F10 cells and zebrafish larvae, which indicates that PS- and PTS-mediated anti-melanogenic activity is due to ERK activation. Moreover, chromatography data showed that PS and PTS possessed 17 identical anthocyanins as a negative regulator of ERK. These findings suggested that anthocyanins from PS and PTS inhibited melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo by activating the ERK signaling pathway.